Showing papers in "Physiological Reviews in 2000"
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism is presented, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue distribution of the enzymes and metabolites involved, and of the inherent implications for physiology and human pathology.
Abstract: The goal of this review is to present a comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis an...
TL;DR: The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive survey of the current understanding of prolactin's function and its regulation and to expose some of the controversies still existing.
Abstract: Prolactin is a protein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that was originally named for its ability to promote lactation in response to the suckling stimulus of hungry young mammals. We now know that prolactin is not as simple as originally described. Indeed, chemically, prolactin appears in a multiplicity of posttranslational forms ranging from size variants to chemical modifications such as phosphorylation or glycosylation. It is not only synthesized in the pituitary gland, as originally described, but also within the central nervous system, the immune system, the uterus and its associated tissues of conception, and even the mammary gland itself. Moreover, its biological actions are not limited solely to reproduction because it has been shown to control a variety of behaviors and even play a role in homeostasis. Prolactin-releasing stimuli not only include the nursing stimulus, but light, audition, olfaction, and stress can serve a stimulatory role. Finally, although it is well known that dopamine of hypothalamic origin provides inhibitory control over the secretion of prolactin, other factors within the brain, pituitary gland, and peripheral organs have been shown to inhibit or stimulate prolactin secretion as well. It is the purpose of this review to provide a comprehensive survey of our current understanding of prolactin's function and its regulation and to expose some of the controversies still existing.
TL;DR: Ca(2+) regulation of contraction in vertebrate striated muscle is exerted primarily through effects on the thin filament, which regulate strong cross-bridge binding to actin, and the physiological observations of steady-state and transient mechanical behavior are supported.
Abstract: Ca(2+) regulation of contraction in vertebrate striated muscle is exerted primarily through effects on the thin filament, which regulate strong cross-bridge binding to actin. Structural and biochemical studies suggest that the position of tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) on the thin filament determines the interaction of myosin with the binding sites on actin. These binding sites can be characterized as blocked (unable to bind to cross bridges), closed (able to weakly bind cross bridges), or open (able to bind cross bridges so that they subsequently isomerize to become strongly bound and release ATP hydrolysis products). Flexibility of the Tm may allow variability in actin (A) affinity for myosin along the thin filament other than through a single 7 actin:1 tropomyosin:1 troponin (A(7)TmTn) regulatory unit. Tm position on the actin filament is regulated by the occupancy of NH-terminal Ca(2+) binding sites on TnC, conformational changes resulting from Ca(2+) binding, and changes in the interactions among Tn, Tm, and actin and as well as by strong S1 binding to actin. Ca(2+) binding to TnC enhances TnC-TnI interaction, weakens TnI attachment to its binding sites on 1-2 actins of the regulatory unit, increases Tm movement over the actin surface, and exposes myosin-binding sites on actin previously blocked by Tm. Adjacent Tm are coupled in their overlap regions where Tm movement is also controlled by interactions with TnT. TnT also interacts with TnC-TnI in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. All these interactions may vary with the different protein isoforms. The movement of Tm over the actin surface increases the "open" probability of myosin binding sites on actins so that some are in the open configuration available for myosin binding and cross-bridge isomerization to strong binding, force-producing states. In skeletal muscle, strong binding of cycling cross bridges promotes additional Tm movement. This movement effectively stabilizes Tm in the open position and allows cooperative activation of additional actins in that and possibly neighboring A(7)TmTn regulatory units. The structural and biochemical findings support the physiological observations of steady-state and transient mechanical behavior. Physiological studies suggest the following. 1) Ca(2+) binding to Tn/Tm exposes sites on actin to which myosin can bind. 2) Ca(2+) regulates the strong binding of M.ADP.P(i) to actin, which precedes the production of force (and/or shortening) and release of hydrolysis products. 3) The initial rate of force development depends mostly on the extent of Ca(2+) activation of the thin filament and myosin kinetic properties but depends little on the initial force level. 4) A small number of strongly attached cross bridges within an A(7)TmTn regulatory unit can activate the actins in one unit and perhaps those in neighboring units. This results in additional myosin binding and isomerization to strongly bound states and force production. 5) The rates of the product release steps per se (as indicated by the unloaded shortening velocity) early in shortening are largely independent of the extent of thin filament activation ([Ca(2+)]) beyond a given baseline level. However, with a greater extent of shortening, the rates depend on the activation level. 6) The cooperativity between neighboring regulatory units contributes to the activation by strong cross bridges of steady-state force but does not affect the rate of force development. 7) Strongly attached, cycling cross bridges can delay relaxation in skeletal muscle in a cooperative manner. 8) Strongly attached and cycling cross bridges can enhance Ca(2+) binding to cardiac TnC, but influence skeletal TnC to a lesser extent. 9) Different Tn subunit isoforms can modulate the cross-bridge detachment rate as shown by studies with mutant regulatory proteins in myotubes and in in vitro motility assays. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
TL;DR: Con considerations of the clinical ramifications of exercise in the prevention of diseases for which the immune system has a role is of importance, and the interactions between exercise and infectious diseases as well as exercise and neoplasia within the context of both aging and nutrition are addressed.
