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Showing papers in "Pakistan Journal of Nutrition in 2005"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals such as saponins and cardenolides.
Abstract: Unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals. Chemical composition of the pulp were determined. Phytochemical screening of mature unripe pulp of Carica papaya (dry weight) showed the presence of saponins and cardenolides while chemical analysis revealed the presence of potassium (223.0mg/100g) as well as sodium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium and manganese in considerable quantities. Proximate analysis of the pulp showed that it contained starch (43.28%), sugars (15.15%), crude protein (13.63%), crude fat (1.29%), moisture (10.65%) and fibre (1.88%). All these results indicate that the pulp of mature unripe Carica papaya contains nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of some phytochemicals like saponins and cardenolides explained the astringent action of the plant encountered in the numerous therapeutic uses.

273 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Humic acids, a class of compounds resulting from decomposition of organic matter, particularly plants are natural constituents of drinking water, soil and lignite, inhibit bacterial and fungal growth, thus decrease levels of mycotoxins in feed.
Abstract: Humic acids (HA), a class of compounds resulting from decomposition of organic matter, particularly plants are natural constituents of drinking water, soil and lignite. It inhibit bacterial and fungal growth, thus decrease levels of mycotoxins in feed. Stress management, immune system, anti-inflamatory activity, antiviral properties as well as prevention of intestinal diseases, mainly diarrhoea in humans and animals are described as its beneficial effect. The use of HA and related products in feed improved gut health for better nutrient utilization as well as improved the health status by working against pathogens by developing immunity. Routine use of HA in feed improved growth of broilers by increasing digestion of protein and trace element utilization but a few researches has been conducted in this area. However, also contradictory findings in piglets are described. Most of the literature found is from companies but scientific articles are rather limited. There are also strong limitations in the knowledge of HA uses as feed additive for growth of other species of animal. It is really difficult to compare the actual effects of HA preparations due to different sources and nature as well as because rearing of animal in different region of the world varies as climatic conditions and aspects. So, bio-effect of HA product depends on specification.

199 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the antioxidant effects of 80% ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), GST, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C (VITC), were examined using a model of sodium arsenite (SA) -induced oxidative stress in rats.
Abstract: 2 Abstract: The antioxidant actions of 80% ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin C (VITC), were examined using a model of sodium arsenite (SA) - induced oxidative stress in rats. The oral administration of the extracts (200 and 300mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) decreased by 37% SA - induced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in liver, suggesting the role of the extract in protection against pro-oxidant induced membrane damage. Pretreatment with the extracts prior to the intra-peritoneal administration of 10mg/kg body weight of SA reduced significantly (by 86%) and induced non-significantly (by 37%) the level of GSH depletion and GST activity respectively in a dose - dependent manner. The extract also attenuated SA - induced reduction in the serum level of VITC as evidenced by a significant (P<0.05) dose - dependent increase (by 60%) in serum VITC level. Pretreatment with the extracts showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in liver and decrease in whole blood activities of SOD (by 369% and 85%) and CAT (by 829% and 58%) respectively, hence revealing the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts. Furthermore, the extracts, evaluated (in vitro) by their capacity of quenching 1, 1-diphenyl - 2-picrylhydraxyl (DPPH) free radical, showed strong scavenging effects on DPPH free radical at concentration of 0.20mg/ml (1C50 = 0.20mg/ml). The extracts at low and high concentrations showed no inhibitory effect on nitric oxide radical. These findings are suggestive of the possible chemopreventive and antioxidative role played by dried flower extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

139 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that processing significantly affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours as discussed by the authors, and the result of IVPD of the seeds generally showed that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples were the least.
Abstract: 2 Abstract: Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50 C, gro und and sieved through 500µm sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor o activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD). The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05) affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0%) > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9%) > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%). Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

