scispace - formally typeset


Physical Review D 

About: Physical Review D is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Quantum chromodynamics & Quark. Over the lifetime, 96249 publication(s) have been published receiving 3791277 citation(s).

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Alan H. Guth1
Abstract: The standard model of hot big-bang cosmology requires initial conditions which are problematic in two ways: (1) The early universe is assumed to be highly homogeneous, in spite of the fact that separated regions were causally disconnected (horizon problem); and (2) the initial value of the Hubble constant must be fine tuned to extraordinary accuracy to produce a universe as flat (i.e., near critical mass density) as the one we see today (flatness problem). These problems would disappear if, in its early history, the universe supercooled to temperatures 28 or more orders of magnitude below the critical temperature for some phase transition. A huge expansion factor would then result from a period of exponential growth, and the entropy of the universe would be multiplied by a huge factor when the latent heat is released. Such a scenario is completely natural in the context of grand unified models of elementary-particle interactions. In such models, the supercooling is also relevant to the problem of monopole suppression. Unfortunately, the scenario seems to lead to some unacceptable consequences, so modifications must be sought.

8,154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The complete Review(both volumes) is published online on the website of the Particle Data Group( and in a journal. Volume 1 is available in print as thePDG Book. AParticle Physics Bookletwith the Summary Tables and essential tables, figures, and equations from selected review articles is also available.

5,916 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: There are a number of similarities between black-hole physics and thermodynamics. Most striking is the similarity in the behaviors of black-hole area and of entropy: Both quantities tend to increase irreversibly. In this paper we make this similarity the basis of a thermodynamic approach to black-hole physics. After a brief review of the elements of the theory of information, we discuss black-hole physics from the point of view of information theory. We show that it is natural to introduce the concept of black-hole entropy as the measure of information about a black-hole interior which is inaccessible to an exterior observer. Considerations of simplicity and consistency, and dimensional arguments indicate that the black-hole entropy is equal to the ratio of the black-hole area to the square of the Planck length times a dimensionless constant of order unity. A different approach making use of the specific properties of Kerr black holes and of concepts from information theory leads to the same conclusion, and suggests a definite value for the constant. The physical content of the concept of black-hole entropy derives from the following generalized version of the second law: When common entropy goes down a black hole, the common entropy in the black-hole exterior plus the black-hole entropy never decreases. The validity of this version of the second law is supported by an argument from information theory as well as by several examples.

5,831 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: The probability of a configuration is given in classical theory by the Boltzmann formula exp [— V/hT] where V is the potential energy of this configuration. For high temperatures this of course also holds in quantum theory. For lower temperatures, however, a correction term has to be introduced, which can be developed into a power series of h. The formula is developed for this correction by means of a probability function and the result discussed.

