Progress in Polymer Science
About: Progress in Polymer Science is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Polymer & Polymerization. It has an ISSN identifier of 0079-6700. Over the lifetime, 1447 publications have been published receiving 396438 citations.
Topics: Polymer, Polymerization, Radical polymerization, Monomer, Reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world as mentioned in this paper, and the main sources of chitin are two marine crustaceans, shrimp and crabs, which are used for food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
Abstract: Chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world. The main sources exploited are two marine crustaceans, shrimp and crabs. Our objective is to appraise the state of the art concerning this polysaccharide: its morphology in the native solid state, methods of identification and characterization and chemical modifications, as well as the difficulties in utilizing and processing it for selected applications. We note the important work of P. Austin, S. Tokura and S. Hirano, who have contributed to the applications development of chitin, especially in fiber form. Then, we discuss chitosan, the most important derivative of chitin, outlining the best techniques to characterize it and the main problems encountered in its utilization. Chitosan, which is soluble in acidic aqueous media, is used in many applications (food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications). We briefly describe the chemical modifications of chitosan—an area in which a variety of syntheses have been proposed tentatively, but are not yet developed on an industrial scale. This review emphasizes recent papers on the high value-added applications of these materials in medicine and cosmetics.
TL;DR: A review of the academic and industrial aspects of the preparation, characterization, materials properties, crystallization behavior, melt rheology, and processing of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites is given in this article.
Abstract: A review is given of the academic and industrial aspects of the preparation, characterization, materials properties, crystallization behavior, melt rheology, and processing of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. These materials are attracting considerable interest in polymer science research. Hectorite and montmorillonite are among the most commonly used smectite-type layered silicates for the preparation of nanocomposites. Smectites are a valuable mineral class for industrial applications because of their high cation exchange capacities, surface area, surface reactivity, adsorptive properties, and, in the case of hectorite, high viscosity and transparency in solution. In their pristine form they are hydrophilic in nature, and this property makes them very difficult to disperse into a polymer matrix. The most common way to remove this difficulty is to replace interlayer cations with quarternized ammonium or phosphonium cations, preferably with long alkyl chains. A wide range of polymer matrices is covered in this review, with special emphasis on biodegradable polymers. In general, polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites are of three different types, namely (1) intercalated nanocomposites , for which insertion of polymer chains into a layered silicate structure occurs in a crystallographically regular fashion, with a repeat distance of few nanometers, regardless of polymer to clay ratio, (2) flocculated nanocomposites , for which intercalated and stacked silicate layers flocculated to some extent due to the hydroxylated edge–edge interactions of the silicate layers, and (3) exfoliated nanocomposites , for which the individual silicate layers are separated in the polymer matrix by average distances that depend only on the clay loading. This new family of composite materials frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of material properties when compared with the matrix polymers alone or conventional micro- and macro-composite materials. Improvements can include a high storage modulus, both in solid and melt states, increased tensile and flexural properties, a decrease in gas permeability and flammability, increased heat distortion temperature, an increase in the biodegradability rate of biodegradable polymers, and so forth.
TL;DR: This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
Abstract: Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
TL;DR: In this article, a survey about physical and chemical treatment methods which improve the fiber matrix adhesion, their results and effects on the physical properties of composites is presented, and the influence of such treatments by taking into account fibre content on the creep, quasi-static, cyclic dynamic and impact behaviour of natural fibre reinforced plastics are discussed in detail.
Abstract: This review article concerning natural and man-made cellulose fibre reinforced plastics, introduces possible applications of this material group. The physical properties of natural fibres are mainly determined by the chemical and physical composition, such as the structure of fibres, cellulose content, angle of fibrils, cross-section, and by the degree of polymerization. Only a few characteristic values, but especially the specific mechanical properties, can reach comparable values of traditional reinforcing fibres. This physical structure can be modified by using alkali treatment and acetylation processes. The application of natural fibres as reinforcements in composite materials requires, just as for glass-fibre reinforced composites, a strong adhesion between the fibre and the matrix, regardless of whether a traditional polymer (thermoplastics or thermosets) matrix, a biodegradable polymer matrix or cement is used. Further this article gives a survey about physical and chemical treatment methods which improve the fibre matrix adhesion, their results and effects on the physical properties of composites. These different treatments change among others the hydrophilic character of the natural fibres, so that moisture effects in the composite are reduced. To bring about hydrophobic properties to natural fibres, a special treatment, termed acetylation, can be used. The effectiveness of this method is strongly influenced by the treatment conditions used. The mechanical and other physical properties of the composite are generally dependent on the fibre content, which also determines the possible amount of coupling agents in the composite. The influence of such treatments by taking into account fibre content on the creep, quasi-static, cyclic dynamic and impact behaviour of natural fibre reinforced plastics are discussed in detail. For special performance requirements, hybrid composites made of natural and conventional fibres can be prepared with desired properties. The processing conditions play, next to the mechanical properties of natural fibres, an important role for the industrial use of these materials. The results presented in this paper show, that natural fibres can be processed with the already commonly applied methods: glass mat thermoplastic matrix (GMT), sheet moulding compound (SMC) or bulk moulding compound (BMC). For the processing of thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibres, new methods (e.g. the “EXPRESS” processing) are of increasing importance. Natural fibres seem to have little resistance towards environmental influences. This can be recognized in the composite and can be advantageously utilized for the development of biological degradable composites with good physical properties.