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Showing papers in "Plains Anthropologist in 2006"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper analyzed the records of a standardized atlatl competition over eight years and provided insights into spear thrower capabilities, learning curves, and the use of weapons by women and children.
Abstract: Even uncontrolled “experimentation” such as sporting use of early hunting gear can provide insights into archaeological questions. Analyzing the records of a standardized atlatl competition over eight years offers some insights into spear thrower capabilities, learning curves, and the use of weapons by women and children. The sample is now large enough to provide a plausible analog to prehistoric atlat capabilities, allowing us to judge ethnographic accounts and archaeological expectations. Atlatl skills can be acquired fairly rapidly by any adult or older youths. The atlatl should reduce the importance of body size and strength, and all but the youngest members of a society should be biologically capable of atlatl use where sociaL rules allow it.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The landscape of the Blackfoot is a series of named locales linked by paths, movements and narratives as mentioned in this paper, and paths represent the accumulated imprint of countless journeys as people move from place to place conducting their everyday business.
Abstract: The landscape of the Blackfoot is a series of named locales linked by paths, movements and narratives. The places are often outstanding natural features, river crossings, or resource patches perceived as focal points of spiritual energy. Myths and oral traditions explain how these landmarks were created through the actions of Napi who left behind songs, sacred objects, and practices to commemorate his creative acts on earth. This landscape is also created by people through their experience and engagement with the world around them and through their activities and movements on the ground. As reflections of this habitual behavior, paths represent the accumulated imprint of countless journeys as people move from place to place conducting their everyday business. Although created by people, the resultant network of places and paths constrains the patterned movement of groups over the landscape. From this perspective then, the landscape is not only the natural and cultural features of a region but also...

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined and compared native perceptions and uses of landscapes using historic maps, established travel and trade routes, and ethnographic data on settlement locations for groups occupying the boreal forest and northwesern Plains of Canada.
Abstract: Landscapes are created by people through their experience and engagement with the world around them and through their activities and movements on the ground. Human groups humanize an environment by mapping themselves onto the landscape using their knowledge of specific landforms and waterways, resources including minerals, plants and animals, and human settlements. Once established, this human imprint transforms the natural landscape into a cultural landscape and establishes a pattern of land use which can persist for generations, if not millennia. The objective of this paper is to examine and compare native perceptions and uses of landscapes using historic maps, established travel and trade routes, and ethnographic data on settlement locations for groups occupying the boreal forest and northwesern Plains of Canada. The data indicate that native perceptions of the landscape are rooted in the landforms and vegetation present in an area as well as the transportation technology available to the group...

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presented additional data on over 80 Plains gambling baskets presently housed in U.S. museums and private collections, supporting a southern origin for historic Plains coiled and perhaps plaited basketry.
Abstract: Two principal types of basketry were produced on the Plains in historic times, the twill plaited burden baskets used by horticultural tribes and coiled gambling baskets that saw a wider distribution. Coiled baskets were used in a gambling game, played primarily by women, in which dice were tossed into a basket. Little information on these baskets has been published and collection information for museum specimens is typically very poor. Building on Weltfish’s (1930a) initial study, this paper presents additional data on over 80 Plains gambling baskets presently housed in U.S. museums and private collections. Archaeological, ethnohistorical, and technical information, including data from this analysis, supports a southern origin for historic Plains coiled and perhaps plaited basketry. Diffusion of technological features of basketry construction out of areas in northern Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas likely began as much as 3,000 years ago and progressed more rapidly during the last 400 years. It is su...

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The La Barge Bluffs site in Wyoming contains the most complex northern Plains biographic composition yet known that shows women as mentioned in this paper, which integrates women as war captive, adoptee, and dance participants and illustrates nearly all the female roles of Biographic rock art.
Abstract: Women are not commonly drawn in northern Plains rock art, but they do occur in both the Ceremonial and Biographic traditions. When shown in Ceremonial rock art they appear in structure and content roles equivalent to those of males. In contrast, in later Biographic art they appear in various roles—from vanquished enemy to kidnapped wife—but these are nearly always subordinate to the male actors in these scenes. The newly recorded La Barge Bluffs site in Wyoming contains the most complex northern Plains biographic composition yet known that shows women. This scene integrates women as war captive, adoptee, and dance participants and, as such, illustrates nearly all the female roles of Biographic rock art. Although few in number, these women are always key elements for fully understanding the narratives of the scenes in which they participate.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The distribution of δ13C values from human remains recovered in the eastern Chihuahuan Desert and central Texas demonstrates the existence of at least two distinct coeval dietary populations during the last 10,000 years as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The distribution of δ13C values from human remains recovered in the eastern Chihuahuan Desert and central Texas demonstrates the existence of at least two distinct coeval dietary populations during...

