Progress in Neurobiology
About: Progress in Neurobiology is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Neuroscience & Medicine. It has an ISSN identifier of 0301-0082. Over the lifetime, 2470 publications have been published receiving 361300 citations. The journal is also known as: Progress in neurobiology & Prog Neurobiol.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The present review focuses on the organisation of descending pathways and their pathophysiological significance, the role of individual transmitters and specific receptor types in the modulation and expression of mechanisms of descending inhibition and facilitation and the advantages and limitations of established and innovative analgesic strategies which act by manipulation of descending controls.
Abstract: Upon receipt in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord, nociceptive (pain-signalling) information from the viscera, skin and other organs is subject to extensive processing by a diversity of mechanisms, certain of which enhance, and certain of which inhibit, its transfer to higher centres. In this regard, a network of descending pathways projecting from cerebral structures to the DH plays a complex and crucial role. Specific centrifugal pathways either suppress (descending inhibition) or potentiate (descending facilitation) passage of nociceptive messages to the brain. Engagement of descending inhibition by the opioid analgesic, morphine, fulfils an important role in its pain-relieving properties, while induction of analgesia by the adrenergic agonist, clonidine, reflects actions at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-ARs) in the DH normally recruited by descending pathways. However, opioids and adrenergic agents exploit but a tiny fraction of the vast panoply of mechanisms now known to be involved in the induction and/or expression of descending controls. For example, no drug interfering with descending facilitation is currently available for clinical use. The present review focuses on: (1) the organisation of descending pathways and their pathophysiological significance; (2) the role of individual transmitters and specific receptor types in the modulation and expression of mechanisms of descending inhibition and facilitation and (3) the advantages and limitations of established and innovative analgesic strategies which act by manipulation of descending controls. Knowledge of descending pathways has increased exponentially in recent years, so this is an opportune moment to survey their operation and therapeutic relevance to the improved management of pain.
TL;DR: The hypothesis states that the basal ganglia do not generate movements, and when voluntary movement is generated by cerebral cortical and cerebellar mechanisms, the basal Ganglia act broadly to inhibit competing motor mechanisms that would otherwise interfere with the desired movement.
Abstract: The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these a abnormalities. However, it has not been agreed just what the basal ganglia contribute to normal movement. Recent advances in knowledge of the basal ganglia circuitry, activity of basal ganglia neurons during movement, and the effect of basal ganglia lesions have led to a new hypothesis of basal ganglia function. The hypothesis states that the basal ganglia do not generate movements. Instead, when voluntary movement is generated by cerebral cortical and cerebellar mechanisms, the basal ganglia act broadly to inhibit competing motor mechanisms that would otherwise interfere with the desired movement. Simultaneously, inhibition is removed focally from the desired motor mechanisms to allow that movement to proceed. Inability to inhibit competing motor programs results in slow movements, abnormal postures and involuntary muscle activity.
TL;DR: It has been proposed that the nucleus accumbens is a key component of this neural interface since it receives inputs from limbic forebrain structures, either directly or indirectly via the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, and sends signals to the motor system via the globus pallidus.
Abstract: Limbic forebrain structures and the hypothalamus are essential in the initiation of food-seeking, escape from predators and other behaviors essential for adaptation and survival Neural integrative activities subserving these behaviors initiate motor responses but the neural interface between limbic and motor systems has received relatively little attention This neglect has been in part because of the emphasis on the motor control of the movements and on the contributions of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and other components of the motor system, but more importantly, because of a lack of relevant anatomical evidence of connections Anatomical findings obtained in recent years now make it possible to investigate the neural interface between limbic and motor systems—neural mechanisms by which “motivation” gets translated into “action” It has been proposed that the nucleus accumbens is a key component of this neural interface since it receives inputs from limbic forebrain structures, either directly or indirectly via the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, and sends signals to the motor system via the globus pallidus The nucleus accumbens has been implicated in locomotion, a fundamental component of attack, feeding and other behaviors utilized in adaptation and survival It has also been implicated in oral motor responses, utilized in feeding, drinking, vocalization and other adaptive responses The role of the nucleus accumbens and its functional relationship with the ventral tegmental area and globus pallidus has been investigated using neuropharmacological-behavioral techniques to initiate and disrupt locomotor and ingestive responses and using electrophysiological recording techniques The results of these investigations are interpreted in relation to a proposed model of the limbic-motor interface and further experiments are suggested This model for the initiation of actions by limbic forebrain structures (eg the “emotice brain”) is considered in relation to what is known about the initiation of actions by cognitive processes involving previous experience and learning, which include research is how the “emotive brain” and the “cognitive brain” operate together in response initiation
TL;DR: This work reviews the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature on the human orbitofrontal cortex, and proposes two distinct trends of neural activity based on a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, including a mediolateral and posterior-anterior distinction.