124 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the leaves of three genetically improved varieties of cassava plants were harvested and subjected to different processing methods including sun-drying (SND), OOD, OOD-OVD, steaming (STM), shredding (SHD), and steeping (STP) and a combination of these methods to deliberately reduce the high level of cyanogenic glucosides present in the leaves.
Abstract: Leaves of 3 genetically improved varieties of cassava plants were harvested and subjected to different processing methods including sun-drying (SND), oven-drying (OVD), steaming (STM), shredding (SHD) and steeping (STP) and a combination of these methods to deliberately reduce the high level of cyanogenic glucosides present in the leaves. A combination of SHD and SND (SHD+SND) seemed to be the most effective technique of reducing the cyanide content. Proximate/mineral composition and gross energy were determined. Particular attention was paid into the determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN), polyphenols (tannic acid) and phytic acid as they constitute the major anti-nutrients militating against the utilization of cassava leaf in animal nutrition. The leaves contained: crude protein 348.0gkg DM (range: -1 332.0 363.0gkg DM); crude fibre 121.0gkg DM (range: 115.0 127.0gkg DM); ether extract 70.0gkg DM -1 -1 -1 -1 (range: 63.0 75.0gkg DM); ash 69.0gkg DM (range: 63.0 78.0gkg DM) and gross energy 47.0MJkg -1 -1 -1 -1 (range: 46.5 47.2MJkg ). The CLM protein content was high and comparable with some rich conventional -1 protein sources of plant and animal origins used in monogastric feed formulation. The mineral content was high particularly Ca, Zn, Ni and K. The “cyanide scare” associated with acute intoxification when food substances rich in cyanide is ingested at high levels seemed to be obviated by a combination of processing methods (SHD+SND).

124 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning, which is made even more palpable by the fact that staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination.
Abstract: 4 Abstract: Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists) to help validate some of the assertions made by variou s authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40 C, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity). Aflatoxin B1 is potent when o

96 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an estimate and chemical analysis of the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) was carried out and the observed results used to assess it nutritionally.
Abstract: Proximate and chemical analyses was carried out on the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) and the observed results used to assess it nutritionally. A high fat content ( 25.30±0.20% wet weight ) rich in the essential fatty acids was observed, while all the essential amino acids were detected in varyin g amounts in the protein component. Macro-elements like sodium (773.49±1.02 mg/100g), calcium (60.81±0.32 mg/100g) and potassium (26.65±0.24 mg/100g) as well as micro-element s like copper (1.26±0.04 mg/100g), cadmium (0.039±0.022 mg/100g) and zinc (10.57±0.89 mg/100g) were present in significant amounts in the insect larva. The insect larva could form a base for new food /feed products of considerable nutritive value, especially if some level of defatting is done to further increase the relative proportion of the protein component.

73 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results showed that the seed contained 5.3% moisture, 47.4% fat/oil, 36.2% protein, 1.5% ash and 9.6% carbohydrate, and the mineral content of defatted seed flour was found to be Na (236.2), K (181.3), Ca (104.5), P (101.6) and Fe (34.8) ppm.
Abstract: Flour produced from the seeds of African oil bean (Pentaclethra marcrophylla) was evaluated for proximate chemical composition, some mineral constituents and physicochemical properties of the ether extract. The results showed that the seed contained 5.3% moisture, 47.4% fat/oil, 36.2% protein, 1.5% ash and 9.6% carbohydrate. The mineral content of the defatted seed flour was found to be Na (236.2), K (181.3), Ca (104.5), P (101.6) and Fe (34.8) ppm. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seed, as a che ap source of protein, oil and macro minerals, may find a good use as human food or b e incorporated into animal feed. The oil was found to have a saponification value of 189.85, iodine value 161.95, acid value 7.01, unsaponifiable matter 36, specific gravity 0.890 and a refractive index of 1.465. The high degree of unsaturation makes it suitable for cooking purposes and for use as a drying oil for cosmetics, paints and varnishes.

66 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, chemical and physicochemical analyses were carried out to determine the proximate and amino acids composition and to also ascertain the functional properties of the CLMs and CLPCs.
Abstract: Cassava leaf samples harvested from local and genetically improved cassava varieties were processed into cassava leaf meal (CLM) and cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) using the low cost village-level fractionation scheme. Chemical and physicochemical analyses were carried out to determine the proximate and amino acids composition and to also ascertain the functional properties of the CLMs and CLPCs. The protein content of the CLPC was high at 470gkg DM comparable with other conventional -1 averaged 409.6% while that of CLPC averaged 181.5%. Fat absorption capacity (FAC) was 48.3% in CLM and 33.4% in CLPC. Fat emulsion capacity (FEC) value for CLM was 27.4% and 32.5% for CLPC. Fat emulsion stability (FES) values were 41.2% and 42.9% for CLM and CLPC, respectively. The foaming capacity values were 17.7% and 32.1% in the CLM and CLPC, respectively. Foaming stability and least gelation concentration were 4.3cm after 30min and 9.0 for CLM as compared with 10.2cm and 12.5% for 3 3 CLPC. The nutritive potential, low-cost and the simplicity of the production technology make CLPC attractive as a source of protein in local food production system as a practicable and ameliorative intervention strategy for the endemic protein under-nutrition in most developing regions.