Abstract: Stress-induced immunological reactions to exercise have stimulated much research into stress immunology and neuroimmunology. It is suggested that exercise can be employed as a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical stress. The exercise-stress model can be easily manipulated experimentally and allows for the study of interactions between the nervous, the endocrine, and the immune systems. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying exercise-induced immune changes such as neuroendocrinological factors including catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, β-endorphin, and sex steroids. The contribution of a metabolic link between skeletal muscles and the lymphoid system is also reviewed. The mechanisms of exercise-associated muscle damage and the initiation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade are discussed. Given that exercise modulates the immune system in healthy individuals, considerations of the clinical ramifications of exercise in the prevention of diseases for which the...
TL;DR: This review provides a comprehensive examination of the biological roles of calcineurin and reviews aspects related to its structure and catalytic mechanism.
Abstract: Calcineurin is a eukaryotic Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase. It is a heterodimeric protein consisting of a catalytic subunit calcineurin A, which contains an act...
TL;DR: The functional bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria are reviewed, with emphasis on the chemiosmotic proton circuit and the application (and occasional misapplication) of these principles to intact neurons.
Abstract: Mitochondria play a central role in the survival and death of neurons. The detailed bioenergetic mechanisms by which isolated mitochondria generate ATP, sequester Ca2+, generate reactive oxygen species, and undergo Ca2+-dependent permeabilization of their inner membrane are currently being applied to the function of mitochondria in situ within neurons under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here we review the functional bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria, with emphasis on the chemiosmotic proton circuit and the application (and occasional misapplication) of these principles to intact neurons. Mitochondria play an integral role in both necrotic and apoptotic neuronal cell death, and the bioenergetic principles underlying current studies are reviewed.
TL;DR: The mechanism of action of three groups of presynaptic neurotoxins that interfere directly with the process of neurotransmitter release is reviewed, whereas presynapses acting on ion channels are not dealt with here.
Abstract: Nerve terminals are specific sites of action of a very large number of toxins produced by many different organisms. The mechanism of action of three groups of presynaptic neurotoxins that interfere directly with the process of neurotransmitter release is reviewed, whereas presynaptic neurotoxins acting on ion channels are not dealt with here. These neurotoxins can be grouped in three large families: 1) the clostridial neurotoxins that act inside nerves and block neurotransmitter release via their metalloproteolytic activity directed specifically on SNARE proteins; 2) the snake presynaptic neurotoxins with phospholipase A(2) activity, whose site of action is still undefined and which induce the release of acethylcholine followed by impairment of synaptic functions; and 3) the excitatory latrotoxin-like neurotoxins that induce a massive release of neurotransmitter at peripheral and central synapses. Their modes of binding, sites of action, and biochemical activities are discussed in relation to the symptoms of the diseases they cause. The use of these toxins in cell biology and neuroscience is considered as well as the therapeutic utilization of the botulinum neurotoxins in human diseases characterized by hyperfunction of cholinergic terminals.
TL;DR: The interaction between cortical and dopaminergic inputs to CD neurons may underlie the behavioral adaptation toward purposeful saccades, which reflects working memory, expectation, and attention.
