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Showing papers in "Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts in 2010"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined similarities and differences between listeners' perceptions of emotions conveyed by 30-s pieces of music and their emotional responses to the same pieces, using identical scales, listeners rated how happy and how sad the music made them feel and the happiness and the sadness expressed by the music.
Abstract: The authors examined similarities and differences between (1) listeners’ perceptions of emotions conveyed by 30-s pieces of music and (2) their emotional responses to the same pieces. Using identical scales, listeners rated how happy and how sad the music made them feel, and the happiness and the sadness expressed by the music. The music was manipulated to vary in tempo (fast or slow) and mode (major or minor). Feeling and perception ratings were highly correlated but perception ratings were higher than feeling ratings, particularly for music with consistent cues to happiness (fast-major) or sadness (slow-minor), and for sad-sounding music in general. Associations between the music manipulations and listeners’ feelings were mediated by their perceptions of the emotions conveyed by the music. Happiness ratings were elevated for fast-tempo and major-key stimuli, sadness ratings were elevated for slow-tempo and minor-key stimuli, and mixed emotional responses (higher happiness and sadness ratings) were elevated for music with mixed cues to happiness and sadness (fast-minor or slow-major). Listeners also exhibited ambivalence toward sad-sounding music.

222 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assessed individual differences in creativity in terms of original responses on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1974) and also in creative behavior on the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (Carson, Peterson, & Higgins, 2005) and found that creative individuals were neither more nor less capable of overriding cognitive conflicts on incongruent (relative to congruent) Stroop trials.
Abstract: Creative individuals have been described in terms suggestive of greater automatic processing (eg, defocused attention, looser associations) and greater controlled processing (eg, greater abilities to focus while working on a creative task) Both views cannot be correct from a static ability-related perspective On the other hand, both views could be correct if creative individuals are better able to modulate the functioning of their cognitive control system in a context-sensitive manner The present study (N 50) assessed individual differences in creativity in terms of original responses on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1974) and also in terms of creative behavior on the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (Carson, Peterson, & Higgins, 2005) The same participants performed a color–word Stroop task Creative individuals were neither more nor less capable of overriding cognitive conflicts on incongruent (relative to congruent) Stroop trials On the other hand, creative individuals displayed more flexible cognitive control, as defined by greater cognitive control modulation from trial to trial Implications for theories of creativity and its underlying processing basis are discussed

204 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors suggest that confusion and interest have different positions in a two-dimensional appraisal space: interesting things stem from appraisals of high novelty and high comprehensibility, and confusing things arise from appraisal of low novelty and low comprehensibility.
Abstract: What makes something confusing? Confusion is a common response to challenging, abstract, and complex works, but it has received little attention in psychology. Based on appraisal theories of emotion, I suggest that confusion and interest have different positions in a two-dimensional appraisal space: interesting things stem from appraisals of high novelty and high comprehensibility, and confusing things stem from appraisals of high novelty and low comprehensibility. Two studies—a multilevel correlational study and an experiment that manipulated comprehensibility—found support for this appraisal model. Confusion and interest are thus close relatives in the family of knowledge emotions.

166 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, and Reber as discussed by the authors investigated the contribution of such fluency effects for aesthetic appreciation using bogus titles that either facilitated or hindered semantic processing of paintings, fluency was investigated for higher-order cognitive operations on the level of meaning assignment.
Abstract: Based on findings that fluency of mental operations is hedonically marked and associated with more favorable evaluations of the processed target (Reber, Schwarz, & Winkielman, 2004a; Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003) we investigated the contribution of such fluency effects for aesthetic appreciation. Using bogus titles that either facilitated or hindered semantic processing of paintings, fluency was investigated for higher-order cognitive operations on the level of meaning assignment. A cross-modal conceptual priming procedure was used, in which semantically related or unrelated titles, or “no-title” letter strings preceded the presentation of paintings with different degrees of visual abstraction. Results were in accordance with a fluency-affect-liking hypothesis. Related titles produced highest appreciation followed by no titles and unrelated titles conditions. This effect was moderated by the degree of abstraction of the paintings, with fluency effects especially prominent for representational paintings. Results indicated that aesthetic appreciation is partly grounded in the processing dynamics of the viewer and that the phenomenal experience of cognitive-fluency is an intrinsic source for the hedonic value of art.