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The spot-on-lawn method was suitable for assessing the antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria, and in general, inoculum density had little effect on inhibition.
Abstract: In this research, we have aimed to determine antagonistic effects of various lactic acid bacteria against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria with a comparison of disc diffusion and spot-on-lawn method. In spot-on-lawn method, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was the most sensitive of the tested bacteria, followed by E. coli ATCC 25927 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145. On the other hand, in disc diffusion assay B. subtilis ATCC 6633, E. coli O157:H7 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 were the most sensitive indicator microorganisms. The spot-on-lawn method was suitable for assessing the antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria. In general, inoculum density had little effect on inhibition.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors collected samples of unpasteurized milk, yoghurt, lebnah and white soft cheese produced by farmers from special retail trade of milk and milk products in the province of Karak in Jordan.
Abstract: Samples of unpasteurized milk, yoghurt, lebnah (concentrated yoghurt) and white soft cheese produced by farmers were collected from special retail trade of milk and milk products in the province of Karak (Located in the south of Jordan) .These samples and samples of sterilized milk treated with ultra-high temperature (UHT) process, yoghurt, lebnah and cheese produced by modern dairies of Jordan were microbiallly examined. The traditional products showed a high viable count of coliform (indicative of unsanitary conditions), yeast and mould, and staphylococcus aureus. All above microbes can have a hazardious effect on human body, beside their effect on the organoleptic properties of the final products especially yoghurt and cheese. Unpasteurized milk sold by farmers packed in polyethylene bags showed a very high total viable count which indicates serious faults in production hygiene, unsatisfactory sanitation and unsuitable storage temperature. On contrast, the UHT milk and dairy products produced by moder n dairies showed a very high quality of microbial standard with a very delicate flavor.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this study alpha-amylase inhibitor was extracted from Iranian wheat cultivar, precipitated and purified by anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography and total hydrolytic activity of human salivary and bacillus subtilis alpha- amylase were inhibited.
Abstract: Plant alpha-amylase inhibitors show great potential as tools to engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. They are also drug-design targets for treatment of diabetes and digestion disorderes. These inhibitors also known as sensitizing agents in human. The numerous form of alpha-amylase inhibitors was reported. In this study alpha-amylase inhibitor was extracted from Iranian wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum v zarrin), precipitated and purified by anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. Electrophoresis of purified protein showed 0.66 relative mobility. Total hydrolytic activity of human salivary and bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase were inhibited 97.07% and 89.97% respectively by collected purified alpha-amylase inhibitor.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of post-harvest treatment on the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant potentials of Cnidoscolus acontifolus (Americana leaf) was assessed.
Abstract: Cnidoscolus acontifolus (Americana leaf) leaves are used as soup condiment in Nigeria either in the processed or unprocessed forms. This study aims at assessing the effect of some post-harvest treatment on the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant potentials of the leafy vegetable. In this study fresh leaves of Cnidoscolus acontifolus were subjected to different food processing method such as soaking , blanching, abrasion with or without salt. The proximate, antinutrient (phytate and cyanide), minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Zn and Mn), Vitamin C and total phenol content were subsequently determined. The result of the study shows that the unprocessed Cnidoscolus acontifolus leaf had 7.8% protein, 1.6% fat, 2.4% crude fibre, 2.3% ash and 83.4% moisture content. The total phenol (0.7%), phytate (479.5 mg/100g), mineral and vitamin C (535.6mg/100g ) content were generally high, while the cyanide content was low. However, the various conventional food processing techniques caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the protein, vitamin C, cyanide and phytate content. While it caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in the fat and total phenol content of Cnidoscolus acontifolus leaf. In conclusion, the leaf of Cnidoscolus acontifolus has a very high nutrient, antinutrient, mineral and antioxidant potential; however the various conventional post-harvest treatments will cause a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the nutrient and antinutrient content, and same time caused a significant decrease in the antioxidant potential.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, three commercial brands of bouillon cubes were analyzed for proximate and elemental composition, and the moisture content of the samples was found to range between 2.25 and 2.92%.
Abstract: Three commercial brands of bouillon cubes were analyzed for proximate and elemental composition. The moisture content of the samples was found to range between 2.25 and 2.92%. Crude protein, crude fat and ash contents were: 10.50-17.50; 5.50-5.70 and 48.15-63.20% dry matter (DM) respectively. Mineral element analysis showed that the bouillon cubes contain low levels of sodium, iron and zinc. The clinical and nutritive implications of these results are discussed.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of thermal processing as a preservation technique on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional characteristics of African oil bean seeds (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) was investigated.
Abstract: 2 Abstract: The effect of thermal processing as a preservation technique on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional characteristics of African oil bean seeds (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) was investigated Samples were drawn from the different stages during the processing (namely; cooked, fermented and canned) along with the raw seeds, and examined for proximate chemical composition, elemental concentrations, anti-nutritional content and functional properties The results show that processing reduced the protein content from 2232% dry wt in the raw seeds to 1900% dry wt in the canned product; while oil content increased from 5398% to 6011% respectively Also, fermentation and canning significantly (P 005) affected by the processing operations However, the capacity to gel and foam reduced with successive processing steps Overall, thermal processing of th e African oil bean seeds raised nutrient bioavailability, digestibility and functionality