Abstract: In addition to their well-known role in skeletal movements, the basal ganglia control saccadic eye movements (saccades) by means of their connection to the superior colliculus (SC). The SC receives convergent inputs from cerebral cortical areas and the basal ganglia. To make a saccade to an object purposefully, appropriate signals must be selected out of the cortical inputs, in which the basal ganglia play a crucial role. This is done by the sustained inhibitory input from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to the SC. This inhibition can be removed by another inhibition from the caudate nucleus (CD) to the SNr, which results in a disinhibition of the SC. The basal ganglia have another mechanism, involving the external segment of the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus, with which the SNr-SC inhibition can further be enhanced. The sensorimotor signals carried by the basal ganglia neurons are strongly modulated depending on the behavioral context, which reflects working memory, expectation, and attention. Expectation of reward is a critical determinant in that the saccade that has been rewarded is facilitated subsequently. The interaction between cortical and dopaminergic inputs to CD neurons may underlie the behavioral adaptation toward purposeful saccades.
TL;DR: The primary function of the corpus luteum is secretion of the hormone progesterone, which is required for maintenance of normal pregnancy in mammals, although growth hormone, prolactin, and estradiol also play a role in several species.
Abstract: The primary function of the corpus luteum is secretion of the hormone progesterone, which is required for maintenance of normal pregnancy in mammals. The corpus luteum develops from residual follic...
TL;DR: It is realized that PLC-beta, -gamma, and -delta isoforms act in concert, each contributing to a specific aspect of the cellular response.
Abstract: Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) subtypes β, γ, and δ comprise a related group of multidomain phosphodiesterases that cleave the polar head groups from inositol lipids. Activated by ...
TL;DR: This review comprises a detailed and critical assessment of current knowledge regarding the formation, occurrence, metabolism, regulatory properties, and other activities of oxysterols in mammalian systems.
Abstract: Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol (oxysterols) present a remarkably diverse profile of biological activities, including effects on sphingolipid metabolism, platelet aggregation, apoptosis, and ...
TL;DR: Functional alterations of Ca(2+) handling seem to be responsible for the pathophysiological conditions seen in dystrophinopathies, Brody's disease, and malignant hyperthermia, which underline the importance of the affected molecules for correct muscle performance.
Abstract: Mammalian skeletal muscle shows an enormous variability in its functional features such as rate of force production, resistance to fatigue, and energy metabolism, with a wide spectrum from slow aer...
TL;DR: Although the NKCC has been studied for approximately 20 years, it is only beginning to frame the broad outlines of the structure, function, and regulation of this ubiquitous ion transport mechanism.
Abstract: Obligatory, coupled cotransport of Na+, K+, and Cl− by cell membranes has been reported in nearly every animal cell type. This review examines the current status of our knowledge about this ion tra...
TL;DR: The theoretical basis of the energy coupling between the electric field and the voltage is presented, which allows the interpretation of the gating charge that moves in one channel, and the novel results on lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer that show small distance changes between residues in the channel molecule.
Abstract: In voltage-dependent Na, K, or Ca channels, the probability of opening is modified by the membrane potential. This is achieved through a voltage sensor that detects the voltage and transfers its energy to the pore to control its gate. We present here the theoretical basis of the energy coupling between the electric field and the voltage, which allows the interpretation of the gating charge that moves in one channel. Movement of the gating charge constitutes the gating current. The properties are described, along with macroscopic data and gating current noise analysis, in relation to the operation of the voltage sensor and the opening of the channel. Structural details of the voltage sensor operation were resolved initially by locating the residues that make up the voltage sensor using mutagenesis experiments and determining the number of charges per channel. The changes in conformation are then analyzed based on the differential exposure of cysteine or histidine-substituted residues. Site-directed fluorescence labeling is then analyzed as another powerful indicator of conformational changes that allows time and voltage correlation of local changes seen by the fluorophores with the global change seen by the electrophysiology of gating currents and ionic currents. Finally, we describe the novel results on lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer that show small distance changes between residues in the channel molecule. All of the electrophysiological and the structural information are finally summarized in a physical model of a voltage-dependent channel in which a change in membrane potential causes rotation of the S4 segment that changes the exposure of the basic residues from an internally connected aqueous crevice at hyperpolarized potentials to an externally connected aqueous crevice at depolarized potentials.