111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article assessed the relationship between anxiety and depression symptom dimensions and several facets of creativity: divergent thinking, creative self-concepts, everyday creative behaviors, and creative accomplishments, and found that measures of anxiety, depression, and social anxiety predicted little variance in creativity.
Abstract: The link, if any, between creativity and mental illness is one of the most controversial topics in modern creativity research. The present research assessed the relationships between anxiety and depression symptom dimensions and several facets of creativity: divergent thinking, creative self-concepts, everyday creative behaviors, and creative accomplishments. Latent variable models estimated effect sizes and their confidence intervals. Overall, measures of anxiety, depression, and social anxiety predicted little variance in creativity. Few models explained more than 3% of the variance, and the effect sizes were small and inconsistent in direction.

87 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent revolutionary advancements toward understanding the mind are summarized, due to new methods of neuroimaging studies of the brain and new mathematical theories modeling the brain–min.
Abstract: New mathematical and cognitive theories of the mind are connected to psychological theories of aesthetics. I briefly summarize recent revolutionary advancements toward understanding the mind, due to new methods of neuroimaging studies of the brain and new mathematical theories modeling the brain–min

71 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, this article found that artists appear to make superior decisions about what to include in drawings and are also more sensitive to others' decisions. But they did not find any significant differences between artists and non-artists.
Abstract: To test a venerable explanation for artists’ drawing ability, superior skill at visual selection, artists andnonartists traced a photograph of a face using 70 pieces of tape—not enough to depict everything. Artistsand nonartists judged the drawings on accuracy. A mixed-model analysis of variance yielded a reliableadvantage for artist drawers, no main effect of judge group, and a strong interaction, in which artistjudges’ ratings distinguished artist versus nonartist drawers, but nonartist judges’ ratings did not. Thus,artists appear to make superior decisions about what to include in drawings and are also more sensitiveto others’ decisions. In a second study, using the same task, nonartists drew upright or inverted faces. Aninteraction was found in which artist judges rated faces drawn inverted as more accurate than faces drawnupright, but nonartist judges’ ratings showed no differences. Results are discussed in terms of reconcilingtop-down and bottom-up accounts of skilled drawing.Keywords: artists, drawing, visual attention, schemata, visual realism

70 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that the impact of personal and social experience on divergent thinking test performance was similar in both problem generation and problem generation tasks, and that the influence of experience was similar for both problems and uses.
Abstract: Divergent thinking (DT) tests are widely used as an estimate of creativity. However, tests of DT may be biased by experience. Scores from these tests may depend on the amount and types of experiences of examinees. This investigation was designed to determine the degree to which personal and social experiences influence DT scores. Two different tasks were administered: Uses task and Problem Generation (PG). Fluency and originality scores were calculated for each. Analyses indicated that the impact of experience was similar in the PG and Uses tasks. Personal and social experience explained 44% and 30% of fluency scores for PG and Uses tasks, respectively, and 65% of originality scores for both PG and Uses. The differences between uncorrected scores (all ideas, including those reflecting experience) and corrected scores (where ideas tied to personal or social experiences were eliminated) were statistically significant, with the largest discrepancy in Uses fluency and lowest in Uses originality. Findings supported the claim that divergent thinking tests may depend heavily on experience. Alternatives for using DT tests without an experiential bias are discussed.

