Process Safety Progress
About: Process Safety Progress is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Process safety & Process safety management. It has an ISSN identifier of 1066-8527. Over the lifetime, 1646 publications have been published receiving 15566 citations.
Topics: Process safety, Process safety management, Flammable liquid, Risk assessment, Risk management
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a comprehensive resilience assessment framework for evaluating the resilience of infrastructure and economic systems and demonstrated the utility of the assessment framework through application to two hypothetical scenarios involving the disruption of a petrochemical supply chain by hurricanes.
Abstract: In recent years, the nation has recognized that critical infrastructure protection should consider not only the prevention of disruptive events but also the processes that infrastructure systems undergo to maintain functionality following disruptions. This more comprehensive approach has been termed critical infrastructure resilience. Given the occurrence of a particular disruptive event, the resilience of a system to that event is the system's ability to reduce efficiently both the magnitude and duration of the deviation from targeted system performance levels. Under the direction of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a comprehensive resilience assessment framework for evaluating the resilience of infrastructure and economic systems. The framework includes a quantitative methodology that measures resilience costs that result from a disruption to infrastructure function. The framework also includes a qualitative analysis methodology that assesses system characteristics affecting resilience to provide insight and direction for potential improvements. This article describes the resilience assessment framework and demonstrates the utility of the assessment framework through application to two hypothetical scenarios involving the disruption of a petrochemical supply chain by hurricanes. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2011
TL;DR: Human supervisory control and monitoring of automated systems, as well as, passive system(s) information processing can all be classified as forms of out‐of‐the‐loop (OOTL) performance, where the operator is removed from direct, real‐time control of the system.
Abstract: Human supervisory control and monitoring of automated systems, as well as, passive system(s) information processing can all be classified as forms of out-of-the-loop (OOTL) performance. Whether the operator's task is to decide if process control intervention is necessary, detect a critical system event, or accept or reject the actions of a computer controller, he or she is removed from direct, real-time control of the system. OOTL performance is a critical issue in overall automated systems functioning because it is associated with numerous negative consequences including: (a) operator failure to observe system parameter changes and intervene when necessary (vigilance decrements); (b) human over-trust in computer controllers (complacency); (c) operator loss of system or situation awareness; and (d) operator direct/manual control skill decay. These consequences have been found to impact human performance under both normal operating conditions and system failure modes, with a greater effect on the latter  leading to serious problems in operator ability to perform their assigned tasks when working with automated systems. Level of automation (LOA) has been put forth as an approach to ameliorating OOTL performance problems. It is intended to determine the optimal assignment of control between a human operator and computer in order to keep both involved in system operations. LOA considers the capabilities and capacities of both the human and computer controller in determining their optimal coupling. It constitutes a systems approach to resolving OOTL performance problems by minimizing the negative consequences associated with the removal of the operator from active system control, and allows for the strengths of both human decision making and computer processing to be realized. When compared to a technological approach that assesses only the capabilities of the computer in allocating as much responsibility to the machine as possible, and assigning the remaining tasks to the human operator, the advantages can be considerable. A LOA taxonomy will be presented along with research examining its utility in a dynamic control task. Using LOA to identify optimal combinations of human and computer control was found to produce improvements in system performance under intermediate levels. These levels involve joint human and computer control of various system functions, such as monitoring, planning, and option selection and implementation. Results indicated decreases in the number of system processes/tasks overlooked by operators. These improvements may translate into cost reductions due to improved operational safety and are anticipated to be applicable to process control operations.
TL;DR: A conceptual framework based on sets of appropriate models to forecast domino effects, and assess their likely magnitudes and adverse impacts, while conducting risk assessment in a chemical process industry is provided in this paper.
Abstract: In the risk assessment parlance, especially with reference to chemical process industries, the term “domino effect” is used to denote “chain of accidents,” or situations when a fire/explosion/missile/toxic load generated by an accident in one unit in an industry causes secondary and higher order accidents in other units. The multi-accident catastrophe which occurred in a refinery at Vishakhapatnam, India, on September 14, 1997, claiming 60 lives and causing damages to property worth over Rs 600 million, is the most recent example of the damage potential of domino effect. But, even as the domino effect has been documented since 1947, very little attention has been paid towards modeling this phenomena. In this paper we have provided a conceptual framework based on sets of appropriate models to forecast domino effects, and assess their likely magnitudes and adverse impacts, while conducting risk assessment in a chemical process industry. The utilizability of the framework has been illustrated with a case study.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a conceptual framework of an integrated inherent safety index (I2SI), which is composed of subindices which account for hazard potential, inherent safety potential, and add-on control requirements.
Abstract: Inherent safety is a proactive approach for loss prevention and risk management. Considering the lifetime costs of a process and its operation, an inherent safety approach can lead to a cost-optimal option. Inherent safety may be achieved at any stage of process design; however, its application at the early stages of process design yields the best results. Despite being an attractive and cost-effective approach, the inherent safety methodology is not widely used. Many reasons have been attributed to this lack of widespread use; the nonavailability of systematic tools for the application of inherent safety principles is perhaps the most important reason. This paper presents a conceptual framework of an integrated inherent safety index (I2SI). It is called an integrated index because the procedure, when fully developed, is intended to consider the life cycle of the process with economic evaluation and hazard potential identification for each option. The I2SI is composed of subindices which account for hazard potential, inherent safety potential, and add-on control requirements. An application of the I2SI is also discussed. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 23: 136–148, 2004
TL;DR: In this paper, a new system of methodologies for hazard identification and ranking (HIRA) is presented, consisting of two indices: one for fire and explosion hazards and another for the hazard due to likely release of toxic chemical The magnitudes of these indices indicate the severity of the likely accident; in terms of the size of the impacted area.
Abstract: Risk analysis in chemical process industries is an elaborate exercise involving several steps from preliminary hazard identification to development of credible accident scenarios, to preparation of strategies for prevention or control of damage All this requires substantial inputs of time and money In order to get an approximate yet workable assessment of risk at much lesser costs, indices have been developed which link typical findings of elaborate risk analysis to scales of risk The scales, in turn, provide workable measures of hazards/risks/safety In the past, indices have been reported for swift risk assessment—the noteworthy among them include Dow fire and explosion index, Mond fire, explosion and toxicity index, IFAL index, and mortality index A few rapid ranking techniques have also been proposed This paper presents a new system of methodologies for Hazard Identification and Ranking (HIRA) The system consists of two indices: one for fire and explosion hazards and another for the hazard due to likely release of toxic chemical The magnitudes of these indices indicate the severity of the likely accident; in terms of the size of the impacted area HIRA has been applied to a typical chemical process industry—a sulfolane plant—and its performance has been compared with that of the Dow's and the Mond's indices The study reveals that HIRA is more sensitive and accurate than the other indices