scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Progress in Human Geography in 2009"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In relational thinking as discussed by the authors, relational thinking challenges human geography by insisting on an open-ended, mobile, and mobile, space relationally, which is defined as a "thinking space" relationally.
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning of work on `thinking space relationally'. According to its advocates, relational thinking challenges human geography by insisting on an open-ended, mobile, ...

516 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines recent geographic perspectives on park use, drawing upon environmental justice, cultural landscape and political ecology paradigms to redirect our attention from park users to a more critical appreciation of the historical, socio-ecological, and political-economic processes that operate through, and in turn shape, park spaces and park-going behaviors.
Abstract: Geographic research on parks has been wide-ranging but has seldom examined how and why people use parks, leaving these questions to leisure science, which privileges socio-demographic variables over urban socio-spatial explanations (eg, historical, political-economic, and location factors). This article examines recent geographic perspectives on park use, drawing upon environmental justice, cultural landscape, and political ecology paradigms to redirect our attention from park users to a more critical appreciation of the historical, socio-ecological, and political-economic processes that operate through, and in turn shape, park spaces and park-going behaviors. We challenge partial, user-orientated approaches and suggest new directions for geographic research on parks.

458 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Rachel Pain1
TL;DR: In this article, an emotional geopolitics of fear is proposed to connect political processes and everyday emotional topographies in a less hierarchical, more enabling relationship, using conscientization as a tool to inform the reconceptualization of global fears within critical geopolitics, and to move forward epistemological practice and our relationship as scholars with social change.
Abstract: This paper questions the recent recasting of fear within critical geopolitics. It identifies a widespread metanarrative, `globalized fear', analysis of which lacks grounding and is remote, disembodied and curiously unemotional. A hierarchical scaling of emotions, politics and place overlooks agency, resistance and action. Drawing on feminist scholarship, I call for an emotional geopolitics of fear which connects political processes and everyday emotional topographies in a less hierarchical, more enabling relationship. I employ conscientization as a tool to inform the reconceptualization of global fears within critical geopolitics, and to move forward epistemological practice and our relationship as scholars with social change.

357 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored how such events give rise to new ways of practising relations between science and democracy focusing on the case of environmental knowledge claims and technologies, and explored three mobilizations of knowledge controversies that have different implications for redistributing expertise, including that of social scientists, in the composition of knowledge polities.
Abstract: Reflecting on conversations between geography and science and technology studies (STS) over the last 15 years or so, this paper addresses their shared interest in knowledge controversies as generative political events. It explores how such events give rise to new ways of practising relations between science and democracy focusing on the case of environmental knowledge claims and technologies. This exploration interrogates three mobilizations of environmental knowledge controversies that have different implications for redistributing expertise, including that of (social) scientists, in the composition of knowledge polities. The first version sets out to map the language commitments of contributors to a controversy with the aim of enabling interested citizens to trace the ‘partisanship’ of scientific knowledge claims. The second is also a cartographic exercise designed to teach students how to account for the political force of technoscientific controversies by mapping the intense entanglements of scientifi...

322 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The past decade has witnessed a resurgence of interest in the geographies of children's lives, and particularly in engaging the voices and activities of young people in geographical research as mentioned in this paper, which is a good place to start.
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed a resurgence of interest in the geographies of children's lives, and particularly in engaging the voices and activities of young people in geographical research. Much ...

302 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provide an overview of the treatment of haptic knowledges in geography, responding to bodily sensations and responses that arise through the embodied researcher, and suggest pathways to new research on sensuous dispositions and non-representational theory.
Abstract: This paper is the first overview of the treatment of haptic knowledges in geography, responding to bodily sensations and responses that arise through the embodied researcher. After Crang's (2003) article on 'touchy-feely' methods identifies the dearth of actual touching and embodied feeling in research methods, this article does three things. First, it clarifies the terminology, which is derived from a number of disciplines. Second, it summarizes developments in sensuous ethnographies within cultural geography and anthropology. Third, it suggests pathways to new research on 'sensuous dispositions' and non-representational theory. We thereby see just how 'touchy-feely' qualitative methods have, or might, become.