TL;DR: The key role of vitamin A in embryonal development is reviewed and special emphasis is given to the physiological action of retinoids, as evident from the retinoid ligand knockout models.
Abstract: The key role of vitamin A in embryonal development is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the physiological action of retinoids, as evident from the retinoid ligand knockout models. Retinoid metabolism in embryonic tissues and teratogenic consequences of retinoid administration at high doses are presented. Physiological and pharmacological actions of retinoids are outlined and explained on the basis of their interactions as ligands of the nuclear retinoid receptors. Immediate target genes and the retinoid response elements of their promoters are summarized. The fundamental role of homeobox genes in embryonal development and the actions of retinoids on their expression are discussed. The similarity of the effects of retinoid ligand knockouts to effects of compound retinoid receptor knockouts on embryogenesis is presented. Although much remains to be clarified, the emerging landscape offers exciting views for future research.
TL;DR: The associations between the various in vivo methods (densitometry, dilution, bioelectrical impedance and conductance, whole body counting, neutron activation, X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) and the five-level multicompartment model of body composition are described, along with the limitations and advantages of each method.
Abstract: In vivo methods used to study human body composition continue to be developed, along with more advanced reference models that utilize the information obtained with these technologies. Some methods are well established, with a strong physiological basis for their measurement, whereas others are much more indirect. This review has been structured from the methodological point of view to help the reader understand what can be examined with each technique. The associations between the various in vivo methods (densitometry, dilution, bioelectrical impedance and conductance, whole body counting, neutron activation, X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) and the five-level multicompartment model of body composition are described, along with the limitations and advantages of each method. This review also provides an overview of the present status of this field of research in human biology, including examples of reference body composition data for infants, children, adolescents, and adults.
TL;DR: Cutaneous expression of the CRH/POMC system is highly organized, encoding mediators and receptors similar to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, that in the skin is expressed as a highly localized response which neutralizes noxious stimuli and attendant immune reactions.
Abstract: The skin is a known target organ for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), beta-endorphin, and ACTH and also a source of these peptides. Skin expression levels of the POMC gene and POMC/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) peptides are not static but are determined by such factors as the physiological changes associated with hair cycle (highest in anagen phase), ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, immune cytokine release, or the presence of cutaneous pathology. Among the cytokines, the proinflammatory interleukin-1 produces important upregulation of cutaneous levels of POMC mRNA, POMC peptides, and MSH receptors; UVR also stimulates expression of all the components of the CRH/POMC system including expression of the corresponding receptors. Molecular characterization of the cutaneous POMC gene shows mRNA forms similar to those found in the pituitary, which are expressed together with shorter variants. The receptors for POMC peptides expressed in the skin are functional and include MC1, MC5 and mu-opiate, although most predominant are those of the MC1 class recognizing MSH and ACTH. Receptors for CRH are also present in the skin. Because expression of, for example, the MC1 receptor is stimulated in a similar dose-dependent manner by UVR, cytokines, MSH peptides or melanin precursors, actions of the ligand peptides represent a stochastic (predictable) nonspecific response to environmental/endogenous stresses. The powerful effects of POMC peptides and probably CRH on the skin pigmentary, immune, and adnexal systems are consistent with stress-neutralizing activity addressed at maintaining skin integrity to restrict disruptions of internal homeostasis. Hence, cutaneous expression of the CRH/POMC system is highly organized, encoding mediators and receptors similar to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This CRH/POMC skin system appears to generate a function analogous to the HPA axis, that in the skin is expressed as a highly localized response which neutralizes noxious stimuli and attendant immune reactions.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the most recent data on structures and functions of brain proteoglycans and focuses on new physiological concepts for their potential roles in the developing central nervous system.