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Hot Tubb site has yielded Folsom and Midland projectile points, as well as badly fragmented and occasionally burned remains of Bison antiquus as mentioned in this paper, which can be easily isolated, nor have attempts to determine its radiocarbon age been successful.
Abstract: The Hot Tubb site, located in the Monahans Dunes just off the southern High Plains of west Texas, has yielded Folsom and Midland projectile points, as well as badly fragmented and occasionally burned remains of Bison antiquus. Because these materials occur primarily on the surface of a deflation basin within an active sand dune, which also contains artifacts of later age, the Paleoindian component cannot be easily isolated, nor have attempts to determine its radiocarbon age been successful. Nonetheless, the distribution and density of the bone and diagnostic Folsom material indicate there is spatialandpossibly stratigraphic integrity to this component, which makes it possible to discern where and what Paleoindian activity may have occurred on site.We infer this was a small Folsom-age bison kill and processing locality of an estimated six animals. The lithic assemblage is marked by intensive reworking and even refluting of projectile points, suggesting that the supply of stone, originally acquired at sourc...

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Paleoindian sites on the Great Plains have been used to infer land use patterns, mobility and subsistence among the earliest foragers in the New World as mentioned in this paper, but the ways that the data have been accumulated call into question how representative our sample may be.
Abstract: The extant dataset of Paleoindian sites on the Great Plains is routinely used to infer land use patterns, mobility and subsistence among the earliest foragers in the New World. Yet, the ways that the data have been accumulated call into question how representative our sample may be. There are peaks and valleys in periods of site discovery that correlate with local or regional environmental degradation, specifically drought, and the rise of CRM activities in the latter half of the 20th century. Areas currently seen to be lacking Paleoindian sites may not have lacked Paleoindian activity; rather, conditions may not have been conducive to site discovery. When speaking about broad patterns of Paleoindian adaptation, we need to remain cognizant of what our dataset contains and its limitations.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dale Walde1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors suggest assignment of a single ethnicity to a redefined Avonlea horizon is problematic, and they also point out that the proposed southern migration of Athabaskan peoples is even more difficult to sustain.
Abstract: Following the description of Avonlea projectile points from Saskatchewan in 1961, several researchers proposed an association between the points and Athabaskan migrations from the north. This paper suggests assignment of a single ethnicity to a redefined Avonlea horizon is problematic. Proposals that Avonlea represents Athabaskan people are even more difficult to sustain. Two ceramic wares associated with Avonlea points have antecedents in the Eastern Woodlands. Rock Lake Net/Fabric-Impressed pottery, perhaps produced by Siouan speakers in central Minnesota, appeared some 3,000 radiocarbon years ago, well before the proposed southern migration of Athabaskan peoples. In Alberta, continuities between the Upper Kill and Old Women’s phases in the form of Ethridge Ware suggest Avonlea horizon groups there may have been ancestral to present-day Blackfoot peoples. Participation by Avonlea horizon groups in southeastern British Columbia in the Top of the World Chert quarrying tradition suggests those grou...

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, historical documents are used to evaluate the utility of current ecological interpretations and take care to temporally contextualize the historic sources and acknowledge their inherent flaws. But these records document pre-nineteenth century northeastern Plains ecological dynamism and bison seasonal migration behavior.
Abstract: Over the past 200 years the northeastern Plains has changed profoundly from an ecological and cultural perspective due to the massive immigration of non-aboriginal populations with new economies and settlement systems. Historical documents are important in exploring these comparatively recent changes and appropriately modeling our expectations about a more ancient past. These records document pre-nineteenth century northeastern Plains ecological dynamism and bison seasonal migration behavior and are used to critically evaluate the utility of current ecological interpretations. Such interpretations must take care to temporally contextualize the historic sources and acknowledge their inherentflaws.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the faunal assemblages from two Vickers focus occupations in the Lauder Sandhills are examined to determine activity areas and the subsistence strategies of each site.