291 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of the current state of cartography, focusing on the explosion of new "spatial media" on the web, including the geospatial web or geoweb (Scharl and Tochtermann, 2007), neogeography (Turner, 2006), locative media (Rheingold, 2002), DigiPlace (Zook and Graham, 2007a), spatial crowdsourcing or geocollaboration (Hopfer and MacEachren, 2007) and map hacking (Erle, 2007).
Abstract: At 11.35 am PDT on 18 September 2007 at Vandenberg Air Force base in California, DigitalGlobe’s new WorldView-1 satellite launched into orbit. The satellite is capable of collecting imagery over as much as three-quarters of a million square kilometers a day in resolution as fi ne as 0.5 m. A second satellite will be launched in 2008, capable of photographing nearly a million square kilometers daily at the same high resolution. The data are twice the resolution of the pre-vious industry leader, the IKONOS satellite launched in 1999 and close to the military’s own resolution of 10 cm (Monmonier, 2002).What is significant about the launch is not only the extent and resolution of the imagery (which from all vendors now covers over half of the world’s population) but also the fact that this imagery will be available commercially (look for it in Google Earth). Such imagery, alongside the tremendous possibilities of ‘crowdsourced’ geospatial data, represent interesting new develop-ments in cartography.In the fi rst of three reviews assessing the current state of cartography, I focus on the explosion of new ‘spatial media’ on the web. This topic goes under a bewildering number of names including the geospatial web or geoweb (Scharl and Tochtermann, 2007), neogeography (Turner, 2006), locative media (Rheingold, 2002), DigiPlace (Zook and Graham, 2007a), spatial crowdsourcing or geocollaboration (Hopfer and MacEachren, 2007) and map hacking (Erle

283 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first of three progress reports on rural geography as discussed by the authors focuses on attempts within these interventions to rethink the boundaries of rural geography and its connections with other fields of study, including urban linkages, including concepts of city regions, exurbanization and rurbanity.
Abstract: A number of commentaries and articles have been published in recent years reflecting on the nature, history and practice of rural geography. The introspective mood follows a period in which rural geography has been widely considered to have been resurgent, but indicates concerns about the unevenness of progress in rural geography, and about the readiness of the subdiscipline to address new challenges. This article, the first of three progress reports on rural geography, focuses on attempts within these interventions to rethink the boundaries of rural geography and its connections with other fields of study. First, it examines renewed debates on the definition and delimitation of the rural, including efforts to rematerialize the rural. Second, it considers the rejuvenation of work on rural—urban linkages, including concepts of city regions, exurbanization and rurbanity. Third, it discusses the interdisciplinary engagement of rural geographers, including collaboration with physical and natural scientists.

254 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a framework that recognizes the growing multiplicy of homeless geographies in recent years under policies that are better understood as multifaceted and ambivalent rather than only punitive is proposed.
Abstract: Over the past decade there has been a proliferation of work on homelessness by geographers. Much of this has been framed by the desire to connect discussions of homelessness to wider debates around gentrification, urban restructuring and the politics of public space. Though such work has been helpful in shifting discussions of homelessness into the mainstream geographical literature, too much of it remains narrowly framed within a US metric of knowledge and too closely focused upon the recent punitive turn in urban social policy. Here we advance instead a framework that recognizes the growing multiplicy of homeless geographies in recent years under policies that are better understood as multifaceted and ambivalent rather than only punitive

