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Showing papers in "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the technologies and working principles of different materials used in supercapacitors are explained, together with brief explanations of their properties, such as specific surface area and capacitance values.
Abstract: In this review, the technologies and working principles of different materials used in supercapacitors are explained. The most important supercapacitor active materials are discussed from both research and application perspectives, together with brief explanations of their properties, such as specific surface area and capacitance values. A review of different supercapacitor electrolytes is given and their positive and negative features are discussed. Finally, cell configurations are considered, pointing out the advantages and drawbacks of each configuration.

2,082 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a general summary of the properties of pyrolytic products and their analysis methods is given, as well as a review of the parameters that affect the process and a summary of current state of the art.
Abstract: Pyrolysis is one of the thermochemical technologies for converting biomass into energy and chemical products consisting of liquid bio-oil, solid biochar, and pyrolytic gas. Depending on the heating rate and residence time, biomass pyrolysis can be divided into three main categories slow (conventional), fast and flash pyrolysis mainly aiming at maximising either the bio-oil or biochar yields. Synthesis gas or hydrogen-rich gas can also be the target of biomass pyrolysis. Maximised gas rates can be achieved through the catalytic pyrolysis process, which is now increasingly being developed. Biomass pyrolysis generally follows a three-step mechanism comprising of dehydration, primary and secondary reactions. Dehydrogenation, depolymerisation, and fragmentation are the main competitive reactions during the primary decomposition of biomass. A number of parameters affect the biomass pyrolysis process, yields and properties of products. These include the biomass type, biomass pretreatment (physical, chemical, and biological), reaction atmosphere, temperature, heating rate and vapour residence time. This manuscript gives a general summary of the properties of the pyrolytic products and their analysis methods. Also provided are a review of the parameters that affect biomass pyrolysis and a summary of the state of industrial pyrolysis technologies.

1,379 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the state-of-the-art hydrogen production technologies using renewable and sustainable energy resources are presented, including supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass is the most cost effective thermochemical process.
Abstract: Fossil fuel consumption in transportation system and energy-intensive sectors as the principal pillar of civilization is associated with progressive release of greenhouse gases. Hydrogen as a promising energy carrier is a perfect candidate to supply the energy demand of the world and concomitantly reduce toxic emissions. This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art hydrogen production technologies using renewable and sustainable energy resources. Hydrogen from supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass is the most cost effective thermochemical process. Highly moisturized biomass is utilized directly in SCWG without any high cost drying process. In SCWG, hydrogen is produced at high pressure and small amount of energy is required to pressurize hydrogen in the storage tank. Tar and char formation decreases drastically in biomass SCWG. The low efficiency of solar to hydrogen system as well as expensive photovoltaic cell are the most important barriers for the widespread commercial development of solar-based hydrogen production. Since electricity costs play a crucial role on the final hydrogen price, to generate carbon free hydrogen from solar and wind energy at a competitive price with fossil fuels, the electrical energy cost should be four times less than commercial electricity prices.

1,359 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of pyrolysis process parameters on the production of biochar through biochar of biomass is discussed and a comparison between the existing techniques is established in the present work.
Abstract: Biomass is considered to have potential to be used as an alternative energy source. High carbon content present in biomass converts it into high energy biochar on thermochemical treatment. Among few well established thermochemical technologies for the treatment of biomass and biogenic waste to produce high energy char along with oil and gaseous yield, pyrolysis is the most studied and discussed technique in the recent past. A comparison between the existing techniques is established in the present work. Production of char from the biomass and biogenic wastes is reviewed and it was found that yield of the biochar depends upon the biomass composition like moisture content and presence of cellulose or lignin. Pyrolysis product distribution and their quality strongly depend upon the process parameters. Different biomasses which can be used as raw material in pyrolysis are also reviewed and categorized depending upon their source. Pyrolysis process parameters such as temperature, heating rate, residence time etc. also influence the biochar yield. This study discusses the effect of these process parameters on the production of biochar through pyrolysis of biomass.

944 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive taxonomy of the various energy harvesting sources that can be used by WSNs is presented and some of the challenges still need to be addressed to develop cost-effective, efficient, and reliable energy harvesting systems for the WSN environment are identified.
Abstract: Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted lot of attention due to their pervasive nature and their wide deployment in Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Systems, and other emerging areas. The limited energy associated with WSNs is a major bottleneck of WSN technologies. To overcome this major limitation, the design and development of efficient and high performance energy harvesting systems for WSN environments are being explored. We present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various energy harvesting sources that can be used by WSNs. We also discuss various recently proposed energy prediction models that have the potential to maximize the energy harvested in WSNs. Finally, we identify some of the challenges that still need to be addressed to develop cost-effective, efficient, and reliable energy harvesting systems for the WSN environment.