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of Solanum melongena (garden egg plant), apple and oat on serum lipid profile of rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet was compared.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of Solanum melongena (garden egg plant), apple and oat on serum lipid profile of rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. One hundred rats were grouped into five groups of 20 animals each; one group was fed with grower’s marsh alone and acted as the sham control. One group was fed grower’s marsh and 3% cholesterol and served as the test control. The other three groups were fed with the grower’s marsh, 3% cholesterol and either of 4% apple, oat, or garden egg plant for a period of one month. After 2 weeks, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed for midterm studies. The results obtained indicate that garden egg plant significantly (P<0.05) reduced weight gain of rats and feed efficiency compared with the other supplementations. Garden egg plant significantly (P<0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and increased serum HDL-cholesterol compared with oat and apple in both the mid-term and full-term studies. The study suggests that garden egg plant has a more hypolipidemic effect than apple and oat.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of materials and sources of mercury, public health concerns and the methods of mercury contamination control in fish and seafood products is presented in this article, where a review of public health issues and methods of methyl mercury control are discussed.
Abstract: Mercury is a heavy metal that presents in the earth’s crust and it is methylated by bacteria in aquatic environments to methyl mercury (MeHg) in anaerobic conditions. It is then concentrated by the food chain so predatory fish and other seafood animals may have the highest levels. Thus, consuming fish and other seafood lead to human exposure. It generally accepts that seafood represents one of the major sources of non-occupational mercury exposure to human. MeHg readily crosses the placenta and the blood-brain barrier and is neurotoxic. The developing fetal nervous system is especially sensitive to its effects, and chronic exposure cause Minamata disease in human. Controlling of methyl mercury in fish and seafood products is important for public health and there are some responsible organizations in the world, which are in charge of monitoring and controlling methyl mercury in fish and seafood products. This article would have a review of materials and sources of mercury, public health concerns and the methods of mercury contamination control in fish and seafood products.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of this experiment showed that there were no significant differences in live body weight due to feeding chicks diets containing TP, and no significant changes in FCR of chicks fed different dietary treatments when compared with those fed control diets.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the tomato pomace (TP) as unusual feed stuff in broiler diets in terms of growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality. 300-day old Hubbard broiler chicks were weighed and randomly distributed into 4 groups with three replicates of 25 chicks each. Birds were fed four experimental diets in which the first was the control group (T1) and the other diets contained 10% alkali treated tomato pomace (T2), 10% heat-treated tomato pomace (T3) and 10% sun dried tomato pomace (T4). All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Feed and water were offered ad-lib during the experiment period. The results of this experiment showed that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in live body weight due to feeding chicks diets containing TP. The only significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between the control group and those fed dietary treatments. Body weight gain had nearly the same trend as live body weight. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly (P<0.05) affected by feeding TP whe n compared with control group. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) in FCR of chicks fed different dietary treatments when compared with those fed control diets. Mortality rate was 3% during the whole experiment period, which is insignificant.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potential of mulberry leaves in rabbit production was investigated in a 12-week long experiment where feed intake, weight gain and nutrient digestibility of the rabbits were monitored as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The potential of mulberry leaves in rabbit production was investigated in a 12-week long experiment where feed intake, weight gain and nutrient digestibility of the rabbits were monitored. Thirty weaner rabbits (19 females and 11 males; mean weight = 450 ± 0.05 g) of mixed breeds were sorted by weight and randomly allocated to five experimental diets. The percentage of concentrate in the rations was incrementally replaced with mulberry leaves: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 and were fed in a completely randomized design. Total dry matter (DM) intake of the concentrate: mulberry diet remained at the level of that of the all-concentrate ration (~38 g/d) until mulberry leaves comprised >50% of the ration before it declined significantly. The intakes of crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) increased significantly while those of ether extract (EE), ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) decreased significantly with increasing level of mulberry leaves in the diets, following the trends of the concentrations of the nutrients in the materials. The nutrient digestibilities of the diets were high and there were no significant differences among the means for DM (75.67 82.33%), organic matter (OM: 77.33 86.67%), CP (76.33 84.00%), CF (79.67 88.67%), and ash (52.00 62.67%). Digestibility of EE (55.65 86.00%) and NFE (76.00 87.33%) significantly declined with increasing level of mulberry leaves in the rations. Weight gain of rabbits on diets containing 25 and 50% mulberry leaves (5.14 and 4.72 g/d, respectively) was not significantly different (P=0.05) from that of the allconcentrate ration (5.72 g/d), but these were significantly higher than those of 25:75 and 0:100 concentrate: mulberry diets (3.43 and 2.27 g/d, respectively). Thus, mulberry leaves can support good feed intake, digestibility and satisfactory weight gain in rabbits, and could reduce reliance on and cost of expensive concentrate diets. However, some level of concentrate feeding is necessary to reach potential weight gains.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the proximate composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and the effect of some salts (NaCl, NaNO, Na SO, Na CO, CH COONa) on the food properties of Triticum durum wholemeal flour were investigated on dry weight basis.
Abstract: The proximate composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and the effect of some salts (NaCl, NaNO , Na SO , Na CO , CH COONa) on the food properties of Triticum durum wholemeal flour were 3 2 3 2 3 3 investigated on dry weight basis. Both the protein and carbohydrate values were high with respective values of 20.21g/100g and 65.7g/100g. Many minerals were either not detected or low but phosphorus was high with a value of 4285.71mg/100g. The lowest gelation concentration varied between 2.0 in Na CO (0.5% w/v) 2 3 and 10.0 in CH COONa and Na SO (15.0% w/v). The highest value of water absorption capacity was 3 2 3 230.33g/100g at 2.0% w/v CH COONa. The oil emulsion capacity varied from 20.0g/100g at 1.0% w/v Na CO 3 2 3 to 80.0g/100g at 0.5%w/v NaCl. The oil emulsion stability (cm ) was generally good in most of the salts and 3