231 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors consider the possibilities for geographical research on (formal) education, and outline one particular agenda for this emerging field, which is to develop a decentered and outward-looking literature, one in which education systems, institutions, and practices are positioned as useful sites for a variety of theory-building projects.
Abstract: Despite playing central roles in state-building, economic development, social reproduction, and cultural politics, education has remained on the margins of critical geographical thought. Recent research, however, suggests that geographers are taking notice of the widespread and profound restructuring underway in advanced capitalist education sectors. This paper considers the possibilities for geographical research on (formal) education, and outlines one particular agenda for this emerging field. Rather than advocating a discrete topical specialty, it proposes developing a decentered and outward-looking literature — one in which education systems, institutions, and practices are positioned as useful sites for a variety of theory-building projects. The paper sketches several applications of this `joined-up' approach. `Thinking through' education — either as a constitutive moment or a critical case study of sociospatial transformation — may inform discussions of the geographies of neoliberalization, globaliz...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed the state of knowledge and developed a conceptual model for frontier migration in the developing world with a focus on Latin America, identifying people and place characteristics associated with this phenomenon could usefully inform policies aimed at forest conservation and rural development.
Abstract: This paper reviews the state of knowledge and develops a conceptual model for researching frontier migration in the developing world with a focus on Latin America. Since only a small fraction of migrants move to forest frontiers, identifying people and place characteristics associated with this phenomenon could usefully inform policies aimed at forest conservation and rural development. Yet population scholars train their efforts on urban and international migration while land use/cover change researchers pay scant attention to these migration flows which directly antecede the most salient footprint of human occupation on the earth's surface: the conversion of forest to agricultural land.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that the boundaries of categories should be understood as always inchoate -only partially formed and incomplete, and propose expanding boundary studies in geography to be the field that investigates the bounding processes that result in all types of categories.
Abstract: In recent years, categories have been a topic of substantial research in the social sciences and humanities. Although many problematic categories such as culture, gender and scale have been criticized, moving beyond them has proved to be surprisingly diffi cult. This paper attributes this diffi culty to what is termed the paradox of categories and argues that the key problems with categories emerge from the contradictory ways their boundaries are intellectually and cognitively understood. By integrating poststructural insights into the role categories play in ordering modern society with research from cognitive science on the role categories play as containers in cognitive processes, this paper argues that the boundaries of categories should be understood as always inchoate - only partially formed and incomplete. The paper concludes that research into cat- egories and boundaries is unnecessarily fragmented across a wide range of disciplines and proposes expanding boundary studies in geography to be the fi eld that investigates the bounding processes that result in all types of categories.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors distinguish three heterodox approaches: socioeconomics, political economy, and cultural economists, arguing that the abstract market model is performative and not performative.
Abstract: Although markets are at centre stage in capitalist processes of circulation and exchange, they have rarely been made an object of study. In this paper we distinguish three heterodox approaches. (1) Socioeconomics points out that concrete markets cannot be separated from their social context. Markets are dissolved in social networks and socialized. (2) Political economy investigates how the market model is confused for real markets by market participants. The market is represented as a destructive force. (3) Cultural economists point to the practical self-realization of economic knowledge and argue that the abstract market model is performative.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the ways in which mapping is performative, participatory and political, and suggest that cartography be understood as existence (becoming) rather than essence (fixed ontology).
Abstract: This report examines the ways in which mapping is performative, participatory and political. Performativity has received increasing attention from scholars, and cartography is no exception. Interest has shifted from the map as object to mapping as practice. Performativity is a cultural, social and political activity; maps as protest and commentary. The internet both facilitates and shapes popular political activism, but scholars have been slow to grasp amateur political mappings, although analysis of political deployments of mapping in state, territorial and imperial projects remains rich. Finally, some authors suggest that cartography be understood as existence (becoming) rather than essence (fixed ontology).


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the ways in which concepts of ''scale'' are used in political ecology to explain the outcomes of ecological and social change, and argue that political ecologists need to pay attention to scale.
Abstract: This essay explores the ways in which concepts of `scale' are deployed in political ecology to explain the outcomes of ecological and social change. It argues that political ecologists need to pay ...


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This second progress report on cultural ecology identifies and trace emerging trends in human-plant geographies and elucidates the contributions of relational geographies to the understanding of humanplant relations.
Abstract: I Ghostly fl ora? It is several years now since Jones and Cloke noted that, while there had been considerable recent interest in animals and society within human geography and anthropology, ‘fl ora ... remains an even more ghost-like presence in contemporary theoretical approaches’ (Jones and Cloke, 2002: 4; see also Hitchings and Jones, 2004). In this second progress report on cultural ecology, we identify and trace emerging trends in human-plant geographies. Human-plant interactions have been the stuff of cultural ecology since the days of Julian Steward, and many aspects of that tradition are alive and well. Following a previous progress report (Head, 2007), we are not interested in assuming an ontological and unproblematic separation between ‘cultures’ and ‘their [vegetative] environment’ as the basis on which straightforward ‘interactions’ or ‘adaptations’ can be analysed (Blute, 2008). Rather we aim here to elucidate the contributions of relational geographies, sometimes referred to as more than human geographies, to the understanding of humanplant relations (eg, Whatmore, 2002, on soybeans, and Robbins, 2004, on invasive networks). The challenges of global environmental change provide good reasons why such geographies should be nurtured, and why the notion of a clear separation between culture and environment should be long gone. Even a cursory roll call of the pressing issues of the next few decades – food security, biofuels, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, quality of urban life – immediately involves messy and malleable confi gurations of plants and people. Plants are fundamental players in human lives, providing our food supply and contributing to the air we breathe, and vice versa – humans have transformed many aspects of plant lives. Physical biogeographers now recognize that the vegetation patterns they are studying refl ect both deep time evolutionary pathways and the ‘muddy and indecipherable blur’ of human infl uence (Mackey, 2008: 392). At one level it is puzzling then that humanplant geographies have been less commented on than human-animal geographies. We touch here on several reasons. First, animal geographies have been spurred on by questions of ethics. Between plants and humans, there is arguably a greater ethical distance, and the unit of ethical standing (individual, species,