Abstract: The human orbitofrontal cortex is an important brain region for the processing of rewards and punishments, which is a prerequisite for the complex and flexible emotional and social behaviour which contributes to the evolutionary success of humans. Yet much remains to be discovered about the functions of this key brain region, and new evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology is affording new insights into the different functions of the human orbitofrontal cortex. We review the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature on the human orbitofrontal cortex, and propose two distinct trends of neural activity based on a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. One is a mediolateral distinction, whereby medial orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to monitoring the reward value of many different reinforcers, whereas lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to the evaluation of punishers which may lead to a change in ongoing behaviour. The second is a posterior-anterior distinction with more complex or abstract reinforcers (such as monetary gain and loss) represented more anteriorly in the orbitofrontal cortex than simpler reinforcers such as taste or pain. Finally, we propose new neuroimaging methods for obtaining further evidence on the localisation of function in the human orbitofrontal cortex.
TL;DR: A global account of mechanisms involved in the induction of pain is provided, including neuronal pathways for the transmission of nociceptive information from peripheral nerve terminals to the dorsal horn, and therefrom to higher centres.
Abstract: The highly disagreeable sensation of pain results from an extraordinarily complex and interactive series of mechanisms integrated at all levels of the neuroaxis, from the periphery, via the dorsal horn to higher cerebral structures. Pain is usually elicited by the activation of specific nociceptors ('nociceptive pain'). However, it may also result from injury to sensory fibres, or from damage to the CNS itself ('neuropathic pain'). Although acute and subchronic, nociceptive pain fulfils a warning role, chronic and/or severe nociceptive and neuropathic pain is maladaptive. Recent years have seen a progressive unravelling of the neuroanatomical circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of pain. In addition to familiar inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and bradykinin, potentially-important, pronociceptive roles have been proposed for a variety of 'exotic' species, including protons, ATP, cytokines, neurotrophins (growth factors) and nitric oxide. Further, both in the periphery and in the CNS, non-neuronal glial and immunecompetent cells have been shown to play a modulatory role in the response to inflammation and injury, and in processes modifying nociception. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, wherein the primary processing of nociceptive information occurs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are activated by glutamate released from nocisponsive afferent fibres. Their activation plays a key role in the induction of neuronal sensitization, a process underlying prolonged painful states. In addition, upon peripheral nerve injury, a reduction of inhibitory interneurone tone in the dorsal horn exacerbates sensitized states and further enhance nociception. As concerns the transfer of nociceptive information to the brain, several pathways other than the classical spinothalamic tract are of importance: for example, the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway. In discussing the roles of supraspinal structures in pain sensation, differences between its 'discriminative-sensory' and 'affective-cognitive' dimensions should be emphasized. The purpose of the present article is to provide a global account of mechanisms involved in the induction of pain. Particular attention is focused on cellular aspects and on the consequences of peripheral nerve injury. In the first part of the review, neuronal pathways for the transmission of nociceptive information from peripheral nerve terminals to the dorsal horn, and therefrom to higher centres, are outlined. This neuronal framework is then exploited for a consideration of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal mechanisms involved in the induction of pain by stimulation of peripheral nociceptors, by peripheral nerve injury and by damage to the CNS itself. Finally, a hypothesis is forwarded that neurotrophins may play an important role in central, adaptive mechanisms modulating nociception. An improved understanding of the origins of pain should facilitate the development of novel strategies for its more effective treatment.