68 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors found that visual art students are more neurotic, more open to experience and more inclined to heuristic thinking than psychology students do, whereas music students were more extraverted, more agreeable and more agreeable than visual art and psychology students were.
Abstract: The crucial aspect of creativity in both personality and thinking style may be the ability or tendency to change within personality traits, such as, for example, moving between extraversion and introversion, and within thinking styles, such as moving between heuristic and algorithmic thinking. Such mobility is characteristic of the “complex” personality. On personality and thinking style tests, complexity would be expected to manifest itself in greater variability of responses to items measuring the same overall trait. This issue was investigated with 158 visual art, 136 music, and 309 psychology students. Art students (visual art and music students) showed greater complexity in conscientiousness than psychology and music students, respectively. Visual art students further showed a greater overall complexity (mean complexities across personality and thinking style) than psychology students did. A more traditional analysis revealed that visual art students were more neurotic, more open to experience and more inclined to heuristic thinking than psychology students do, whereas music students were more extraverted and more agreeable than visual art students were, and more inclined to heuristic thinking than psychology students were. Thus, it was possible to distinguish visual art students from music and psychology students by their personality and thinking style.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article measured rectangle preferences in 79 participants, particularly assessing their relationship to a wide range of background measures of individual differences, including Big Five personality traits, Need for Cognition, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Schizotypy, Vocational Types, and Aesthetic Activities, showed no correlation at all with rectangle preferences.
Abstract: Interest in the experimental aesthetics of rectangles originates in the studies of Fechner (1876), which investigated Zeising’s suggestion that Golden Section ratios determine the aesthetic appeal of great works of art. Although Fechner’s studies are often cited to support the centrality of the Golden Section, a century of subsequent experimental work suggests it has little normative role in rectangle preferences. However, rectangles are still of interest to experimental aesthetics, and McManus (1980) used a paired comparison method to show that although population preferences are weak, there are strong, stable, statistically robust and very varied individual preferences. The present study measured rectangle preferences in 79 participants, particularly assessing their relationship to a wide range of background measures of individual differences. Once again weak population preferences but strong and varied individual rectangle preferences were found, and computer presentation of stimuli, with detailed analyses of response times, confirmed the coherent nature of aesthetic preferences for rectangles. Q-mode factor analysis found two main factors, labeled “square” and “rectangle,” with participants showing different combinations of positive and negative loadings on these factors. However, the individual difference measures, including Big Five personality traits, Need for Cognition, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Schizotypy, Vocational Types, and Aesthetic Activities, showed no correlation at all with rectangle preferences. Individual differences in rectangle preferences are a robust phenomenon that clearly requires explanation, but at present their variability is entirely unexplained.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that poor drawing may be a particular problem for students with dyslexia (and a high proportion of art school students is dyslexic), and that poor drawers are less good at copying simple angles and proportions.
Abstract: Some art students, despite being at art school, cannot draw very well, and would like to be able to draw well. It has been suggested that poor drawing may be a particular problem for students with dyslexia (and a high proportion of art school students is dyslexic). In Study 1 we studied 277 art students, using a questionnaire to assess self-perceived drawing ability and a range of background measures, including demography, education, a history of dyslexia, a self-administered spelling test, and personality and educational variables. In Study 2 we gave detailed drawing tests to a sample of 38 of the art students, stratified by self-rated drawing ability and spelling ability, and to 30 control participants. Students perceiving themselves as good at drawing did indeed draw better than self-perceived poor drawers, although the latter were still better than non-art student controls. In neither Study 1 nor Study 2 did skill at drawing relate to dyslexia or spelling ability, and neither did drawing ability relate to any of our wide range of background measures. However Study 2 did show that drawing ability was related both to ability at copying simple angles and proportions (using the “house” task of Cain, 1943), and also to visual memory (as suggested by Jones, 1922), poor drawers being less good at both immediate and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chamorro-Premuzic, Goma-i-Freixanet, Furnham, & Muro as discussed by the authors replicated the findings of a recent study on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and everyday uses of music or people's motives for listening to music.
Abstract: This study replicates the findings of a recent study (Chamorro-Premuzic, Goma-i-Freixanet, Furnham, & Muro, 2009) on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and everyday uses of music or people's motives for listening to music. In addition, it examined emotional intelligence as predictor of uses of music, and whether uses of music and personality traits predicted liking of music consensually classified as sad, happy, complex, or social. A total of 100 participants rated their preferences for 20 unfamiliar musical extracts that were played for a 30-s interval on a website and completed a measure of the Big Five personality traits. Openness predicted liking for complex music, and Extraversion predicted liking for happy music. Background use of music predicted preference for social and happy music, whereas emotional music use predicted preference for sad music. Finally, males tended to like sad music and use music for cognitive purposes more than females did.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored associations among the Big Five personality factors, unconventionality, selected demographics, and preference for four distinct visual art genres (portraiture, abstract art, geometric art, and impressionism) and found that personality could predict artistic preferences when the latter was classified on the basis of consensual, rather than researcher-led or art historical taxonomies.