Abstract: The Vickers focus is an archaeological group found in south-central and southwestern Manitoba. After a brief occupation of the Tiger Hills region where these people were believed to have practiced horticulture, they moved west into the Lauder Sandhills of Manitoba and became intensive bison hunters. The faunal assemblages from two Vickers focus occupations in the Lauder Sandhills are examined to determine activity areas and the subsistence strategies of each site. The Jackson site contains a small bison kill and associated processing area while the nearby Vera site was mainly used for processing. Seasonality of each site is also inferred from faunal remains with Jackson being occupied during the colder months and Vera inhabited during a warmer season. One assumes that seasonality would be a significant factor in subsistence strategies as indicated by the ethnographic record. The predominance of bison exploitation with only a limited use of secondary food sources at the Vera and Jackson sites suggest that seasonality was not a deciding factor of their subsistence strategies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored seasonal shifts in bison exploitation by people of diverse ethno-linguistic affiliation and economic orientations, and how such bison predation affected habitat selection, and these observations will aid in modeling expectations of precontact archaeological site distribution and function.
Abstract: Over the past 2,000 years aboriginal land use in the northeastern Plains reflects Plains cultural influences, plus those deriving from the Subarctic and Eastern Woodlands culture areas. This suggests the diffusion of ideas and technology as well as population mobility. While postcontact aboriginal societies were profoundly affected by the European colonial experience, records of their diverse land use strategies have utility in modeling the equally complex precontact situation. In this article there is an emphasis on exploring seasonal shifts in bison exploitation by people of diverse ethno-linguistic affiliation and economic orientations, and how such bison predation affected habitat selection. By extension, these observations will aid in modeling expectations of precontact archaeological site distribution and function.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the mid-eighteenth century, the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) recognized by name several named Cree groups in the western Canadian interior. Among these were the Pegogamaw Crees who were centered on a region extending through the upper Saskatchewan River and the adjacent lower South and North Saskatchewan Rivers as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In the period ca. A.D. 1400-1700 the Selkirk composite was present in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan, with the Mortlach phase in the aspen parklands and grasslands to the immediate south and the Rainy River composite (Duck Bay complex) in the forests of east central Saskatchewan (and adjacent Manitoba). While there is almost certainly no exact correlation between these late precontact archaeological expressions and historically known ethnic groups, it is proposed that the Selkirk materials are largely the product of ancestral Crees, the Rainy River of ancestral Nakota, and the Mortlach of ancestral Gros Ventre.In the mid-eighteenth century, the employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) recognized by name several named Cree groups in the western Canadian interior. Among these were the Pegogamaw Crees who were centered on a region extending through the upper Saskatchewan River and the adjacent lower South and North Saskatchewan Rivers. In the upper Saskatchewan River valley a variation ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is evidence to suggest limited stratification in Vickers focus culture and clear evidence of a widespread exchange network that brought a variety of exotic materials and finely made ceramic vessels into the Lowton site.
Abstract: Vickers focus people are believed to have practiced a lifeway based upon foraging and gardening in the Tiger Hills, a glacial-moraine uplanet in southwestern Manitoba. It has also been argued that Vickers focus society was more socially complex than earlier hunter-gatherer groups in the region relying almost exclusively on bison hunting. There is evidence to suggest limited stratification in Vickers focus culture and clear evidence of a widespread exchange network that brought a variety of exotic materials and finely made ceramic vessels into the Lowton site. Other smaller seasonal sites have been identified nearby. These have been interpreted as satellites of the Lawton site. These people appeared as immigrants in the area circa A.D. 1400. Sometime around A.D. 1450 they left the Tiger Hills and have been identified further west in the Lauder Sandhills around 100 years later, following an intensive foraging lifeway. There is evidence they had begun to exploit bison more intensively and this trend ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the formation and preservation of archaeological occupation sites in the meltwater channels of the Cypress Hills of southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene.