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Growth of Aspergillus niger on rice bran medium in submerged fermentation was studied using standard methods for determinations of dry biomass, total crude protein and final pH values as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Growth of Aspergillus niger on rice bran medium in submerged fermentation was studied using standard methods for determinations of dry biomass, total crude protein and final pH values. It was observed that A. niger biomass cropped on rice bran medium supplemented with glucose, (NH ) SO , KH PO , 4 2 4 2 4 MgSO .7H O and ZnSO .7H O designated as Glucose supplemented rice bran (GRB) medium was highest 4 2 4 2 at 2.03±0.02g/l while the unsupplemented rice bran medium (RBM) has the lowest value of 0.97±0.00g/l. The effect of various nitrogen sources on the final biomass yield was compared. Ammonium sulphate [(NH ) 4 2 SO ] gave the highest biomass yield of 1.95±0.03g/l and sodium nitrate (NaNO ) had the lowest yield of 4 3 0.97±0.02g/l. Glucose and nitrogen supplements increased biomass yield.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on small-holder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate.
Abstract: The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularl y evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal's body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Catalase (CAT:EC1.11.6) was purified from Van Apple with a final recovery of enzyme activity of about 11.5% and a specific activity of 29.43 U/mg proteins.
Abstract: Catalase (CAT:EC1.11.1.6) was purified from Van Apple. The purified enzyme preparation was obtained with a final recovery of enzyme activity of about 11.5% and a specific activity of 29.43 U/mg proteins. The purified catalase has an optimum temperature of activity at 50 C. As regards pH, the enzyme has an o optimum activity of pH 5. Vmax and Km values were determined by Lineweaver-burk graphs. Potassium cyanide, citric acid, MnCl , NaCl, NaNO and CuSO were used as inhibitor. 2 2 4