Abstract: This study explored associations among the Big Five personality factors, unconventionality, selected demographics, and preference for 4 distinct visual art genres (portraiture, abstract art, geometric art, and impressionism). In total, 3,254 participants completed an online survey assessing individual difference and preference ratings for different paintings. Participants were also asked to rate each observed painting for emotional liking and perceived complexity, which enabled examination of whether personality could predict artistic preferences when the latter was classified on the basis of consensual, rather than researcher-led or art historical, taxonomies. Correlations and structural equation models showed that the correlates and predictors of artistic preferences were stronger when art was classified using consensual ratings (particularly in the case of complex art) than according to researcher-led or art historical taxonomies. Although these findings are somewhat exploratory and more comprehensive measures of individual differences and art preferences could be employed, they suggest that trait-congruent classifications of aesthetic stimuli may improve prediction and understanding of individual differences in artistic preferences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was used to assess the creative performance of 76 undergraduates, who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions before creative performance was assessed in a version of the TTCT.
Abstract: When children play, they often do so in very original ways. However, with the responsibilities of adulthood, this playful curiosity is sometimes lost and conventional responses often result. In the present study, 76 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions before creative performance was assessed in a version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT; E. P. Torrance, 1974). In a control condition, participants wrote about what they would do if school was cancelled for the day. In an experimental condition, the instructions were identical except that participants were to imagine themselves as 7-year-olds in this situation. Individuals imagining themselves as children subsequently produced more original responses on the TTCT. Further results showed that the manipulation was particularly effective among more introverted individuals, who are typically less spontaneous and more inhibited in their daily lives. The results thus establish that there is a benefit in thinking like a child to subsequent creative originality, particularly among introverted individuals. The discussion links the findings to mindset factors, play and spontaneity, and relevant personality processes.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared differences in creative styles and personality types between Americans and Taiwanese and examined the relationships among various personality types and creative potential, concluding that there are significant relationships between Adaptive creative style and intuition.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to compare differences in creative styles (Kirton, 1976) and personality types between Americans and Taiwanese and to examine the relationships among various personality types and creative potential. Creative potential was measured by the Torrance Test of Creative ThinkingFigural, and personality types were measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II. Ninety-three American and 76 Taiwanese college students specializing in teacher education participated in this study. The results indicated that Americans are more adaptively creative than Taiwanese, whereas there is no difference between the two groups in Innovative creative style. The results also indicated that there are significant relationships between Adaptive creative style and Intuition, between Creative Strengths and Intuition, and between Creative Strengths and Perceiving. It is concluded that there is a cultural difference in creative potential and personality types and that there are relationships between particular subscales of creativity and personality types.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found evidence for the oblique effect (where image rotation hampers preference) and a correlation between this consciously reported aesthetic preference and unconsciously derived pupil size and found that the overall balance of these images is also altered when they are reoriented.
Abstract: Observers consciously prefer Mondrian’s paintings in their original orientation compared with a rotated position—the “oblique effect” (Latto, Brain, & Kelly, 2000). However, this finding’s premise, that all vertical–horizontal orientations of the thick black lines in Mondrian’s oeuvre are preferred, overlooks the fact that the overall balance of these images is also altered when they are reoriented. Thus, balance may regulate the oblique effect, which might influence conscious aesthetic preferences. To address this issue, we explore Hess’s (1965, 1972) claim that observers will unconsciously increase their pupil diameter to pleasing images and constrict it to unpleasant images. We overcame Hess’s methodological limitation of not keeping his images’ luminances and contrast constant across conditions by presenting eight Mondrian paintings (1921–1944) to 30 observers on a CRT for 20 s each in either their original or seven rotated positions. Simultaneously, we measured their pupil size while asking them to report how (dis)pleasing they found each image. We found both evidence for the oblique effect (where image rotation hampers preference) and a correlation between this consciously reported aesthetic preference and unconsciously derived pupil size.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the psychological, social, and aesthetic factors involved in found and second-hand object use were examined, and a survey design employing a qualitative questionnaire, analyzed by grounded theory, was given to 65 people from 8 countries.
Abstract: Both research and applied psychologists pay surprisingly little attention to the material objects encountered inday-to-day living, even though the significance of these objects in human development has been profoundDrawing on literature from the visual arts, consumer behavior, anthropology, psychology, art therapy, andmuseum studies, this is the first known article to examine the psychological, social, and aesthetic factorsinvolved in found and second-hand object use A survey design employing a qualitative questionnaire,analyzed by grounded theory, was given to 65 people from 8 countries Results identified a found objectprocess that involves the interaction of aesthetic, cognitive, emotive, mnemonic, ecological, and creativefactors in the seeking, discovery, and utilization of found objects This has potential implications for the useof material objects within health care by applied psychologists and allied professionals An initial theoreticalexplanation about the use of found objects is proposed to help guide further research in this areaKeywords: found objects, material objects, aesthetics, grounded theory, rubbish