Abstract: Proteoglycans are a heterogeneous class of proteins bearing sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Some of the proteoglycans have distinct core protein structures, and others display similarities and thus may be grouped into families such as the syndecans, the glypicans, or the hyalectans (or lecticans). Proteoglycans can be found in almost all tissues being present in the extracellular matrix, on cellular surfaces, or in intracellular granules. In recent years, brain proteoglycans have attracted growing interest due to their highly regulated spatiotemporal expression during nervous system development and maturation. There is increasing evidence that different proteoglycans act as regulators of cell migration, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and structural plasticity. This review summarizes the most recent data on structures and functions of brain proteoglycans and focuses on new physiological concepts for their potential roles in the developing central nervous system.
TL;DR: A background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization, and membrane properties, both passive and active, and a description of the major transmitter systems that affect mot oneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties.
Abstract: Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials ge...
TL;DR: Feedback from load receptors onto central circuits involved in the generation of rhythmic locomotor output is commonly found during the stance phase, and afferent activity from various load detectors can activate the extensor part in such circuits, thereby providing reinforcing force feedback.
Abstract: How is load sensed by receptors, and how is this sensory information used to guide locomotion? Many insights in this domain have evolved from comparative studies since it has been realized that basic principles concerning load sensing and regulation can be found in a wide variety of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate Feedback about load is not only derived from specific load receptors but also from other types of receptors that previously were thought to have other functions In the central nervous system of many species, a convergence is found between specific and nonspecific load receptors Furthermore, feedback from load receptors onto central circuits involved in the generation of rhythmic locomotor output is commonly found During the stance phase, afferent activity from various load detectors can activate the extensor part in such circuits, thereby providing reinforcing force feedback At the same time, the flexion is suppressed The functional role of this arrangement is that activity in antigravity muscles is promoted while the onset of the next flexion is delayed as long as the limb is loaded This type of reinforcing force feedback is present during gait but absent in the immoble resting animal
TL;DR: The cloning of the type IIa Na-P(i )cotransporter (in 1993) provided the tools to study renal brush-border membrane Na- P(i) cotransport function/regulation at the cellular/molecular level as well as at the organ level and led to an understanding of cellular mechanisms involved in control of proximal tubular P( i) handling and, thus, of overall P(o) homeostasis.
Abstract: Renal proximal tubular reabsorption of P(i) is a key element in overall P(i) homeostasis, and it involves a secondary active P(i) transport mechanism. Among the molecularly identified sodium-phosphate (Na/P(i)) cotransport systems a brush-border membrane type IIa Na-P(i) cotransporter is the key player in proximal tubular P(i) reabsorption. Physiological and pathophysiological alterations in renal P(i) reabsorption are related to altered brush-border membrane expression/content of the type IIa Na-P(i) cotransporter. Complex membrane retrieval/insertion mechanisms are involved in modulating transporter content in the brush-border membrane. In a tissue culture model (OK cells) expressing intrinsically the type IIa Na-P(i) cotransporter, the cellular cascades involved in "physiological/pathophysiological" control of P(i) reabsorption have been explored. As this cell model offers a "proximal tubular" environment, it is useful for characterization (in heterologous expression studies) of the cellular/molecular requirements for transport regulation. Finally, the oocyte expression system has permitted a thorough characterization of the transport characteristics and of structure/function relationships. Thus the cloning of the type IIa Na-P(i )cotransporter (in 1993) provided the tools to study renal brush-border membrane Na-P(i) cotransport function/regulation at the cellular/molecular level as well as at the organ level and led to an understanding of cellular mechanisms involved in control of proximal tubular P(i) handling and, thus, of overall P(i) homeostasis.
TL;DR: It is concluded that despite modifying factors coming into play during muscle activity, the K(+) shifts with high-intensity exercise may contribute substantially to fatigue in skeletal muscle, whereas in the heart, except during ischemia, theK(+) balance is controlled much more effectively.
Abstract: Since it became clear that K+ shifts with exercise are extensive and can cause more than a doubling of the extracellular [K+] ([K+]s) as reviewed here, it has been suggested that these shifts may c...
TL;DR: The goal is to identify the genetic loci controlling blood pressure, i.e., the so-called quantitative trait loci (QTL), which should be an attainable goal given the recently developed genomic resources for the rat.
