Polymer Degradation and Stability
About: Polymer Degradation and Stability is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Thermogravimetric analysis & Thermal stability. It has an ISSN identifier of 0141-3910. Over the lifetime, 8963 publication(s) have been published receiving 320596 citation(s).
Topics: Thermogravimetric analysis, Thermal stability, Fire retardant, Polymer, Differential scanning calorimetry
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the various technologies being used to produce polylactic acids and how monomer stereochemistry can be controlled to impart targeted utility in the final polymers.
Abstract: Polylactic acids (PLA) are not new polymers. However, recent developments in the capability to manufacture the monomer economically from renewable feedstocks have placed these materials at the forefront of the emerging biodegradable plastics industry. Increasing realisation of the intrinsic properties of these polymers, coupled with a knowledge of how such properties can be manipulated to achieve compatibility with thermoplastics processing, manufacturing, and enduse requirements has fuelled technological and commercial interest in PLA products. This paper discusses the various technologies being used to produce polylactic acids. In addition, attention is drawn to how monomer stereochemistry can be controlled to impart targeted utility in the final polymers. Specific applications are described to illustrate further the range of properties that can be developed by utilising both the basic monomer/polymer chemistries in combination with post-modification techniques. Finally, the biodegradation mechanism of polylactic acids will be discussed and contrasted with other biodegradable polymers.
TL;DR: In this article, the PAN fiber is first stretched and simultaneously oxidized in a temperature range of 200-300°C and then carbonized at about 1000°C in inert atmosphere which is usually nitrogen.
Abstract: Developing carbon fiber from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fiber is generally subjected to three processes namely stabilization, carbonization, and graphitization under controlled conditions. The PAN fiber is first stretched and simultaneously oxidized in a temperature range of 200–300 °C. This treatment converts thermoplastic PAN to a non-plastic cyclic or a ladder compound. After oxidation, the fibers are carbonized at about 1000 °C in inert atmosphere which is usually nitrogen. Then, in order to improve the ordering and orientation of the crystallites in the direction of the fiber axis, the fiber must be heated at about 1500–3000 °C until the polymer contains 92–100%. High temperature process generally leads to higher modulus fibers which expel impurities in the chain as volatile by-products. During heating treatment, the fiber shrinks in diameter, builds the structure into a large structure and upgrades the strength by removing the initial nitrogen content of PAN precursor and the timing of nitrogen. With better-controlled condition, the strength of the fiber can achieve up to 400 GPa after this pyrolysis process.
TL;DR: The role of life cycle assessment (LCA) is discussed in this paper, a tool used for measuring environmental sustainability and identifying environmental performance-improvement objectives, and an overview of applications of LCA to PLA production and how they are utilized.
Abstract: NatureWorks TM polylactide (PLA) 1 is a versatile polymer produced by Cargill Dow LLC. Cargill Dow is building a global platform of sustainable polymers and chemicals entirely made from renewable resources. Cargill Dow’s business philosophy is explained including the role of life cycle assessment (LCA),a tool used for measuring environmental sustainability and identifying environmental performance-improvement objectives. The paper gives an overview of applications of LCA to PLA production and provides insight into how they are utilized. The first application reviews the contributions to the gross fossil energy requirement for PLA (54 MJ/kg). In the second one PLA is compared with petrochemical-based polymers using fossil energy use,global warming and water use as the three impact indicators. The last application gives more details about the potential reductions in energy use and greenhouse gasses. Cargill Dow’s 5–8 year objective is to decrease the fossil energy use from 54 MJ/kg PLA down to about 7 MJ/kg PLA. The objective for greenhouse gasses is a reduction from +1.8 down to � 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents/kg PLA. # 2003 Cargill Dow B.V. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
TL;DR: In this article, different results on the fabrication of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers for specific field of tissue engineering are presented, and the combination of bioresorbable polymer and nanostructures open new perspectives in the self-assembly of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with tuneable mechanical, thermal and electrical properties.
Abstract: Nanocomposites have emerged in the last two decades as an efficient strategy to upgrade the structural and functional properties of synthetic polymers. Aliphatic polyesters as polylactide (PLA), poly(glycolides) (PGA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) have attracted wide attention for their biodegradability and biocompatibility in the human body. A logic consequence has been the introduction of organic and inorganic nanofillers into biodegradable polymers to produce nanocomposites based on hydroxyapatite, metal nanoparticles or carbon nanotructures, in order to prepare new biomaterials with enhanced properties. Consequently, the improvement of interfacial adhesion between the polymer and the nanostructures has become the key technique in the nanocomposite process. In this review, different results on the fabrication of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers for specific field of tissue engineering are presented. The combination of bioresorbable polymers and nanostructures open new perspectives in the self-assembly of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with tuneable mechanical, thermal and electrical properties.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors have discussed various types of polymeric degradations along with their mechanisms, which include photo-oxidative degradation, thermal degradation, ozone-induced degradation, mechanochemical degradation, catalytic degradation and biodegradation.
Abstract: Plastics have become an indispensable ingredient of human life. Their enormous use is a matter of great environmental and economic concern, which has motivated the researchers and the technologists to induce different degrees of degradations in the plastic. These degradations can be induced in a better way if their mechanistic implications are properly understood. A better understanding of the mechanism for these degradations is also advocated in order to facilitate the proper use of the alternative waste disposal strategies. In view of the facts concerning the plastic degradation, in this review article, we have discussed various types of polymeric degradations along with their mechanisms, which include photo-oxidative degradation, thermal degradation, ozone-induced degradation, mechanochemical degradation, catalytic degradation and biodegradation. This article also discusses the different methods used to study these degradations and the factors that affect these degradations.
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