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined if interactions between three styles of coping by music listening (emotion oriented, problem oriented, and avoidance/disengagement oriented) could predict changes in adolescent neuroticism.
Abstract: It is important to understand distinctive developmental specificities of coping in adolescence and how these can relate to personality development. Adolescents can actively use music listening as a coping resource to maintain emotional stability and this is likely to influence their personality development. The aim of this study was to examine if interactions between 3 styles of coping by music listening (emotion oriented, problem oriented, and avoidance/disengagement oriented) could predict changes in adolescent neuroticism. This 2-wave longitudinal study followed 336 adolescent girls and boys over a 6-month period. In adolescents combining high neuroticism (baseline) and low avoidance-oriented coping, problem-oriented coping predicted lower neuroticism. In adolescents combining high neuroticism (baseline) with high avoidance-oriented coping, problem-oriented coping predicted higher neuroticism. In adolescent girls presenting high avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping predicted higher neuroticism. Overall, avoidance/disengagement coping by music listening may represent a short-term risk/precipitating factor of increasing neuroticism in adolescence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors express their appreciation for the Korean teacher who recognized my potential and my American mentors who helped me identify the creative energy in myself, and discuss how living a “wonderful” Korean life smothered the essence of my being.
Abstract: In this article, I express my appreciation for the Korean teacher who recognized my potential and my American mentors who helped me identify the creative energy in myself. I discuss how living a “wonderful” Korean life smothered the essence of my being. Next, the overview of my research in creativity is discussed in 3 categories: measurement of creativity, causes of creativity, and effects of creativity. One effect of creativity summarizes how creativity can manifest itself as either a gift or a curse. The article ends with affirming that individualism promotes creativity and a discussion of the direction of my future research, which centers on helping students and adults identify the creative energy in themselves.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated 125 visitors of a production in a German community theater and confirmed that both the emotional and cognitive dimensions were determinants of visitors' overall judgment of a theatrical event.
Abstract: The article aims at explaining visitors’ overall judgment of a theatrical event. A questionnaire was constructed including the 4 dimensions of the theatrical experience identified by Eversmann (2004): perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and communicative. The authors investigated 125 visitors of a production in a German community theater and confirmed that both the emotional and cognitive dimensions were determinants of visitors’ overall judgment of a theatrical event. Implications for further research on the theatrical experience are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors test whether inverting an image improves drawing accuracy, as suggested by art educators, or results in distorted drawings, as predicted by Cohen and Bennett, and reveal that inverting a image inhibits the drawing accuracy of spatial relations.
Abstract: It has been suggested that inverting an image will increase drawing accuracy. However, perceptual evidence suggests that inverting an image inhibits processing of spatial information. D. J. Cohen and S. Bennett (1997) theorized that perceptual distortions will lead to drawing errors. In the present experiment, the authors test whether inverting an image improves drawing accuracy, as suggested by art educators, or results in distorted drawings, as predicted by Cohen and Bennett. The present data reveal that inverting an image inhibits the drawing accuracy of spatial relations thus supporting Cohen and Bennett’s (1997) theory of drawing accuracy.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the effects of prestigious authorship and emotional authorship on aesthetic, creativity, and proficiency evaluations of children's artworks and found that artistic preference was equal in these two groups.
Abstract: concerns about the virtue of art and the art evaluation bias. In this study, we asked what specific aspects of children’s artworks contribute to the accentuated aesthetic response. Recent theories suggest that the final evaluation of aesthetics is emotionally driven. We proposed that youth authorship would elicit a stronger positive emotional response from the viewers than prestige authorship. In 4 experiments, we examined the effects of prestigious authorship and emotional authorship on aesthetic, creativity, and proficiency evaluations. Experiment 1 was a survey of expected qualities of artworks by artists of various backgrounds (e.g., famous artists, youth, or athletes). The results served as baselines for discussion in subsequent experiments. In Experiment 2, participants judged artworks presumably produced by famous artists or children. We predicted higher ratings for youth. In Experiment 3, participants judged artworks presumably produced by famous artists or athletes. Assuming that athletes do not receive the same compassion as children, we predicted the ratings to be higher for the famous artists. To emphasize the role of compassion, participants in Experiment 4 judged artworks presumably produced by privileged or underprivileged youth artists. Inconsistent with the emotional hypothesis, artistic preference was equal in these two groups. Alternative explanations are offered.