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JournalISSN: 0932-0113

Parasitology Research 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Parasitology Research is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Medicine. It has an ISSN identifier of 0932-0113. Over the lifetime, 13622 publications have been published receiving 276947 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus and induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods.
Abstract: Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. In this study, the oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. At first, the oils were surveyed against A. aegypti using a 50-ppm solution. Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods. The best oils were tested against third-instar larvae of the three mosquito species in concentrations of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ppm. The lethal concentration 50 values of these oils ranged between 1 and 101.3 ppm against A. aegypti, between 9.7 and 101.4 ppm for A. stephensi and between 1 and 50.2 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus.

531 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Five most effective oils were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency.
Abstract: Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin.

514 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some crucial challenges about eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors are focused on, mainly the improvement of behavior-based control strategies (sterile insect technique (SIT) and “boosted SIT”) and plant-borne mosquitocidals, including green-synthesized nanoparticles.
Abstract: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. In this scenario, vector control is crucial. Mosquito larvae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. Here, I focus on some crucial challenges about eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, mainly the improvement of behavior-based control strategies (sterile insect technique (“SIT”) and “boosted SIT”) and plant-borne mosquitocidals, including green-synthesized nanoparticles. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and behavioral ecologists are highlighted.

497 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial.
Abstract: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. "lure and kill" approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

452 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A cyst-forming sporozoon, associated with lesions in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles of six dogs, which were all offspring of a single dam of boxer breed, and revealed extensive inflammatory lesions in all parts of the CNS and in the skeletal muscles.
Abstract: In recent years unidentified sporozoan parasites causing encephalomyelitis have been reported in sheep (Hartley and Blakemore 1974) and horses (Beech and Dodd 1974). The present paper is a preliminary report of a cyst-forming sporozoon, associated with lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscles of six dogs, which were all offspring of a single dam of boxer breed. Except for one case without clinical manifestations of infection, there was a history of neurologic disorders leading to paresis after several months. However, all animals appeared healthy until the age of 2-6 months. Necropsies revealed extensive inflammatory lesions in all parts of the CNS and in the skeletal muscles. The parasites were most numerous in the CNS where they were easily detected in association with the lesions in most cases. In the CNS they were found mostly within glial cells and appeared as ovoid clusters, up to 60 gm in diameter (Figs. 2 and 3). Some groups of the parasites had a compact appearance and a smooth outline (Fig. 2), while others had more irregular outlines, consisting of loosely arranged ovoid or crescent-shaped organisms (Fig. 3). Many parasites were associated with necrosis and severe inflammation. However, the case with subclinical infection exhibited exclusively chronic inflammation with scarring. The very few parasites observed were ovoid cysts, about 50 gm in diameter, with a distinct cyst wall (Fig. 4). They were apparently not provoking any inflammatory reaction. In the other cases a definite cyst wall was not seen. The parasites were less numerous in the skeletal muscles than in the CNS; in the former site they always lacked a definite cyst wall. Smaller

449 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2023157
2022392
2021449
2020427
2019371
2018445