About: Procedia Engineering is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Finite element method & Ultimate tensile strength. It has an ISSN identifier of 1877-7058. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 28284 publications have been published receiving 239466 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of different solvents on the structure and electrical properties of graphene oxide was studied by using modified hummers method in which different from conventional hummer's method.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to study the influence of different solvents on the structure and electrical properties of graphene oxide. GO was obtained from graphite flakes by using modified hummers method in which different from conventional hummer's method. In this method, the experiment was synthesized without sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and ice bath, but carried out at room temperature. Prepared GO powders were then dissolved into different solvents, namely acetone and ethanol. Then spin-coated onto silicon wafer and IDE to produce acetone-GO (A-GO) and ethanol-GO (E-GO). SEM result shows that several square micron GO were obtained. In addition, due to the large agglomerates and contact between the flakes in E-GO sample, current-voltage pattern indicated the E-GO produced higher current flow than A-GO. Meanwhile, GO characterized using FTiR shows that both samples contain several functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, carboxyl and carbonyl. Besides that, due to the lower diffraction peak of A-GO, XRD result shows the interlayer spacing of A-GO sample is slightly higher than E-GO sample.
TL;DR: In this article, the main body of the article introduces several modifications (Basic Theta*, Phi*) and improvements (RSR, JPS) of A star algorithm, focused primarily on computational time and the path optimality.
Abstract: This article deals with path planning of a mobile robot based on a grid map. Essential assumption for path planning is a mobile robot with functional and reliable reactive navigation and SLAM. Therefore, such issues are not addressed in this article. The main body of the article introduces several modifications (Basic Theta*, Phi*) and improvements (RSR, JPS) of A star algorithm. These modifications are focused primarily on computational time and the path optimality. Individual modifications were evaluated in several scenarios, which varied in the complexity of environment. On the basis of these evaluations, it is possible to choose path planning method suitable for individual scenario.
TL;DR: The Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) as discussed by the authors is a statistical indicator that is most sensitive to large differences and relatively insensitive to small differences in the mode shapes, which can only indicate consistency and does not indicate validity or orthogonality.
Abstract: This article reviews the using of the original Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC). The Modal Assurance Criterion is a statistical indicator that is most sensitive to large differences and relatively insensitive to small differences in the mode shapes. This yields a good statistic indicator and a degree of consistency between mode shapes. The MAC considers only modal shapes which mean that a separate frequency comparison must be used in conjunction with the MAC values to determine the correlated mode pairs. The MAC is often to used to pair modes shapes derived from analytical models with those obtained experimentally. It is easy to apply and does not require an estimate of the system matrices. It is bounded between 0 and 1, with 1 indicating fully consistent mode shapes. It can only indicate consistency and does not indicate validity or orthogonality. A value near 0 indicates that the modes are not consistent.
TL;DR: In this paper, a co-precipitation method using sodium citrate and oleic acid as modifiers was used to synthesize Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs).
Abstract: Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using sodium citrate and oleic acid as modifiers. Phase composition and microstructure analysis indicate that the sodium citrate and oleic acid have been successfully grafted onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 MNPs. The magnetic behaviors reveal that the modification can decrease the saturation magnetization of Fe3O4 MNPs due to the surface effect. Fe3O4 MNPs modified by sodiumcitrate and oleic acid show excellent dispersion capability, which should be ascribed to the great reduction of high surface energy and dipolar attraction of the nanoparticles.
TL;DR: This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies, and proposes a unified definition of this term.
Abstract: Nowadays we live in a world,whicha decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities Despite of continuous development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies Due to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term,a unified definition is proposed The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing practiceSubsequently, the authors discuss the challenges of the potential smart factory applications in SMEs, and also propose a future research outlook in order to further develop the smart factory concept