Abstract: Throughout the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, the Cypress Hills of southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan have experienced ongoing erosion in upslope areas, with deposition of eroded material in the meltwater channels flanking their slopes. While this pattern has resulted in the destruction or disturbance of archaeological sites in upslope locations, the deposition of sediment in these downslope areas has made them well suited to the burial of archaeological occupations, resulting in the formation and preservation of sites in the meltwater channels. Furthermore, this sediment influx has produced sites containing extended sequences of clearly separated archaeological occupations associated with contemporaneous buried soils. Such separation greatly enhances the quality of the archaeological data at these sites while providing the opportunity to supplement them with paleoenvironmental information derived from the associated soils. Given the rich ethnohistoric accounts of aboriginal ac...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gradwohl as mentioned in this paper describes the story of an accidental archaeologist at the University of Nebraska, where he was a junior at the time of the Oacoma field camp in South Dakota.
Abstract: The gist of my essay's title, "Accidental Plains Archaeologist," is obviously swiped from Jesse D. Jennings' interesting memoirs (Jennings 1994). I feel free to do so, inserting the qualifier "Plains," since my being an archaeologist is re ally much more accidental than in Jennings' case. The story begins in Lincoln, Nebraska, where I grew up generally unaware of my hometown's unique status in Plains anthropology. On the basis of Kuder Occupational Preference Tests in junior and senior high schools, my guidance counselors consistently told me, "Your interests are not chan neled." When I graduated from high school in 1951 and applied for admission to the University of Nebraska, I was, in today's parlance, "totally clueless" as far as an academic major was con cerned. If for no other reason than being a maver ick, I only knew that I did not want to follow my father and older brother into the profession of law. It was thus that I entered my freshman year at the University of Nebraska without a goal other than my hope of avoiding being drafted into the armed forces. Under those circumstances I was enrolled in what was then called "Junior Division," which was, I think, code-talk for "Arts and Sci ences, Undeclared, or Without an Inkling." I de cided to take courses I would need to fill my gen eral education requirements: English, history, math, Spanish, speech, and, of course, the required Reserve Officer's Training Corps or ROTC. Look ing forward to the summer, I was resigned to re turning to seasonal construction work. Late in the spring my good friend James Bailey, an engineer ing major from Lincoln, informed me that he had gotten a job on a "salvage" archaeological crew with the Nebraska State Historical Society (NSHS). Since he was the first person to apply for the crew, Bailey had been made the field as sistant. The NSHS, however, still needed more workers, affectionately referred to as "shovel bums." Curious about the possibility of getting out of my hometown for the summer and hanging out with several of my buddies, I sought out Marvin F. Kivett at the Historical Society's office, then in the Nebraska state capitol building (Figure 1; see Gradwohl 1994). Kivett (known to his friends as "Gus") explained to me that the Society would be working along the Missouri River near Chamber lain, South Dakota, that the crew would live in a camp with tents and no running water, would spend all day digging, and be paid a grand wage of $.75 per hour. This all sounded good to me except the bad news about non-Union wages. The good news was two-fold: a) I would not have to carry a hod, and b) while poverty was apparently a vow archae ologists had to take, silence and chastity were not required. So I joined the crew. The field camp at the Oacoma site (39LM26 and 39LM27) was everything Kivett had promised. We had old army tents for sleeping quarters, a large and very unwieldy surplus bi-pyramidal tent for a kitchen, dining hall, and lab, and A. T. Hill's old trailer for Gus, Caroline, and Ronnie Kivett along with their dog Rocky. Kivett had hired a woman named Bea Rea as a cook, so we did not even have to do our own cooking. We hauled wa ter from Chamberlain in 5-gallon "jerry" cans. The cans were left in the hot sun all day and thus pro vided hot water for field showers and clothes wash ing. Since Al Rea, on whose land we were camp ing, was a junk dealer of sorts, Bailey and I were able to cover the floor of our tent with marble

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was 1949. World War II was over. The edu cation bill for returning GIs had been passed as mentioned in this paper. Vet students crowded college campuses, snubbing exist ing student dress codes and, by refusing to wear freshman beanies, defying freshman hazing ritu als.
Abstract: It was 1949. World War II was over. The edu cation bill for returning GIs had been passed. Vet erans crowded college campuses, snubbing exist ing student dress codes and, by refusing to wear freshman beanies, defying freshman hazing ritu als. Universities, swamped with students, struggled to find housing and classrooms. At the University of Oklahoma, existing facilities at nearby closed military bases were pressed into service. Some military buildings served as housing and others for research space. The old armory building on cam pus earlier had been converted into a museum and archaeological storeroom, which overflowed with completed and partially completed archaeologi cal projects left by the sudden closing of the Works Projects Administration (WPA) at the be ginning of the war. America's zeal to return to long-delayed con struction projects, placed on hold for the dura tion, pumped millions of dollars into massive res ervoir projects. Anthropology departments were scarce (there was only one in Oklahoma at the time), and many college students had never heard the word "anthropology." If fellow students asked, "What is your major?," when answered?anthro pology?they might respond with an incredu lous?"Yeah?!" The more curious would ask, "What's that?"

