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JournalISSN: 0278-5846

Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

About: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Schizophrenia & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 0278-5846. Over the lifetime, 6550 publication(s) have been published receiving 210593 citation(s). more

Topics: Schizophrenia, Population, Dopamine more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2005.08.006
Abstract: Limbic dysfunction and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis dysregulation are key features of affective disorders. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the relationship between limbic structures and control of ACTH and glucocorticoid release, focusing on the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. In general, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate/prelimbic cortex inhibit stress-induced HPA activation, whereas the amygdala and perhaps the infralimbic cortex may enhance glucocorticoid secretion. Several characteristics of limbic–HPA interaction are notable: first, in all cases, the role of given limbic structures is both region- and stimulus-specific. Second, limbic sites have minimal direct projections to HPA effector neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN); hippocampal, cortical and amygdalar efferents apparently relay with neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamus and brainstem to access corticotropin releasing hormone neurons. Third, hippocampal, cortical and amygdalar projection pathways show extensive overlap in regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamus and perhaps brainstem, implying that limbic information may be integrated at subcortical relay sites prior to accessing the PVN. Fourth, these limbic sites also show divergent projections, with the various structures having distinct subcortical targets. Finally, all regions express both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, allowing for glucocorticoid modulation of limbic signaling patterns. Overall, the influence of the limbic system on the HPA axis is likely the end result of the overall patterning of responses to given stimuli and glucocorticoids, with the magnitude of the secretory response determined with respect to the relative contributions of the various structures. more

Topics: Limbic system (65%), Glucocorticoid secretion (60%), Stria terminalis (59%) more

1,190 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2004.11.003
Abstract: In the research field of psychoneuroimmunology, accumulating evidence has indicated the existence of reciprocal communication pathways between nervous, endocrine and immune systems. In this respect, there has been increasing interest in the putative involvement of the immune system in psychiatric disorders. In the present review, the role of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma, in the aetiology and pathophysiology of major depression, is discussed. The 'cytokine hypothesis of depression' implies that proinflammatory cytokines, acting as neuromodulators, represent the key factor in the (central) mediation of the behavioural, neuroendocrine and neurochemical features of depressive disorders. This view is supported by various findings. Several medical illnesses, which are characterised by chronic inflammatory responses, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, have been reported to be accompanied by depression. In addition, administration of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. in cancer or hepatitis C therapies, has been found to induce depressive symptomatology. Administration of proinflammatory cytokines in animals induces 'sickness behaviour', which is a pattern of behavioural alterations that is very similar to the behavioural symptoms of depression in humans. The central action of cytokines may also account for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity that is frequently observed in depressive disorders, as proinflammatory cytokines may cause HPA axis hyperactivity by disturbing the negative feedback inhibition of circulating corticosteroids (CSs) on the HPA axis. Concerning the deficiency in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission that is concomitant with major depression, cytokines may reduce 5-HT levels by lowering the availability of its precursor tryptophan (TRP) through activation of the TRP-metabolising enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Although the central effects of proinflammatory cytokines appear to be able to account for most of the symptoms occurring in depression, it remains to be established whether cytokines play a causal role in depressive illness or represent epiphenomena without major significance. more

1,069 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0278-5846(94)00101-M
Michael Maes1Institutions (1)
Abstract: 1. This paper reviews recent findings on cellular and humoral immunity and inflammatory markers in depression. 2. It is shown that major depression may be accompanied by systemic immune activation or an inflammatory response with involvement of phagocytic (monocytes, neutrophils) cells, T cell activation, B cell proliferation, an "acute" phase response with increased plasma levels of positive and decreased levels of negative acute phase proteins, higher autoantibody (antinuclear, antiphospholipid) titers, increased prostaglandin secretion, disorders in exopeptidase enzymes, such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and increased production of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. 3. It is hypothesized that increased monocytic production of interleukins (Il-1 beta and Il-6) in severe depression may constitute key phenomena underlying the various aspects of the immune and "acute" phase response, while contributing to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis hyperactivity, disorders in serotonin metabolism, and to the vegetative symptoms (i.e. the sickness behavior) of severe depression. more