Abstract: Blood pressure is a quantitative trait that has a strong genetic component in humans and rats. Several selectively bred strains of rats with divergent blood pressures serve as an animal model for genetic dissection of the causes of inherited hypertension. The goal is to identify the genetic loci controlling blood pressure, i.e., the so-called quantitative trait loci (QTL). The theoretical basis for such genetic dissection and recent progress in understanding genetic hypertension are reviewed. The usual paradigm is to produce segregating populations derived from a hypertensive and normotensive strain and to seek linkage of blood pressure to genetic markers using recently developed statistical techniques for QTL analysis. This has yielded candidate QTL regions on almost every rat chromosome, and also some interactions between QTL have been defined. These statistically defined QTL regions are much too large to practice positional cloning to identify the genes involved. Most investigators are, therefore, fine mapping the QTL using congenic strains to substitute small segments of chromosome from one strain into another. Although impressive progress has been made, this process is slow due to the extensive breeding that is required. At this point, no blood pressure QTL have met stringent criteria for identification, but this should be an attainable goal given the recently developed genomic resources for the rat. Similar experiments are ongoing to look for genes that influence cardiac hypertrophy, stroke, and renal failure and that are independent of the genes for hypertension.
TL;DR: This review presents the current knowledge about the development of intestinal transport function in the context of intestinal mucosa ontogeny in order to highlight the utilization of energy for transport processes in the developing intestine.
Abstract: Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in the understanding of mechanisms responsible for the ontogenetic changes of mammalian intestine. This review presents the current knowledge about the development of intestinal transport function in the context of intestinal mucosa ontogeny. The review predominantly focuses on signals that trigger and/or modulate the developmental changes of intestinal transport. After an overview of the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal mucosa, data about the bidirectional traffic (absorption and secretion) across the developing intestinal epithelium are presented. The largest part of the review is devoted to the description of developmental patterns concerning the absorption of nutrients, ions, water, vitamins, trace elements, and milk-borne biologically active substances. Furthermore, the review examines the development of intestinal secretion that has a variety of functions including maintenance of the fluidity of the intestinal content, lubrication of mucosal surface, and mucosal protection. The age-dependent shifts of absorption and secretion are the subject of integrated regulatory mechanisms, and hence, the input of hormonal, nervous, immune, and dietary signals is reviewed. Finally, the utilization of energy for transport processes in the developing intestine is highlighted, and the interactions between various sources of energy are discussed. The review ends with suggestions concerning possible directions of future research.
TL;DR: The review points out where future work is needed to gain an overall view of milk secretion in marsupials, and particularly on the intracellular coordination of the transport processes that result in the production of milk of relatively constant composition at a particular stage of lactation in both placental and marsupial mammals.
Abstract: This review deals with the cellular mechanisms that transport milk constituents or the precursors of milk constituents into, out of, and across the mammary secretory cell. The various milk constituents are secreted by different intracellular routes, and these are outlined, including the paracellular pathway between interstitial fluid and milk that is present in some physiological states and in some species throughout lactation. Also considered are the in vivo and in vitro methods used to study mammary transport and secretory mechanisms. The main part of the review addresses the mechanisms responsible for uptake across the basolateral cell membrane and, in some cases, for transport into the Golgi apparatus and for movement across the apical membrane of sodium, potassium, chloride, water, phosphate, calcium, citrate, iodide, choline, carnitine, glucose, amino acids and peptides, and fatty acids. Recent work on the control of these processes, by volume-sensitive mechanisms for example, is emphasized. The review points out where future work is needed to gain an overall view of milk secretion, for example, in marsupials where milk composition changes markedly during development of the young, and particularly on the intracellular coordination of the transport processes that result in the production of milk of relatively constant composition at a particular stage of lactation in both placental and marsupial mammals.
TL;DR: The finding that human heart can produce PAF, expresses PAF receptor, and is sensitive to the negative inotropic action of PAF suggests that this mediator may have a role also in human cardiovascular pathophysiology.