Journal ArticleDOI
Andy Pike1
TL;DR: This paper argued that the object of the brand and the process of the branding are geographical because they are entangled in inescapable spatial associations and these spatial associations are geographically differentiated and uneven, and they further argued that geographically entangled brands and branding are closely related to spatially uneven development through articulation and reinforcement of economic and social inequalities and unequal and competitive sociospatial relations and divisions of labour.
Abstract: This paper seeks to elucidate the geographies of brands and branding through interpreting their geographical entanglements. Focusing upon goods and services, it argues, first, that the object of the brand and the process of branding are geographical because they are entangled in inescapable spatial associations. Second, these spatial associations matter because they are geographically differentiated and uneven. Third, geographically entangled brands and branding are closely related to spatially uneven development through the articulation and reinforcement of economic and social inequalities and unequal and competitive sociospatial relations and divisions of labour. Despite their apparent pervasiveness and significance for geographical inquiry, the geographical entanglements of brands and branding have been under-investigated in Geography and hardly recognized and poorly specified in other social science research. A critical account is provided that demonstrates the entangled geographies of brands and bran...


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In an epoch of networks, flows and global mobility, the notion of territory as a politico-institutional bounded space needs further investigation as mentioned in this paper, and Geographers should also explore how territory remains implicated in and implicates discourses and practices of societal integration, belonging and loyalty beyond the national rhetoric of "one territory, one people".
Abstract: In an epoch of networks, flows and global mobility, the notion of territory as a politico-institutional bounded space needs further investigation. Besides studying territory as a symbolic resource in nationalist discourses, a control device in the hands of the state or a ‘spatial fix’ in the process of capital accumulation and reproduction, geographers should also explore how territory remains implicated in and implicates discourses and practices of societal integration, belonging and loyalty beyond the national rhetoric of ‘one territory, one people’. The article illustrates this argument by focusing on the case of Western Europe.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study of Alnwick by M.R. Conzen (1960) is now half a century old and its author has been dead for nearly 10 years as mentioned in this paper, and according to the ISI Web of Knowledge, it has already been cited more than twice as many times in the first decade of the twenty-first century as in any of the previous four decades of its existence.
Abstract: Commentary 1 The large majority of publications that have hitherto been selected by this journal as ‘classics in human geography’ have been ‘revisited’ while their authors were still active in research and the publications themselves less than 30 years old. In contrast, the study of Alnwick by M.R.G. Conzen (1960) is now half a century old and its author has been dead for nearly 10 years. This monograph on the historico-geographical development of the layout of a traditional market town has not suffered the fate of most research, including a good deal that at one time might have been thought of as ‘classic’, of being forgotten in the work of later generations. Indeed, according to the ISI Web of Knowledge, it has already been cited more than twice as many times in the first decade of the twenty-first century as in any of the previous four decades of its existence. Conzen himself, however, would probably have been unimpressed by such a statistic. Matters of worth were for him not to be measured in such crude ways, but in terms of reasoning, evidence, ideas and enduring significance. His perspective and the contents of the Alnwick study need to be seen in relation to his training and early research in Berlin, where he benefited from the wisdom of such researchers as Albrecht Penck, Herbert Louis and Hans Bobek. At that time, during the second half of the 1920s and the early 1930s, he was also greatly influenced by the work of the pioneers of settlement geography, notably Otto Schlüter, Hugo Hassinger and Walter Geisler. It was that German experience, more than his prewar years in British town planning and subsequent work in the Geography Department in Manchester University under H.J. Fleure, that influenced the character of the Alnwick study. Indeed, one of the most significant, but little known, antecedents of the long period of research that led to the publication of Alnwick was Conzen’s own dissertation on the ground plan and building form of the Havel towns, near Berlin (Conzen, 1932). Not surprisingly, despite its British publisher, the monograph was far from characteristic of early postwar anglophone geography, which had entered a period of even greater divorce from German geography than had existed in the 1930s. While British urban geography, especially urban morphology, was largely descriptive, Conzen was absorbed by the way in which settlements, especially towns and cities, derived their character from the physical and socio-economic processes of change. Understanding such processes in the urban landscape entailed working at the detailed level of the individual plot of land. The term ‘morphogenetic’ came to be used to describe this work. Particular features of Alnwick that distinguish it from previous and subsequent studies