914 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The need of solar industry with its fundamental concepts, worlds energy scenario, highlights of researches done to upgrade solar industry, its potential applications and barriers for better solar industry in future in order to resolve energy crisis as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: World׳s energy demand is growing fast because of population explosion and technological advancements. It is therefore important to go for reliable, cost effective and everlasting renewable energy source for energy demand arising in future. Solar energy, among other renewable sources of energy, is a promising and freely available energy source for managing long term issues in energy crisis. Solar industry is developing steadily all over the world because of the high demand for energy while major energy source, fossil fuel, is limited and other sources are expensive. It has become a tool to develop economic status of developing countries and to sustain the lives of many underprivileged people as it is now cost effective after a long aggressive researches done to expedite its development. The solar industry would definitely be a best option for future energy demand since it is superior in terms of availability, cost effectiveness, accessibility, capacity and efficiency compared to other renewable energy sources. This paper therefore discusses about the need of solar industry with its fundamental concepts, worlds energy scenario, highlights of researches done to upgrade solar industry, its potential applications and barriers for better solar industry in future in order to resolve energy crisis.

894 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a revisited Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with potential impact of renewable energy consumption on environmental quality was investigated. But, the validity of the EKC hypothesis does not depend on the income level of individual countries of the panel in which it holds.
Abstract: This paper considers a revisited Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with potential impact of renewable energy consumption on environmental quality. To this end, paper aims at investigating the validity of the EKC hypothesis employing the dependent variable of CO2 emissions and regressors of GDP, quadratic GDP and renewable energy consumption. This paper, hence, analyzes this revisited EKC hypothesis to observe if (i) there exists an inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental quality (in terms of CO2 emissions), per capita income and per capita income squared and (ii) there exists a negative causality from renewables to CO2 emissions within EKC model. Paper employs a panel data set of 17 OECD countries over the period 1977–2010 and launches panel FMOLS and panel DOLS estimations. The findings support the EKC hypothesis for the panel and indicate that GDP per capita and GDP per capita squared have the impacts on CO2 emissions positively and negatively, respectively, and that renewable energy consumption yields negative impact on CO2 emissions. Another remark of this paper is that the validity of EKC does not depend on income level of individual countries of panel in which EKC hypothesis holds. Eventually, paper argues that if countries carry out (i) policies, i.e., for fair and easy access to the electricity from renewable sources and (ii) policies to increase renewables supply through i.e. improved renewable energy technologies, they will be able to contribute to combating global warming problem as they increase their GDP’s.

727 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of real income, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption and trade openness and financial development on CO2 emissions in the EKC model for the top countries listed in the Renewable Energy country Attractiveness Index by employing heterogeneous panel estimation techniques with cross-section dependence.
Abstract: Due to tremendous increase in the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the last several decades, a number of studies in the energy-growth-environment literature have attempted to identify the determinants of CO2 emissions. A major criticism related to the existing studies, we realize, is the selection of panel estimation techniques. Almost all studies use panel methods that ignore the issue of cross-sectional dependence even though countries in the panel are most likely heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent. In addition, the majority of existing studies use aggregate energy consumption, and thus fail to identify the impacts of energy consumption by sources on the environment. In order to fulfill the mentioned gaps in the literature, this empirical study analyzes the influence of the real income, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, trade openness and financial development on CO2 emissions in the EKC model for the top countries listed in the Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index by employing heterogeneous panel estimation techniques with cross-section dependence. We find that the analyzed variables become stationary at their first-differences by using the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, and the analyzed variables are cointegrated by employing the LM bootstrap cointegration test. By using the FMOLS and the DOLS, we also find that increases in renewable energy consumption, trade openness and financial development decrease carbon emissions while increases in non-renewable energy consumption contribute to the level of emissions, and the EKC hypothesis is supported for the top renewable energy countries.

674 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive summary of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants both in operation and under construction, covering the available technologies for the receiver, thermal storage, power block and heat transfer fluid.
Abstract: A concentrating solar power (CSP) system converts sunlight into a heat source which can be used to drive a conventional power plant. Thermal energy storage (TES) improves the dispatchability of a CSP plant. Heat can be stored in either sensible, latent or thermochemical storage. Commercial deployment of CSP systems have been achieved in recent years with the two-tank sensible storage system using molten salt as the storage medium. Considerable research effort has been conducted to improve the efficiency of the CSP system and make the cost of electricity comparable to that of the conventional fossil-fuel power plant. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of CSP plants both in operation and under construction. It covers the available technologies for the receiver, thermal storage, power block and heat transfer fluid. This paper also reviews developments in high temperature TES over the past decade with a focus on sensible and latent heat storage. High temperature corrosion and economic aspects of these systems are also discussed.

