Policy insights from the behavioral and brain sciences
About: Policy insights from the behavioral and brain sciences is an academic journal published by SAGE Publishing. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Psychology & Mental health. It has an ISSN identifier of 2372-7322. Over the lifetime, 261 publications have been published receiving 5879 citations. The journal is also known as: PIBBS.
Topics: Psychology, Mental health, Public policy, Psychological intervention, Prejudice (legal term)
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe how specific learning environments, peer relations, and family characteristics become obstacles for women to pursue STEM careers and propose solutions to the scarcity of women in STEM careers.
Abstract: Scientific advances fuel American economic competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. Much of the future job growth is projected in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, the supply of domestic students who pursue STEM careers remains small relative to the demand. On the supply side, girls and women represent untapped human capital that, if leveraged, could enhance the STEM workforce, given that they comprise 50% of the American population and more than 50% of the college-bound population. Yet the scarcity of women in STEM careers remains stark. What drives these gender disparities in STEM? And what are the solutions? Research points to different answers depending on the stage of human development. Distinct obstacles occur during three developmental periods: (a) childhood and adolescence, (b) emerging adulthood, and (c) young-to-middle adulthood. This article describes how specific learning environments, peer relations, and family characteristics become obstacles ...
TL;DR: It is suggested that there are several interventions that may be effective for complacent, convenient, and calculating individuals whereas interventions that might beeffective for those who lack confidence are scarce, and efforts should be concentrated on motivating the complacent.
Abstract: Even though there are policies in place, and safe and effective vaccines available, almost every country struggles with vaccine hesitancy, that is, a delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination. ...
TL;DR: This paper found that a single training intervention can improve decision making and suggest its use alongside improved incentives, information presentation, and nudges to reduce costly errors associated with biased judgments and decisions.
Abstract: From failures of intelligence analysis to misguided beliefs about vaccinations, biased judgment and decision making contributes to problems in policy, business, medicine, law, education, and private life. Early attempts to reduce decision biases with training met with little success, leading scientists and policy makers to focus on debiasing by using incentives and changes in the presentation and elicitation of decisions. We report the results of two longitudinal experiments that found medium to large effects of one-shot debiasing training interventions. Participants received a single training intervention, played a computer game or watched an instructional video, which addressed biases critical to intelligence analysis (in Experiment 1: bias blind spot, confirmation bias, and fundamental attribution error; in Experiment 2: anchoring, representativeness, and social projection). Both kinds of interventions produced medium to large debiasing effects immediately (games ≥ −31.94% and videos ≥ −18.60%) that persisted at least 2 months later (games ≥ −23.57% and videos ≥ −19.20%). Games that provided personalized feedback and practice produced larger effects than did videos. Debiasing effects were domain general: bias reduction occurred across problems in different contexts, and problem formats that were taught and not taught in the interventions. The results suggest that a single training intervention can improve decision making. We suggest its use alongside improved incentives, information presentation, and nudges to reduce costly errors associated with biased judgments and decisions.
TL;DR: The four-phase model of interest development guides interventions that promote interest and capitalize on existing interests, and four interest-enhancing interventions seem useful: attention-getting settings, contexts evoking prior individual interest, problem-based learning, and enhancing utility value.
Abstract: Interest is a powerful motivational process that energizes learning, guides academic and career trajectories, and is essential to academic success. Interest is both a psychological state of attention and affect toward a particular object or topic, and an enduring predisposition to reengage over time. Integrating these two definitions, the four-phase model of interest development guides interventions that promote interest and capitalize on existing interests. Four interest-enhancing interventions seem useful: attention-getting settings, contexts evoking prior individual interest, problem-based learning, and enhancing utility value. Promoting interest can contribute to a more engaged, motivated, learning experience for students.
TL;DR: This paper found that students in the United States are less proficient in mathematics, science, and reading than their peers in other countries, leading some to question whether American students spend enou...
Abstract: Concern that students in the United States are less proficient in mathematics, science, and reading than their peers in other countries has led some to question whether American students spend enou...