Abstract: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator that belongs to a family of biologically active, structurally related alkyl phosphoglycerides. PAF acts via a specific receptor that is coupled with a G protein, which activates a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. In this review we focus on the aspects that are more relevant for the cell biology of the cardiovascular system. The in vitro studies provided evidence for a role of PAF both as intercellular and intracellular messenger involved in cell-to-cell communication. In the cardiovascular system, PAF may have a role in embryogenesis because it stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis and may affect cardiac function because it exhibits mechanical and electrophysiological actions on cardiomyocytes. Moreover, PAF may contribute to modulation of blood pressure mainly by affecting the renal vascular circulation. In pathological conditions, PAF has been involved in the hypotension and cardiac dysfunctions occurring in various cardiovascular stress situations such as cardiac anaphylaxis and hemorrhagic, traumatic, and septic shock syndromes. In addition, experimental studies indicate that PAF has a critical role in the development of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Indeed, PAF cooperates in the recruitment of leukocytes in inflamed tissue by promoting adhesion to the endothelium and extravascular transmigration of leukocytes. The finding that human heart can produce PAF, expresses PAF receptor, and is sensitive to the negative inotropic action of PAF suggests that this mediator may have a role also in human cardiovascular pathophysiology.
TL;DR: With a theoretical model, the complex interdependence of reactions and transport processes involved in CO(2) exchange was analyzed and its relative contribution to overall transport is changing along this elimination pathway.
Abstract: CO2produced within skeletal muscle has to leave the body finally via ventilation by the lung. To get there, CO2 diffuses from the intracellular space into the convective transport medium blood with...
TL;DR: The continued molecular analysis of NIS clearly holds the potential of an even greater impact on a wide spectrum of fields, ranging from structure/function of transport proteins to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, both in the thyroid and beyond.
Abstract: The Na+/I−symporter (NIS) is an intrinsic membrane protein that mediates the active transport of iodide into the thyroid and other tissues, such as salivary glands, gastric mucosa, and lactating ma...
TL;DR: Molecular and functional results are integrated to provide a contemporary picture of distal tubule function in mammals and suggest that the basic molecular architecture of the distal nephron is surprisingly similar in mammalian species investigated to date.
Abstract: The distal tubule of the mammalian kidney, defined as the region between the macula densa and the collecting duct, is morphologically and functionally heterogeneous. This heterogeneity has stymied attempts to define functional properties of individual cell types and has led to controversy concerning mechanisms and regulation of ion transport. Recently, molecular techniques have been used to identify and localize ion transport pathways along the distal tubule and to identify human diseases that result from abnormal distal tubule function. Results of these studies have clarified the roles of individual distal cell types. They suggest that the basic molecular architecture of the distal nephron is surprisingly similar in mammalian species investigated to date. The results have also reemphasized the role played by the distal tubule in regulating urinary potassium excretion. They have clarified how both peptide and steroid hormones, including aldosterone and estrogen, regulate ion transport by distal convoluted tubule cells. Furthermore, they highlight the central role that the distal tubule plays in systemic calcium homeostasis. Disorders of distal nephron function, such as Gitelman's syndrome, nephrolithiasis, and adaptation to diuretic drug administration, emphasize the importance of this relatively short nephron segment to human physiology. This review integrates molecular and functional results to provide a contemporary picture of distal tubule function in mammals.
TL;DR: This review deals with the influence of serine/threonine-specificprotein phosphatases on the function of ion channels in the plasma membrane of excitable tissues and delineates in which cases a direct interaction between a protein phosphatase and a given channel has been proven and where a more complex regulation is likely involved.
Abstract: This review deals with the influence of serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatases on the function of ion channels in the plasma membrane of excitable tissues. Particular focus is given to developments of the past decade. Most of the electrophysiological experiments have been performed with protein phosphatase inhibitors. Therefore, a synopsis is required incorporating issues from biochemistry, pharmacology, and electrophysiology. First, we summarize the structural and biochemical properties of protein phosphatase (types 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3–7) catalytic subunits and their regulatory subunits. Then the available pharmacological tools (protein inhibitors, nonprotein inhibitors, and activators) are introduced. The use of these inhibitors is discussed based on their biochemical selectivity and a number of methodological caveats. The next section reviews the effects of these tools on various classes of ion channels (i.e., voltage-gated Ca2+ and Na+ channels, various K+ channels, ligand-gated channels, and...