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of 107 radiocarbon age estimates at and around the vicinity of four archaeological site localities in southwest Manitoba, central Saskatchewan, and southeast Alberta are reported from archaeological excavations, geomorphological and geoarchaeological investigations of the sites and relevant postglacial landscape features, and from paleoenvironmental investigations.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of 107 radiocarbon age estimates at and around the vicinity of four archaeological site localities in southwest Manitoba, central Saskatchewan, and southeast Alberta. Age estimates are reported from archaeological excavations, geomorphological and geoarchaeological investigations of the sites and relevant post-glacial landscape features, and from paleoenvironmental investigations. Pertinent laboratory and contextual information is reported along with a summary of the relevance of age estimates and relationships among age estimates.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the social purpose of dreams and visions sharing is largely diminished by the transformations of familial and cultural ties, and the role of the double woman plays an important role.
Abstract: Dreams and visions still play an active part in northern Plains craft making and fully participate in the elaboration of decorative designs. This is a process in which the mythical figure of Double Woman plays an important role. However, the social purpose of dreams and visions sharing is largely diminished by the transformations of familial and cultural ties.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Plains Experience and Beyond: A Plains Anthropologist: Vol. 51, No. 200, pp. 633-664 as discussed by the authors, is a collection of essays from the authors.
Abstract: (2006). A Plains Experience and Beyond. Plains Anthropologist: Vol. 51, No. 200, pp. 633-648.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors address features of the minerals and deposits most frequently encountered on artifact surfaces, and present a detailed authentication analysis of these minerals and their interactions with the artifacts.
Abstract: Modern artifact replicas represent a definite challenge to the integrity of archaeological collections and their value to scientific study. Effective authentication analysis is necessary to preclude these artifacts. Natural artifact post-depositional surface modification is an indicator of antiquity and of vital importance to such analyses. Surface modification of major value is the authigenic precipitation/deposition of pedogenic minerals. Because of their ubiquitous presence in soils, and their stability when oxidized, the iron oxides/hydroxides are of special value with other minerals playing a supportive role. Features of the minerals and deposits most frequently encountered on artifact surfaces are addressed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: My initial interest in Plains archaeology can be attributed to my father's general interest in any and everything related to history as mentioned in this paper, including museums and archaeological excavations, taking me along.
Abstract: My initial interest in Plains archaeology can be attributed to my father's general interest in ev erything related to history. He was born and grew up in Hamilton County, Nebraska, near the Platte River. There he picked up Indian artifacts on the farm and remembered Omaha Indians asking his mother for coffee grounds while moving west on their buffalo hunts. He liked visiting museums and archaeological excavations, taking me along. At the age of about five, I was taken to the University of Nebraska State Museum, then in its third home just south of the present Hamilton Hall. Shortly thereafter it was moved into Morrill Hall, now com monly called "Elephant Hall." My first visit to the Nebraska State Historical Society Museum was when it was still housed in the university library building, now Architecture Hall. When this mu seum moved to the first floor of the state capitol building in 1932, Father helped as a volunteer. Father's interest in museums and history led him to found the Hamilton County Historical Society Museum in Aurora, Nebraska, my hometown. The year 1933 was influential in the shaping of my future career, although I did not realize it at the time since I was only 10 years old. My father had been elected to the Nebraska State Legisla ture, and we moved to Lincoln in January where we rented a small apartment near the capitol build ing. My father was conscientious about visiting the state institutions in and near Lincoln and often took

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first site where fluted projectile points were recovered in association with an extinct form bison was the 12 Mile Creek site in western Kansas as discussed by the authors, where the remains of 13 Bison antiquus skeletons were found.