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that consumption of raw meat ball poses a risk of foodborne infections or toxication due to its raw meat content for human health.
Abstract: Raw meat ball is a traditional raw meat product which is consumed particularly in the region of southeast and other parts of Turkey. Since raw meat ball is made from raw ground beef and consumed without cooking, it can be a risk factor for the consumers in terms of foodborne infections and toxications. Thus, its microbiological quality was examined. In ground beef samples, total aerob mesophiles, Staphylococci and Micrococci spp., S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Enterococci spp., Pseudomonas spp., B. cereus, Yeast-Mould, E. coli, and E. coli 0157 H7 were counted at the average of 3.4x10 , 2.2x10 , 4 2 Salmonella spp., were determined at the levels of 24.0 % (12 samples). Based on the Salmonella spp. and E. coli numbers, 24% and 2% samples did not comply with the TFC (Turkish Food Codex) criteria for ground beef, respectively, while all samples did according to the numbers of total aerobic mesophile, E. coli O157 H7 and S. aureus. In raw meat ball samples total aerob mesophiles, Staphylococci and Micrococci spp, S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Enterococci spp., Pseudomonas spp., B. cereus, Yeast-Mould, E. coli, and E. coli 0157 H7 were determined at the average of 4.3x10 , 1.0x10 , 6.3x10 , 4.8x10 , 1.7x10 , 3.1x10 , 7.9x10 , 1.5x10 , 6.7x10 , 1.2x10 , and <2.0x10 cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella spp., were determined at the 3 1 5 3 2 levels of 36.0 % (18 samples). Based on the numbers of Salmonella spp., E. coli and S. aureus, 36 %, 8 %, and 28 % samples did not comply with the TFC criteria for raw meat ball, respectively, where as they did according to the numbers of E. coli O157 H7. We conclude that consumption of raw meat ball poses a risk of foodborne infections or toxication due to its raw meat content for human health.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the patent drug gliclazide was found to be highly effective, as blood glucose lowering agent, but the efficacy of three different combined form of herbal preparations was also seemed to be encouraging.
Abstract: A research work of herbal medicine viz. Neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica), nayantara leaf extract (Catharanthus roseus) and bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia) juice with the patent drug gliclazide (Comprid®, Square Pharmaceuticals Bangladesh Ltd.) were studied on blood glucose level, hematological parameters and on body weight in rats. Twenty-five apparently healthy adult rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups namely A, B, C, D and E. One group (group A) was kept as control. The rest four groups (B, C, D and E) of rats were treated with gliclazide (Comprid®) @ 4.5 mg/kg bd. wt./day, neem leaf extract (NLE) @ 500 mg/kg bd. wt/day, nayantara leave extract (NtLE) @ 500mg/kg bd. wt./day and bitter melon fruit juice @ 500 mg/kg b. wt./day respectively for 14 consecutive days. Blood glucose levels were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in all treated four groups of rats (39.78-44.31%) in comparison to their pre-treatment values. Total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC) were not changed significantly in any treated group (B, C, D & E). Eosinophil and monocytes and hemoglobin contents were decreased significantly (P<0.01) in all groups. Among the herbal drugs used in the study bitter melon fruit juice was more effective (7.45%) in increasing the body weight in comparison with other herbal preparations i.e. NtLE (7.4%) and NLE (4.86%). From the present study, it may be further revealed that although the patent drug gliclazide was found to be highly effective, as blood glucose lowering agent, but the efficacy of three different combined form of herbal preparations was also seemed to be encouraging.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, seven commercial brands of malt drinks were analyzed for reducing sugar, protein, minerals, vitamins A, vitamin C, oxalate, phytate and hydrogen cyanide.
Abstract: Seven commercial brands of malt drinks were analyzed for reducing sugar, protein, minerals, vitamins A, vitamin C, oxalate, phytate and hydrogen cyanide. The malt drinks were found to contain substantial amounts of reducing sugar ranging from 603.66 to 943.45 mg/dl. Vitamins A and C were present in adequate amounts with respect to RDA requirements, whereas, low values were found for protein, iron, zinc, oxalate, phytate and hydrogen cyanide. The paper observes the need for standardization in the extent of fortification of malt drinks with vitamins and the possible inclusion of essential minerals as fortificants in these products to make them more wholesome.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the distribution of heavy metals content in cannabis leaf and seed were assayed / carried, using an atomic absorption spectrometers model Perkin Elmer 3110.
Abstract: The distribution of heavy metals content in cannabis leaf and seed were assayed / carried, using an atomic absorption spectrometers model Perkin Elmer 3110. The heavy metals determined in both samples mean arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, lead mercury and manganese. The results obtained revealed that metal levels in cannabis leaf exceeded those of cannabis seed except in manganese, which had the highest metal content among all the metals determined. The results furthers showed that As, Cd., Cr, Fe, Ni, Ph and Hg levels in cannabis leaf exceeded those of the cannabis seed. Therefore cannabis leave seems to be more dangerous to health than the seeds.