5,808 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
K. Hagiwara, Ken Ichi Hikasa1, Koji Nakamura, Masaharu Tanabashi1, M. Aguilar-Benitez, Claude Amsler2, R. M. Barnett3, Patricia R. Burchat4, C. D. Carone5, C. Caso, G. Conforto6, Olav Dahl3, Michael Doser7, Semen Eidelman8, Jonathan L. Feng9, L. K. Gibbons10, Maury Goodman11, Christoph Grab12, D. E. Groom3, Atul Gurtu13, Atul Gurtu7, K. G. Hayes14, J. J. Herna`ndez-Rey15, K. Honscheid16, Christopher Kolda17, Michelangelo L. Mangano7, David Manley18, Aneesh V. Manohar19, John March-Russell7, Alberto Masoni, Ramon Miquel3, Klaus Mönig, Hitoshi Murayama20, Hitoshi Murayama3, S. Sánchez Navas12, Keith A. Olive21, Luc Pape7, C. Patrignani, A. Piepke22, Matts Roos23, John Terning24, Nils A. Tornqvist23, T. G. Trippe3, Petr Vogel25, C. G. Wohl3, Ron L. Workman26, W-M. Yao3, B. Armstrong3, P. S. Gee3, K. S. Lugovsky, S. B. Lugovsky, V. S. Lugovsky, Marina Artuso27, D. Asner28, K. S. Babu29, E. L. Barberio7, Marco Battaglia7, H. Bichsel30, O. Biebel31, Philippe Bloch7, Robert N. Cahn3, Ariella Cattai7, R. S. Chivukula32, R. Cousins33, G. A. Cowan34, Thibault Damour35, K. Desler, R. J. Donahue3, D. A. Edwards, Victor Daniel Elvira, Jens Erler36, V. V. Ezhela, A Fassò7, W. Fetscher12, Brian D. Fields37, B. Foster38, Daniel Froidevaux7, Masataka Fukugita39, Thomas K. Gaisser40, L. Garren, H.-J. Gerber12, Frederick J. Gilman41, Howard E. Haber42, C. A. Hagmann28, J.L. Hewett4, Ian Hinchliffe3, Craig J. Hogan30, G. Höhler43, P. Igo-Kemenes44, John David Jackson3, Kurtis F Johnson45, D. Karlen, B. Kayser, S. R. Klein3, Konrad Kleinknecht46, I.G. Knowles47, P. Kreitz4, Yu V. Kuyanov, R. Landua7, Paul Langacker36, L. S. Littenberg48, Alan D. Martin49, Tatsuya Nakada50, Tatsuya Nakada7, Meenakshi Narain32, Paolo Nason, John A. Peacock47, Helen R. Quinn4, Stuart Raby16, Georg G. Raffelt31, E. A. Razuvaev, B. Renk46, L. Rolandi7, Michael T Ronan3, L.J. Rosenberg51, Christopher T. Sachrajda52, A. I. Sanda53, Subir Sarkar54, Michael Schmitt55, O. Schneider50, Douglas Scott56, W. G. Seligman57, Michael H. Shaevitz57, Torbjörn Sjöstrand58, George F. Smoot3, Stefan M Spanier4, H. Spieler3, N. J. C. Spooner59, Mark Srednicki60, A. Stahl, Todor Stanev40, M. Suzuki3, N. P. Tkachenko, German Valencia61, K. van Bibber28, Manuella Vincter62, D. R. Ward63, Bryan R. Webber63, M R Whalley49, Lincoln Wolfenstein41, J. Womersley, C. L. Woody48, O. V. Zenin 
Tohoku University1, University of Zurich2, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory3, Stanford University4, College of William & Mary5, University of Urbino6, CERN7, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics8, University of California, Irvine9, Cornell University10, Argonne National Laboratory11, ETH Zurich12, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research13, Hillsdale College14, Spanish National Research Council15, Ohio State University16, University of Notre Dame17, Kent State University18, University of California, San Diego19, University of California, Berkeley20, University of Minnesota21, University of Alabama22, University of Helsinki23, Los Alamos National Laboratory24, California Institute of Technology25, George Washington University26, Syracuse University27, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory28, Oklahoma State University–Stillwater29, University of Washington30, Max Planck Society31, Boston University32, University of California, Los Angeles33, Royal Holloway, University of London34, Université Paris-Saclay35, University of Pennsylvania36, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign37, University of Bristol38, University of Tokyo39, University of Delaware40, Carnegie Mellon University41, University of California, Santa Cruz42, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology43, Heidelberg University44, Florida State University45, University of Mainz46, University of Edinburgh47, Brookhaven National Laboratory48, Durham University49, University of Lausanne50, Massachusetts Institute of Technology51, University of Southampton52, Nagoya University53, University of Oxford54, Northwestern University55, University of British Columbia56, Columbia University57, Lund University58, University of Sheffield59, University of California, Santa Barbara60, Iowa State University61, University of Alberta62, University of Cambridge63
TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, and features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations.
Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. This edition features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations. For the first time we cover searches for evidence of extra dimensions (both in the particle listings and in a new review). Another new review is on Grand Unified Theories. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website:

5,118 citations

Network Information
Related Journals (5)
Physics Letters B

60.5K papers, 2M citations

94% related
Journal of High Energy Physics

34.5K papers, 1.7M citations

93% related
arXiv: High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

63.6K papers, 753.1K citations

93% related
arXiv: High Energy Physics - Theory

67K papers, 1M citations

91% related
Nuclear Physics

64.8K papers, 2.2M citations

90% related
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years