Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
About: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Gene. It has an ISSN identifier of 0962-8436. Over the lifetime, 11366 publication(s) have been published receiving 957825 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions B. Biological Sciences & Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
Topics: Population, Gene, Biodiversity, Climate change, Genome
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, it is suggested that a system of chemical substances, called morphogens, reacting together and diffusing through a tissue, is adequate to account for the main phenomena of morphogenesis.
Abstract: It is suggested that a system of chemical substances, called morphogens, reacting together and diffusing through a tissue, is adequate to account for the main phenomena of morphogenesis. Such a system, although it may originally be quite homogeneous, may later develop a pattern or structure due to an instability of the homogeneous equilibrium, which is triggered off by random disturbances. Such reaction-diffusion systems are considered in some detail in the case of an isolated ring of cells, a mathematically convenient, though biologically unusual system. The investigation is chiefly concerned with the onset of instability. It is found that there are six essentially different forms which this may take. In the most interesting form stationary waves appear on the ring. It is suggested that this might account, for instance, for the tentacle patterns on Hydra and for whorled leaves. A system of reactions and diffusion on a sphere is also considered. Such a system appears to account for gastrulation. Another reaction system in two dimensions gives rise to patterns reminiscent of dappling. It is also suggested that stationary waves in two dimensions could account for the phenomena of phyllotaxis. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a possible mechanism by which the genes of a zygote may determine the anatomical structure of the resulting organism. The theory does not make any new hypotheses; it merely suggests that certain well-known physical laws are sufficient to account for many of the facts. The full understanding of the paper requires a good knowledge of mathematics, some biology, and some elementary chemistry. Since readers cannot be expected to be experts in all of these subjects, a number of elementary facts are explained, which can be found in text-books, but whose omission would make the paper difficult reading.
TL;DR: The structure and connectivity of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been deduced from reconstructions of electron micrographs of serial sections as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The structure and connectivity of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been deduced from reconstructions of electron micrographs of serial sections. The hermaphrodite nervous system has a total complement of 302 neurons, which are arranged in an essentially invariant structure. Neurons with similar morphologies and connectivities have been grouped together into classes; there are 118 such classes. Neurons have simple morphologies with few, if any, branches. Processes from neurons run in defined positions within bundles of parallel processes, synaptic connections being made en passant. Process bundles are arranged longitudinally and circumferentially and are often adjacent to ridges of hypodermis. Neurons are generally highly locally connected, making synaptic connections with many of their neighbours. Muscle cells have arms that run out to process bundles containing motoneuron axons. Here they receive their synaptic input in defined regions along the surface of the bundles, where motoneuron axons reside. Most of the morphologically identifiable synaptic connections in a typical animal are described. These consist of about 5000 chemical synapses, 2000 neuromuscular junctions and 600 gap junctions.
TL;DR: The importance of using 'reference' sites to assess the true richness and composition of species assemblages, to measure ecologically significant ratios between unrelated taxa, toMeasure taxon/sub-taxon (hierarchical) ratios, and to 'calibrate' standardized sampling methods is discussed.
Abstract: Both the magnitude and the urgency of the task of assessing global biodiversity require that we make the most of what we know through the use of estimation and extrapolation. Likewise, future biodiversity inventories need to be designed around the use of effective sampling and estimation procedures, especially for 'hyperdiverse' groups of terrestrial organisms, such as arthropods, nematodes, fungi, and microorganisms. The challenge of estimating patterns of species richness from samples can be separated into (i) the problem of estimating local species richness, and (ii) the problem of estimating the distinctness, or complementarity, of species assemblages. These concepts apply on a wide range of spatial, temporal, and functional scales. Local richness can be estimated by extrapolating species accumulation curves, fitting parametric distributions of relative abundance, or using non-parametric techniques based on the distribution of individuals among species or of species among samples. We present several of these methods and examine their effectiveness for an example data set. We present a simple measure of complementarity, with some biogeographic examples, and outline the difficult problem of estimating complementarity from samples. Finally, we discuss the importance of using 'reference' sites (or sub-sites) to assess the true richness and composition of species assemblages, to measure ecologically significant ratios between unrelated taxa, to measure taxon/sub-taxon (hierarchical) ratios, and to 'calibrate' standardized sampling methods. This information can then be applied to the rapid, approximate assessment of species richness and faunal or floral composition at 'comparative' sites.
TL;DR: An information-processing model is outlined that predicts that performance on non-routine tasks can be impaired independently of performance on routine tasks, related to views on frontal lobe functions, particularly those of Luria.
Abstract: An information-processing model is outlined that predicts that performance on non-routine tasks can be impaired independently of performance on routine tasks. The model is related to views on frontal lobe functions, particularly those of Luria. Two methods of obtaining more rigorous tests of the model are discussed. One makes use of ideas from artificial intelligence to derive a task heavily loaded on planning abilities. A group of patients with left anterior lesions has a specific deficit on the task. Subsidiary investigations support the inference that this is a planning impairment.
TL;DR: The efficiency of crop production is defined in thermodynamic terms as the ratio of energy output (carbohydrate) to energy input (solar radiation). Temperature and water supply are the main climatic constraints on efficiency as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The efficiency of crop production is defined in thermodynamic terms as the ratio of energy output (carbohydrate) to energy input (solar radiation). Temperature and water supply are the main climatic constraints on efficiency. Over most of Britain, the radiation and thermal climates are uniform and rainfall is the main discriminant of yield between regions. Total production of dry matter by barley, potatoes, sugar beet, and apples is strongly correlated with intercepted radiation and these crops form carbohydrate at about 1.4 g per MJ solar energy, equivalent to 2.4% efficiency. Crop growth in Britain may therefore be analysed in terms of ( a ) the amount of light intercepted during the growing season and ( b ) the efficiency with which intercepted light is used. The amount intercepted depends on the seasonal distribution of leaf area which, in turn, depends on temperature and soil water supply. These variables are discussed in terms of the rate and duration of development phases. A factorial analysis of efficiency shows that the major arable crops in Britain intercept only about 40 % of annual solar radiation and their efficiency for supplying energy through economic yield is only about 0.3%. Some of the factors responsible for this figure are well understood and some are immutable. More work is needed to identify the factors responsible for the large differences between average commercial and record yields.
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