Journal•ISSN: 0031-899X

# Physical Review

American Institute of Physics

About: Physical Review is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Scattering & Electron. It has an ISSN identifier of 0031-899X. Over the lifetime, 43509 publications have been published receiving 2111570 citations. The journal is also known as: The Physical review & Phys Rev.

Topics: Scattering, Electron, Neutron, Meson, Nuclear reaction

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations are applied to a uniform electron gas, where the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of the gas are used as additional effective potentials.

Abstract: From a theory of Hohenberg and Kohn, approximation methods for treating an inhomogeneous system of interacting electrons are developed. These methods are exact for systems of slowly varying or high density. For the ground state, they lead to self-consistent equations analogous to the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations, respectively. In these equations the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of a uniform electron gas appear as additional effective potentials. (The exchange portion of our effective potential differs from that due to Slater by a factor of $\frac{2}{3}$.) Electronic systems at finite temperatures and in magnetic fields are also treated by similar methods. An appendix deals with a further correction for systems with short-wavelength density oscillations.

47,477 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the ground state of an interacting electron gas in an external potential was investigated and it was proved that there exists a universal functional of the density, called F[n(mathrm{r})], independent of the potential of the electron gas.

Abstract: This paper deals with the ground state of an interacting electron gas in an external potential $v(\mathrm{r})$. It is proved that there exists a universal functional of the density, $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$, independent of $v(\mathrm{r})$, such that the expression $E\ensuremath{\equiv}\ensuremath{\int}v(\mathrm{r})n(\mathrm{r})d\mathrm{r}+F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ has as its minimum value the correct ground-state energy associated with $v(\mathrm{r})$. The functional $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ is then discussed for two situations: (1) $n(\mathrm{r})={n}_{0}+\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}(\mathrm{r})$, $\frac{\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}}{{n}_{0}}\ensuremath{\ll}1$, and (2) $n(\mathrm{r})=\ensuremath{\phi}(\frac{\mathrm{r}}{{r}_{0}})$ with $\ensuremath{\phi}$ arbitrary and ${r}_{0}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}\ensuremath{\infty}$. In both cases $F$ can be expressed entirely in terms of the correlation energy and linear and higher order electronic polarizabilities of a uniform electron gas. This approach also sheds some light on generalized Thomas-Fermi methods and their limitations. Some new extensions of these methods are presented.

38,160 citations

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TL;DR: Consideration of the problem of making predictions concerning a system on the basis of measurements made on another system that had previously interacted with it leads to the result that one is led to conclude that the description of reality as given by a wave function is not complete.

Abstract: In a complete theory there is an element corresponding to each element of reality. A sufficient condition for the reality of a physical quantity is the possibility of predicting it with certainty, without disturbing the system. In quantum mechanics in the case of two physical quantities described by non-commuting operators, the knowledge of one precludes the knowledge of the other. Then either (1) the description of reality given by the wave function in quantum mechanics is not complete or (2) these two quantities cannot have simultaneous reality. Consideration of the problem of making predictions concerning a system on the basis of measurements made on another system that had previously interacted with it leads to the result that if (1) is false then (2) is also false. One is thus led to conclude that the description of reality as given by a wave function is not complete.

13,778 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider statistical mechanics as a form of statistical inference rather than as a physical theory, and show that the usual computational rules, starting with the determination of the partition function, are an immediate consequence of the maximum-entropy principle.

Abstract: Information theory provides a constructive criterion for setting up probability distributions on the basis of partial knowledge, and leads to a type of statistical inference which is called the maximum-entropy estimate. It is the least biased estimate possible on the given information; i.e., it is maximally noncommittal with regard to missing information. If one considers statistical mechanics as a form of statistical inference rather than as a physical theory, it is found that the usual computational rules, starting with the determination of the partition function, are an immediate consequence of the maximum-entropy principle. In the resulting "subjective statistical mechanics," the usual rules are thus justified independently of any physical argument, and in particular independently of experimental verification; whether or not the results agree with experiment, they still represent the best estimates that could have been made on the basis of the information available.It is concluded that statistical mechanics need not be regarded as a physical theory dependent for its validity on the truth of additional assumptions not contained in the laws of mechanics (such as ergodicity, metric transitivity, equal a priori probabilities, etc.). Furthermore, it is possible to maintain a sharp distinction between its physical and statistical aspects. The former consists only of the correct enumeration of the states of a system and their properties; the latter is a straightforward example of statistical inference.

12,099 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a perturbation theory for treating a system of n electrons in which the Hartree-Fock solution appears as the zero-order approximation was developed, and it was shown by this development that the first order correction for the energy and the charge density of the system is zero.

Abstract: A perturbation theory is developed for treating a system of n electrons in which the Hartree-Fock solution appears as the zero-order approximation. It is shown by this development that the first order correction for the energy and the charge density of the system is zero. The expression for the second-order correction for the energy greatly simplifies because of the special property of the zero-order solution. It is pointed out that the development of the higher approximation involves only calculations based on a definite one-body problem.

12,067 citations