Abstract: Histories of American archaeology rightly point to the discoveries at the Folsom site as the turning point in the debate of a Pleistocene peopling of North America. However, this was not thefirst site where fluted projectile points were recovered in association with an extinct form bison. In 1895 University of Kansas paleontologists excavated the 12 Mile Creek site in western Kansas and recovered an in situ fluted projectile point with the remains of 13 Bison antiquus skeletons. The site is generally overlooked in the histories of this debate. Published articles and unpublished personal letters reveal that 12 Mile Creek was influential to the Folsom excavators as well as a number of other important researchers. The limited influence that 12 Mile Creek had on the anthropological community was not because of the loss of the projectile point from the site or difficulties in dating the site, but was instead due to the manner in which the investigators presented their results. What differentiated the 1...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors suggest that a multidisciplinary reconstruction of detailed landscape histories is necessary to achieve more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between risk, environment, and land-use for the last few thousand years.
Abstract: Recent geological evidence of high-amplitude, short-term, climatic variability on the northern Plains in the late Holocene implies that significant fluctuations in resource availability may have regularly occurred on the scale of human generations. In this region, evidence of high mobility, low population density, and storage are generalized responses of hunter-gatherer populations to the effects of environmental variability on resourcepredictability. In order to achieve more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between risk, environment, and land-use for the last few thousand years, we suggest that multidisciplinary reconstruction of detailed landscape histories is necessary. This is so because landscape histories may encode: (1) spatial and temporal variability in habitat diversity (i.e., patchiness); (2) geographical differences in ecosystem resilience and resistance to short-term macro climatic variability; and (3) enhancement of resource predictability or diversity through lnanagem...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The historical roots and attendant technologies of two woodland-based cultures are examined in the context of the Tiger Hills upland in southwestern Manitoba as discussed by the authors, where the mosaic of glacial moraine deposits, wetlands and otholes, outwash silt-plain and meadowland, has created a complex of microhabitats.
Abstract: The historical roots and attendant technologies of two woodland-based cultures are examined in the context of the Tiger Hills upland in southwestern Manitoba. High levels of ecological complexity, relative to the surrounding prairies, characterize the Tiger Hills where the mosaic of glacial moraine deposits, wetlands and otholes, outwash silt-plain and meadowland, has created a complex of microhabitats. These range from cattail marsh to open grassland to willow thickets and closed forest canopy. Such areas of local biodiversity provide a wide range of possibilities for hunter-gatherer and forager-horticulturist societies. Two groups, Vickers focus and Blackduck, are contrasted on the basis of settlement patterns and subsistence strategies. Two sites in particular, Lowton and Hokanson, separated by less than a kilometer in space and approximately 500 years in time, are examined in the larger settlement context of these groups and their subsistence strategies. The markedly different lifeways of thes...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Reminiscences of Archaeology in Texas: 1947-1968, the authors present a survey of the state's archaeology in the 1950s and 1970s.
Abstract: (2006). Reminiscences of Archaeology in Texas: 1947-1968. Plains Anthropologist: Vol. 51, No. 200, pp. 597-614.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For an aspiring anthropologist, the year 1949 was an exciting time to arrive at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln as mentioned in this paper, where the headquarters for the Smithsonian Institution's Missouri River Basin Surveys (MRBS), of the Inter-Agency Archeologi cal Salvage Program, earlier had been established in the Department of Anthropology in the base ment of Burnett Hall at the invitation of John L. Champe.
Abstract: For an aspiring anthropologist, the year 1949 was an exciting time to arrive at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln. The headquarters for the Smithsonian Institution's Missouri River Basin Surveys (MRBS), of the Inter-Agency Archeologi cal Salvage Program, earlier had been established in the Department of Anthropology in the base ment of Burnett Hall at the invitation of John L. Champe. It was small space indeed for a group re sponsible for salvaging prehistory from the post war flood control that was to affect streams across

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: On the Western Periphery of the Plains, for 50± years, this article presented a survey of the last 50 years of the American frontier, focusing on the first half of the 1800s.
Abstract: (2006). On the Western Periphery of the Plains, for 50± Years. Plains Anthropologist: Vol. 51, No. 200, pp. 721-732.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Carlyle Shreve Smith and Robert Cumming as discussed by the authors were the first to explore the North Platte River in the early 1940s with the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys Program.