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors proposes a relational conceptualization of spaces of entrepreneurship and applies this relational perspective to the emerging research topic of transnationalizing entrepreneurship, which is concerned with entrepreneurship that takes place across borders and its implication for economic-geographical research.
Abstract: This paper is concerned with entrepreneurship that takes place across borders, known as transnationalizing entrepreneurship, and its implication for economic-geographical research. It seeks to introduce geographers to a spatially informed synthesis and critique of two otherwise disparate strands of literature: entrepreneurship studies and international business studies. The silence about entrepreneurship studies in transnationalizing entrepreneurial activities and the relative lack of attention to entrepreneurship in international business studies are the key impetus for this paper. The `flat surface' assumption of spatial ontology in these studies also points to a very fertile ground for economic geographers to develop new theoretical insights into the spatialities of entrepreneurship. The paper proposes a relational conceptualization of spaces of entrepreneurship and applies this relational perspective to the emerging research topic of transnationalizing entrepreneurship. Theoretical insights for cuttin...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, some of the interdisciplinary research on radio and sound more generally for the purposes of considering how geopolitical scholarship might reconsider its predominantly visual focus, including radio and its relationship to studies of propaganda, international diplomacy and even everyday life.
Abstract: This paper considers some of the interdisciplinary scholarship on radio and sound more generally for the purposes of considering how geopolitical scholarship might reconsider its predominantly visual focus The first part considers radio and its relationship to studies of propaganda, international diplomacy and even everyday life Thereafter, attention is given to new themes such as researching radio cultures, broadcasting infrastructure and technology and, finally, the affective impacts of radio on audiences The conclusion of this paper urges further critical consideration of radio, sound and broadcasting/listener engagement with the well-established geographical literature on music

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Economic and Social Research Council, the body which funds much social science in the UK, recently imposed on UK social science a system of research ethics governance already well established in other areas of research and in much of the rest of the developed world as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Economic and Social Research Council, the body which funds much social science in the UK, recently imposed on UK social science a system of research ethics governance already well established in other areas of research and in much of the rest of the developed world. This system requires that research involving human subjects receive prior ethical approval from a committee made up of, typically, multidisciplinary researchers and lay people. Our aim in this paper is to prompt debate about the purpose and practice of such an anticipatory ethical review. We begin by describing the rich and varied ethical and political debates ongoing in human geography. We argue that these are, at best, ignored and, at worst, threatened by this system of ethical review by committee. We describe the emergence of these formal mechanisms of research governance and important differences between the ethical contexts, history, and demands of research in the medical and social sciences. The paper draws on empirical research inve...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a progress report identifies the presence of longstanding theories of class (e.g., Marx, Bourdieu) alongside experiential and psychic theories, suggesting that there is a new language of class developing in human geography.
Abstract: Historically class has been less likely than dimensions such as gender or race to come up in geographical discussions of identity as lived experience. In this progress report I document the novel ways in which social scientists have recently explored the discourses shaping, and lived experiences of, class identities in numerous cities and regions across the globe. Theoretically, the progress report identifies the presence of longstanding theories of class (eg, Marx, Bourdieu) alongside experiential and psychic theories, suggesting that there is a new language of class developing in human geography. Empirically, geographical scholarship on class similarly builds upon conventional interests in the transformation and use of urban spaces as elements of processes of class colonization in the west, but also moves beyond these through consideration of processes in the global south. As a result, new means of forging identity politics are suggested, that recognize the contingent yet ever present position of class ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The notion of 'landscape as a text' has been increasingly problematized over the past few years as discussed by the authors, and a number of experiments have been attempted to approach landscape via a revisited phenomenology.
Abstract: Over the past few years the notion of `landscape as a text' has been increasingly problematized. A number of experiments have been attempted to approach landscape via a revisited phenomenology. Landscape in the sense of graphic pictorial representation, however, has largely remained out of such debates. Reviewing and synthesizing work on landscape, materiality and performance, this article suggests some new directions for study. In particular, it calls for a reconceptualization of visual landscape representations as `travelling landscape-objects': graphic representations embedded in different material supports which physically move through space and time, and thus operate as active media for the circulation of place.