672 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive list of different organic, inorganic and eutectic phase change materials appropriate for passive cooling in buildings is reviewed, and full-scale testing and numerical modeling are found to be the most popular investigative methods used for experimental and theoretical analysis of PCMs.
Abstract: The most significant threat that mankind faces in the 21th century is global warming. Buildings, which account for 40% of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, play a pivotal role in global warming. Estimates show that their destructive impact will grow by 1.8% per year through 2050, which indicates that future consumption and emissions will be worse than today. Therefore, the impact of cooling systems cannot be ignored, as they, along with ventilation and heating systems, account for 60% of the energy consumed in buildings. Passive cooling techniques are a promising alternative to conventional cooling systems. Of the various passive cooling strategies, thermal energy storage by means of latent heat is an efficient way to increase the thermal inertia of building envelopes, which would reduce temperature fluctuations, leading to the improved thermal comfort of occupants. Phase change materials (PCMs) with high density for thermal energy storage can be efficiently employed to this purpose. This paper reviews recent studies of the application of PCMs for passive cooling in buildings. From the literature, a comprehensive list of different organic, inorganic and eutectic PCMs appropriate for passive cooling in buildings are reviewed. Full-scale testing and numerical modeling were found to be the most popular investigative methods used for experimental and theoretical analysis of PCMs. The combination of these two methods can provide a detailed and valid technique for PCM investigations. Finally, incorporating PCMs into building walls with macro encapsulation was also a dominant interest in previous studies.