Abstract: In my three early field seasons in the Plains, I had worked only in Nebraska. The summer of 1939 was with Carlyle Shreve Smith, the summer of 1940 was with Robert Cumming, Jr., and in 19411 worked under Marvin (Gus) C. Kivett (Figures 1 and 2). I returned to the Plains for a season 11 years later in 1952, this time under the auspices of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys Program. My introduction to Plains archaeology was foreordained through my Long Island friend Carlyle Smith. He was a student of William Duncan Strong, whose An Introduction to Nebraska Ar chaeology became the bible of pre-World War II Plains archaeologists. After World War II, when I enrolled in the graduate program at Columbia Uni versity, I had the pleasure of taking Dune's North American course, which naturally dealt heavily with the Plains in enthralling detail. My first trip west in the summer of 1939 was a tremendous experience. I joined Carlyle Smith at Wauneta, Nebraska, stepping off a tired old red bus on the last leg of a non-stop trip from New York, changing vehicles on the way. Alighting from the bus early in the morning, tired and sleepy, I saw chickens dusting themselves on the street, dogs, and wide open streets. Carlyle was a wel come greeting sight. We went straight to Ash Hol low Cave on the North Platte River, where John Champe was excavating (Figure 3). This was my first cave excavation, something we did not have on Long Island, and nothing like Long Island ar chaeology. We excavated the archaeological de posits in 3-inch levels. I am not sure how the se quence of deposition was resolved because arbi trary sectioning produces headaches for the per son researching the stratigraphy and trying to as semble the cultural material. The full realization that I was out in the Real West came when we went to see the wagon wheel ruts cut into the sod on the Oregon Trail nearby. We visited the 100-year-old grave markers and Windlass Hill, where the wagons were let down into the valley. I learned that the Platte was very much unlike the Hudson. It was said to be a mile wide and a foot deep. We slept in the cave on cots in a complete silence new to me, punctuated by the nocturnal yaps of coyotes, another novelty. The most impressive thing about the Plains is the vastness of the area. It was like looking over the sea, miles of wheat fields bowing under the wind. Coming from waterbound eastern Long Is land, the Plains represented a marked contrast. One of the things that thrilled me was standing on one of the hills in Nebraska, looking downriver, and seeing the weather coming up the valley. Dark thunder clouds would come boiling up from a far distance, while there was clear blue sky above. At other times in the summer heat, there were dust devils dancing over the fields. The local farmers spoke about the dangers of tornadoes?also new to me. At a site on Davis Creek near Genoa, Ne braska, I saw my first flash flood and what it could do. The creek, steeply banked in an erosional gully, was normally a moderate slow flowing stream. Since the trees growing along the stream provided some shade and it was considerably cooler by the stream bank, we had been using niches cut into the earth bank for food storage. On this particular day we had stored a couple dozen fresh eggs and other fresh produce, which had been brought to us by one of our local farmer neighbors. While the sky was serenely blue overhead, we noted some storm clouds upstream way off in the distance with

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the depths of the Great Depression, I was born and raised at Turkey, a small town a few miles from the rugged eastern escarpment of the great plains in the Texas Panhandle as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In the depths of the Great Depression, I was born and raised at Turkey, a small town a few miles from the rugged eastern escarpment of the Great Plains in the Texas Panhandle. My earliest memories are of looking toward the west and seeing the purple face of the escarpment, the "Caprock," stretching from Eagle's Point on the north to twin Quitaque Peaks to the south. This is an incredible land of rugged canyons whose crimson walls are streaked with bands of white gypsum. Pale green mesquites and dark green cedars cover the flats. In the deep recesses that cut back into the plains are gushing springs of sweet Ogallala water and pools filled with cattails and bordered by giant cottonwood trees. Bison and mammoth bones are scattered in every gully that cuts this "breaks" country at the foot of the plains. As one might expect in this ideal ecological niche, archaeological sites are encountered at every tum, and these are littered with flints in every color of the rainbow, with names like Alibates and Tecovas. How could a boy grow up in this land and NOT become an archaeologist? Aunt Willie Mae lived on Los Lingos Creek at the foot of the escarpment and had a sizeable collection of colorful Indian artifacts, every one of which had a story attached. We would ride the "Doodlebug" train over to spend adventurous weeks with her. On one such visit, she gave me a small arrow point and flint hide scraper in a little cloth Bull Durham tobacco sack, and I was hooked. I had to learn how to read these rocks the way she could.