Topics: Immune system (57%), Sickness behavior (56%), Inflammation (56%) more

855 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2010.05.004
Michael Maes, Piotr Gałecki1, Yong Seun Chang, Michael Berk2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: This paper reviews the body of evidence that major depression is accompanied by a decreased antioxidant status and by induction of oxidative and nitrosative (ION and increased 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, indicating oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence in major depression, that ON and increased IgM-mediated immune responses against membrane fatty acids, like phosphatidyl inositol (Pi); oleic, palmitic, and myristic acid; and NO modified amino-acids, e.g. NO-tyrosine, NO-tryptophan and NO-arginine; and NO-albumin. There is a significant association between depression and polymorphisms in O&NS genes, like manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase. Animal models of depression very consistently show lowered antioxidant defences and activated O&NS pathways in the peripheral blood and the brain. In animal models of depression, antidepressants consistently increase lowered antioxidant levels and normalize the damage caused by O&NS processes. Antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-cysteine, compounds that mimic GPX activity, and zinc exhibit antidepressive effects. This paper reviews the pathways by which lowered antioxidants and O&NS may contribute to depression, and the (neuro)degenerative processes that accompany that illness. It is concluded that aberrations in O&NS pathways are--together with the inflammatory processes--key components of depression. All in all, the results suggest that depression belongs to the spectrum of (neuro)degenerative disorders. more

817 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2003.09.010
Abstract: Serotonin (5-HT)-receptor-based mechanisms have been postulated to play a critical role in the action of the new generation of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) that are usually referred to as atypical APDs because of their ability to achieve an antipsychotic effect with lower rates of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) compared to first-generation APDs such as haloperidol. Specifically, it has been proposed by Meltzer et al. [J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 251 (1989) 238] that potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonism together with weak dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonism are the principal pharmacologic features that differentiate clozapine and other apparent atypical APDs from first-generation typical APD. This hypothesis is consistent with the atypical features of quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone, which are the most common treatments for schizophrenia in the United States and many other countries, as well as a large number of compounds in various stages of development. Subsequent research showed that 5-HT1A agonism may be an important consequence of 5-HT2A antagonism and that substitution of 5-HT1A agonism for 5-HT2A antagonism may also produce an atypical APD drug when coupled with weak D2 antagonism. Aripiprazole, the most recently introduced atypical APD, and a D2 receptor partial agonist, may also owe some of its atypical properties to its net effect of weak D2 antagonism, 5-HT2A antagonism and 5-HT1A agonism [Eur. J. Pharmacol. 441 (2002) 137]. By contrast, the alternative "fast-off" hypothesis of Kapur and Seeman [Am. J. Psychiatry 158 (2001) 360] applies only to clozapine and quetiapine and is inconsistent with the "slow" off rate of most atypical APDs, including olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors located on glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus, 5-HT2A receptors on the cell bodies of DA neurons in the ventral tegmentum and substantia nigra and GABAergic interneurons in the cortex and hippocampus, and 5-HT1A receptors in the raphe nuclei are likely to be important sites of action of the atypical APDs. At the same time, evidence has accumulated for the important modulatory role of 5-HT2C and 5-HT6 receptors for some of the effects of some of the current APDs. Thus, 5-HT has joined DA as a critical target for developing effective APDs and led to the search for novel drugs with complex pharmacology, ending the exclusive search for single-receptor targets, e.g., the D3 or D4 receptor, and drugs that are selective for them. more

Topics: Bifeprunox (61%), Dopamine receptor D2 (55%), Ziprasidone (53%) more

752 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Michael Maes

26 papers, 3.9K citations

Nela Pivac

17 papers, 453 citations

Alessandro Serretti

17 papers, 527 citations

Matcheri S. Keshavan

17 papers, 840 citations

Kenji Hashimoto

17 papers, 759 citations

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