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JournalISSN: 0032-0889

Plant Physiology 

About: Plant Physiology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Arabidopsis & Arabidopsis thaliana. It has an ISSN identifier of 0032-0889. Over the lifetime, 32746 publication(s) have been published receiving 2352155 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis is presented.
Abstract: The chloroplast, as the seat of chlorophyll pigments in plants, occupies a unique position in the economy of the green cell. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the reactions and properties of chloroplasts as a result of the work of Hill (11, 12) and Hill and Scarisbrick (13, 14) who demonstrated that the reaction characteristic of photosynthesis in green plants, the evolution of oxygen, occurs in appreciable quantities in isolated chloroplasts under the influence of light and in the presence of suitable oxidants (2, 7, 8, 26). In the course of an investigation of oxygen evolution by isolated chloroplasts it was deemed important to explore their enzymatic composition. Of special interest were considered enzymes capable of participating in oxidation-reduction reactions, and more particularly, those localized principally, if not entirely, in the chloroplasts. This paper presents evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis.

18,362 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nine of the enzyme activities were eliminated with cyanide treatment suggesting that they may be cupro-zinc enzymes, whereas one was cyanide-resistant and may be a manganese enzyme.
Abstract: Shoots, roots, and seeds of corn (Zea mays L., cv. Michigan 500), oats (Avena sativa L., cv. Au Sable), and peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Wando) were analyzed for their superoxide dismutase content using a photochemical assay system consisting of methionine, riboflavin, and p-nitro blue tetrazolium. The enzyme is present in the shoots, roots, and seeds of the three species. On a dry weight basis, shoots contain more enzyme than roots. In seeds, the enzyme is present in both the embryo and the storage tissue. Electrophoresis indicated a total of 10 distinct forms of the enzyme. Corn contained seven of these forms and oats three. Peas contained one of the corn and two of the oat enzymes. Nine of the enzyme activities were eliminated with cyanide treatment suggesting that they may be cupro-zinc enzymes, whereas one was cyanide-resistant and may be a manganese enzyme. Some of the leaf superoxide dismutases were found primarily in mitochondria or chloroplasts. Peroxidases at high concentrations interfere with the assay. In test tube assays of crude extracts from seedlings, the interference was negligible. On gels, however, peroxidases may account for two of the 10 superoxide dismutase forms.

4,041 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of flavonoids as the major red, blue, and purple pigments in plants has gained these secondary products a great deal of attention over the years.
Abstract: The role of flavonoids as the major red, blue, and purple pigments in plants has gained these secondary products a great deal of attention over the years. From the first description of acid and base effects on plant pigments by Robert Boyle in 1664 to the characterization of structural and

2,533 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hundreds of Arabidopsis genes were found that outperform traditional reference genes in terms of expression stability throughout development and under a range of environmental conditions, and the developed PCR primers or hybridization probes for the novel reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of transcript levels inArabidopsis in the future.
Abstract: Gene transcripts with invariant abundance during development and in the face of environmental stimuli are essential reference points for accurate gene expression analyses, such as RNA gel-blot analysis or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An exceptionally large set of data from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies provided the means to identify a new generation of reference genes with very stable expression levels in the model plant species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Hundreds of Arabidopsis genes were found that outperform traditional reference genes in terms of expression stability throughout development and under a range of environmental conditions. Most of these were expressed at much lower levels than traditional reference genes, making them very suitable for normalization of gene expression over a wide range of transcript levels. Specific and efficient primers were developed for 22 genes and tested on a diverse set of 20 cDNA samples. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed superior expression stability and lower absolute expression levels for many of these genes, including genes encoding a protein phosphatase 2A subunit, a coatomer subunit, and an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. The developed PCR primers or hybridization probes for the novel reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of transcript levels in Arabidopsis in the future.

2,433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: High-throughput gene expression analysis has become a frequent and powerful research tool in biology. At present, however, few software applications have been developed for biologists to query large microarray gene expression databases using a Web-browser interface. We present GENEVESTIGATOR, a database and Web-browser data mining interface for Affymetrix GeneChip data. Users can query the database to retrieve the expression patterns of individual genes throughout chosen environmental conditions, growth stages, or organs. Reversely, mining tools allow users to identify genes specifically expressed during selected stresses, growth stages, or in particular organs. Using GENEVESTIGATOR, the gene expression profiles of more than 22,000 Arabidopsis genes can be obtained, including those of 10,600 currently uncharacterized genes. The objective of this software application is to direct gene functional discovery and design of new experiments by providing plant biologists with contextual information on the expression of genes. The database and analysis toolbox is available as a community resource at https://www.genevestigator.ethz.ch.

2,415 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2021566
2020569
2019470
2018443
2017595
2016609