Process Safety and Environmental Protection
About: Process Safety and Environmental Protection is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Poison control & Adsorption. It has an ISSN identifier of 0957-5820. Over the lifetime, 3777 publications have been published receiving 76719 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison of kinetic models describing the sorption of pollutants has been reviewed, and the rate models evaluated include the Elovich equation, the pseudo-first order equation and the pseudo second order equation.
Abstract: A comparison of kinetic models describing the sorption of pollutants has been reviewed. The rate models evaluated include the Elovich equation, the pseudo-first order equation and the pseudo-second order equation. Results show that chemisorption processes could be rate limiting in the sorption step. The pseudo-second order equation may be applied for chemisorption processes with a high degree of correlation in several literature cases where a pseudo-first order rate mechanism has been arbitrarily assumed.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of initial dye concentration, wood particle size and temperature on the initial sorption rate of Basic Blue 69 and Acid Blue 25 onto wood has been studied in terms of pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and pseudo-first order chemical sorption processes.
Abstract: The sorption of Basic Blue 69 and Acid Blue 25 onto wood has been studied in terms of pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and pseudo-first order chemical sorption processes. The batch sorption model, based on the assumption of a pseudo-second order mechanism, has been developed to predict the rate constant of sorption, the equilibrium capacity and initial sorption rate with the effect of initial dye concentration, wood particle size and temperature. An equilibrium capacity of sorption has been evaluated with the pseudo-second order rate equation as well as by the Langmuir isotherm and operating line method. In addition, an activation energy of sorption has also been determined based on the pseudo-second order rate constants.
TL;DR: An overview of the development of different types of flocculants that were being investigated for treatment of industrial wastewater can be found in this paper, where the flocculation mechanism is discussed.
Abstract: Flocculation is an essential phenomenon in industrial wastewater treatment. Inorganic coagulants (salts of multivalent metals) are being commonly used due to its low cost and ease of use. However, their application is constrained with low flocculating efficiency and the presence of residue metal concentration in the treated water. Organic polymeric flocculants are widely used nowadays due to its remarkable ability to flocculate efficiently with low dosage. However, its application is associated with lack of biodegradability and dispersion of monomers residue in water that may represent a health hazard. Therefore, biopolymers based flocculants have been attracting wide interest of researchers because they have the advantages of biodegradability and environmental friendly. But, natural flocculants are needed in large dosage due to its moderate flocculating efficiency and shorter shelf life. Thus, in order to combine the best properties of both, synthetic polymers are grafted onto the backbone of natural polymers to obtain tailor-made grafted flocculants. This paper gives an overview of the development of different types of flocculants that were being investigated for treatment of industrial wastewater. Furthermore, their flocculation performance will be reviewed and the flocculation mechanism will be discussed.
TL;DR: A systematic and extensive review of research that captures the dynamic nature of industry 4.0 has been presented in this article, where 85 papers were classified in five research categories namely conceptual papers on Industry4.0, human-machine interactions, machine-equipment interactions, technologies of Industry 4., and sustainability.
Abstract: Industry 4.0 and its other synonyms like Smart Manufacturing, Smart Production or Internet of Things, have been identified as major contributors in the context of digital and automated manufacturing environment. The term industry 4.0 comprises a variety of technologies to enable the development of the value chain resulting in reduced manufacturing lead times, and improved product quality and organizational performance. Industry 4.0 has attracted much attention in the recent literature, however there are very few systematic and extensive review of research that captures the dynamic nature of this topic. The rapidly growing interest from both academics and practitioners in Industry 4.0 has urged the need for review of up-to-date research and development to develop a new agenda. Selected 85 papers were classified in five research categories namely conceptual papers on Industry 4.0, human-machine interactions, machine-equipment interactions, technologies of Industry 4.0 and sustainability. The review primarily attempted to seek answers to the following two questions: (1) What are different research approaches used to study Industry 4.0? and (2) What is the current status of research in the domains of Industry 4.0?. We propose a sustainable Industry 4.0 framework based on the findings of the review with three critical components viz., Industry 4.0 technologies, process integration and sustainable outcomes. Finally, the scope of future research is discussed in detail.
TL;DR: In this article, the progress and challenges of the catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste along with future perspectives in comparison to thermal pyrolynsis are reviewed. And the recommended solutions for these challenges include exploration of cheaper catalysts, catalyst regeneration and overall process optimization.
Abstract: This paper reviews the progress and challenges of the catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste along with future perspectives in comparison to thermal pyrolysis. The factors affecting the catalytic pyrolysis process such as the temperature, retention time, feedstock composition and the use of catalyst were evaluated in detail to improve the process of catalytic pyrolysis. Pyrolysis can be carried out via thermal or catalytic routes. Thermal pyrolysis produces low quality liquid oil and requires both a high temperature and retention time. In order to overcome these issues, catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste has emerged with the use of a catalyst. It has the potential to convert 70–80% of plastic waste into liquid oil that has similar characteristics to conventional diesel fuel; such as the high heating value (HHV) of 38–45.86 MJ/kg, a density of 0.77–0.84 g/cm3, a viscosity of 1.74–2.5 mm2/s, a kinematic viscosity of 1.1–2.27 cSt, a pour point of (−9) to (−67) °C, a boiling point of 68–352 °C, and a flash point of 26.1–48 °C. Thus the liquid oil from catalytic pyrolysis is of higher quality and can be used in several energy-related applications such as electricity generation, transport fuel and heating source. Moreover, process by-products such as char has the potential to be used as an adsorbent material for the removal of heavy metals, pollutants and odor from wastewater and polluted air, while the produced gases have the potential to be used as energy carriers. Despite all the potential advantages of the catalytic pyrolysis, some limitations such as high parasitic energy demand, catalyst costs and less reuse of catalyst are still remaining. The recommended solutions for these challenges include exploration of cheaper catalysts, catalyst regeneration and overall process optimization.
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