Taylor & Francis
About: Philosophical Magazine is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Dislocation & Grain boundary. It has an ISSN identifier of 1478-6435. Over the lifetime, 14587 publications have been published receiving 415498 citations. The journal is also known as: Phil Mag & Philos. Mag..
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The geometrically necessary dislocations as discussed by the authors were introduced to distinguish them from the statistically storages in pure crystals during straining and are responsible for the normal 3-stage hardening.
Abstract: Many two-phase alloys work-harden much faster than do pure single crystals. This is because the two phases are not equally easy to deform. One component (often dispersed as small particles) deforms less than the other, or not at all, so that gradients of deformation form with a wavelength equal to the spacing between the phases or particles. Such alloys are ‘plastically non-homogeneous’, because gradients of plastic deformation are imposed by the microstructure. Dislocations are stored in them to accommodate the deformation gradients, and so allow compatible deformation of the two phases. We call these ‘geometrically-necessary’ dislocations to distinguish them from the ‘statistically-stored’ dislocations which accumulate in pure crystals during straining and are responsible for the normal 3-stage hardening. Polycrystals of pure metals are also plastically non-homogeneous. The density and arrangement of the geometrically-necessary dislocations can be calculated fairly exactly and checked by electr...
TL;DR: In this article, the experimental evidence concerning the density of states in amorphous semiconductors and the ranges of energy in which states are localized is reviewed; this includes d.c and a.c. conductivity, drift mobility and optical absorption.
Abstract: The experimental evidence concerning the density of states in amorphous semiconductors and the ranges of energy in which states are localized is reviewed; this includes d.c. and a.c. conductivity, drift mobility and optical absorption. There is evidence that for some chalcogenide semiconductors the model proposed by Cohen, Fritzsche and Ovshinsky (1969) should be modified by introducing a band of localized states, near the centre of the gap. The values of C, when the d.c. conductivity is expressed as C exp (- E/kT), are considered. The behaviour of the optical absorption coefficient near the absorption edge and its relation to exciton formation are discussed. Finally, an interpretation of some results on photoconductivity is offered.
TL;DR: In this article, a simple form of multi-ion interaction has been constructed for the purpose of atomistic simulation of transition metals, which can account for experimental vacancy-formation energies and does not require an externally applied pressure to balance the Cauchy pressure.
Abstract: A simple form of multi-ion interaction has been constructed for the purpose of atomistic simulation of transition metals. The model energy consists of a bonding term, which is the square-root of a site density ρi, summed over atoms i, and a repulsive pairwise term of the form The site density ρi is defined as sum over neighbouring sites j of a cohesive potential (R ij). Both V and are assumed to be short-ranged and are parameterized to fit the lattice constant, cohesive energy and elastic moduli of the seven body-centred-cubic (b.c.c.) transition metals. The result is a simple model which, unlike a pair-potential model, can account for experimental vacancy-formation energies and does not require an externally applied pressure to balance the “Cauchy pressure”.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report measurements of the oxide scale thickness and oxide grain size as a function of time during the oxidation of high-purity nickel in the temperature range 500-800°C.
Abstract: Below 1000°C the oxidation of nickel cannot be controlled by the diffusion of ions through the bulk crystal lattice of the pure oxide, because the measured oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude faster than would be predicted on this basis. Short-circuit diffusion through oxide grain boundaries or dislocations has usually been held responsible, but there has hitherto been no proper quantitative confirmation of this mechanism. We report measurements of the oxide scale thickness and oxide grain size as a function of time during the oxidation of high-purity nickel in the temperature range 500–800°C. All the oxidation experiments were carried out in pure oxygen at a pressure of one atmosphere. The measured parabolic oxidation rate constants have been compared with those calculated from grain boundary diffusion data obtained in our previous work, using a grain boundary diffusion model for the oxidation process. The quantitative agreement between measured and calculated oxidation rates shows c...
TL;DR: In this article, a linear specific heat at low temperatures for glass follows naturally from general considerations on the glassy state, and the experimentally observed anomalous low-temperature thermal conductivity is predicted.
Abstract: We show that a linear specific heat at low temperatures for glass follows naturally from general considerations on the glassy state. From the same considerations we obtain the experimentally observed anomalous low-temperature thermal conductivity, and we predict an ultrasonic attenuation which increases at low temperatures. Possible relationships with the linear specific heat in magnetic impurity systems are pointed out. We suggest experimental study of the relaxation of thermal and other properties.
Related Journals (5)
17.2K papers, 1.1M citations
14.1K papers, 542.8K citations
Materials Science and Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing
37.5K papers, 1.3M citations
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
37.8K papers, 874.5K citations
Physical Review B
200.4K papers, 8M citations