651 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a top-down approach for the estimation of waste heat potential of the most common sectors of end use (transportation, industrial, commercial and residential) including electricity generation on a global scale is presented.
Abstract: The process chain of energy conversion from primary energy carriers to final energy use is subject to several losses. Especially in end use, vast amounts of converted energy occur as waste heat, which is often released to the environment. In terms of raising energy efficiency and reducing the energy consumption, such waste heat needs to be used. To date, some studies or investigations about industrial waste heat of selected countries have been carried out, but other sectors like commerce were not considered. Therefore, this work presents a novel top-down approach for the estimation of waste heat potential of the most common sectors of end use (transportation, industrial, commercial and residential) including electricity generation on a global scale. It also deals with the temperature distribution of this unused energy. The evaluation reveals that 72% of the global primary energy consumption is lost after conversion. In further detail, 63% of the considered waste heat streams arise at a temperature below 100 °C in which electricity generation has the largest share followed by transportation and industry.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a review on two aspects that are battery thermal model development and thermal management strategies, and discuss thermal effects of lithium-ion batteries in terms of thermal runaway and response under cold temperatures.
Abstract: Power train electrification is promoted as a potential alternative to reduce carbon intensity of transportation. Lithium-ion batteries are found to be suitable for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and pure electric vehicles (EVs), and temperature control on lithium batteries is vital for long-term performance and durability. Unfortunately, battery thermal management (BTM) has not been paid close attention partly due to poor understanding of battery thermal behaviour. Cell performance change dramatically with temperature, but it improves with temperature if a suitable operating temperature window is sustained. This paper provides a review on two aspects that are battery thermal model development and thermal management strategies. Thermal effects of lithium-ion batteries in terms of thermal runaway and response under cold temperatures will be studied, and heat generation methods are discussed with aim of performing accurate battery thermal analysis. In addition, current BTM strategies utilised by automotive suppliers will be reviewed to identify the imposing challenges and critical gaps between research and practice. Optimising existing BTMs and exploring new technologies to mitigate battery thermal impacts are required, and efforts in prioritising BTM should be made to improve the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, prolong battery lifespan, and enhance the safety of large packs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review and evaluate key contributions to the understanding, performance effects, and mitigation of power loss due to soiling on a solar panel, and present a few cleaning method to prevent from dust accumulation on the surface of solar arrays.
Abstract: The power output delivered from a photovoltaic module highly depends on the amount of irradiance, which reaches the solar cells. Many factors determine the ideal output or optimum yield in a photovoltaic module. However, the environment is one of the contributing parameters which directly affect the photovoltaic performance. The authors review and evaluate key contributions to the understanding, performance effects, and mitigation of power loss due to soiling on a solar panel. Electrical characteristics of PV (Voltage and current) are discussed with respect to shading due to soiling. Shading due to soiling is divided in two categories, namely, soft shading such as air pollution, and hard shading which occurs when a solid such as accumulated dust blocks the sunlight. The result shows that soft shading affects the current provided by the PV module, but the voltage remains the same. In hard shading, the performance of the PV module depends on whether some cells are shaded or all cells of the PV module are shaded. If some cells are shaded, then as long as the unshaded cells receive solar irradiance, there will be some output although there will be a decrease in the voltage output of the PV module. This study also present a few cleaning method to prevent from dust accumulation on the surface of solar arrays.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of battery state of health (SOH) estimation methods for hybrid and electric vehicles is presented, and a potential, new and promising via in order to develop a methodology to estimate the SOH in real applications is detailed.
Abstract: Lithium-ion battery packs in hybrid and electric vehicles, as well as in other traction applications, are always equipped with a Battery Management System (BMS). The BMS consists of hardware and software for battery management including, among others, algorithms determining battery states. The accurate and reliable State of Health (SOH) estimation is a challenging issue and it is a core factor of a battery energy storage system. In this paper, battery SOH monitoring methods are reviewed. To this end, different scientific and technical literature is studied and the respective approaches are classified in specific groups. The groups are organized in terms of the way the method is carried out: Experimental Techniques or Adaptive Models. Not only strengths and weaknesses for the use in online BMS applications are reviewed but also their accuracy and precision is studied. At the end of the document a potential, new and promising via in order to develop a methodology to estimate the SOH in real applications is detailed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive review of various aspects of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) including prefeasibility analysis, optimum sizing, modeling, control aspects and reliability issues.
Abstract: The demand for electricity is increasing day by day, which cannot be fulfilled by non-renewable energy sources alone. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind are omnipresent and environmental friendly. The renewable emulnergy sources are emerging options to fulfill the energy demand, but unreliable due to the stochastic nature of their occurrence. Hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) combines two or more renewable energy sources like wind turbine and solar system. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various aspects of HRES. This paper discusses prefeasibility analysis, optimum sizing, modeling, control aspects and reliability issues. The application of evolutionary technique and game theory in hybrid renewable energy is also presented in this paper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a brief overview on the architecture and functional modules of smart HEMS is presented, and various home appliance scheduling strategies to reduce the residential electricity cost and improve the energy efficiency from power generation utilities are also investigated.
Abstract: With the arrival of smart grid era and the advent of advanced communication and information infrastructures, bidirectional communication, advanced metering infrastructure, energy storage systems and home area networks would revolutionize the patterns of electricity usage and energy conservation at the consumption premises. Coupled with the emergence of vehicle-to-grid technologies and massive distributed renewable energy, there is a profound transition for the energy management pattern from the conventional centralized infrastructure towards the autonomous responsive demand and cyber-physical energy systems with renewable and stored energy sources. Under the sustainable smart grid paradigm, the smart house with its home energy management system (HEMS) plays an important role to improve the efficiency, economics, reliability, and energy conservation for distribution systems. In this paper, a brief overview on the architecture and functional modules of smart HEMS is presented. Then, the advanced HEMS infrastructures and home appliances in smart houses are thoroughly analyzed and reviewed. Furthermore, the utilization of various building renewable energy resources in HEMS, including solar, wind, biomass and geothermal energies, is surveyed. Lastly, various home appliance scheduling strategies to reduce the residential electricity cost and improve the energy efficiency from power generation utilities are also investigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a review of the main commercialized insulation materials (conventional, alternative and advanced) for the building sector through a holistic and multidisciplinary approach, considering thermal properties, acoustic properties, reaction to fire and water vapor resistance; environmental issues were also taken into account by means of Life Cycle Assessment approach.
Abstract: The energy consumption of a building is strongly dependent on the characteristics of its envelope. The thermal performance of external walls represents a key factor to increase the energy efficiency of the construction sector and to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Thermal insulation is undoubtedly one of the best ways to reduce the energy consumption due to both winter heating and summer cooling. Insulation materials play an important role in this scenario since the selection of the correct material, its thickness and its position, allow to obtain good indoor thermal comfort conditions and adequate energy savings. Thermal properties are extremely important, but they are not the only ones to be considered when designing a building envelope: sound insulation, resistance to fire, water vapor permeability and impact on the environment and on human health need to be carefully assessed too. The purpose of the paper is to provide a review of the main commercialized insulation materials (conventional, alternative and advanced) for the building sector through a holistic and multidisciplinary approach, considering thermal properties, acoustic properties, reaction to fire and water vapor resistance; environmental issues were also taken into account by means of Life Cycle Assessment approach. A comparative analysis was performed, considering also unconventional insulation materials that are not yet present in the market. Finally a case study was conducted evaluating both thermal transmittance and dynamic thermal properties of one lightweight and three heavyweight walls, with different types of insulating materials and ways of installation (external, internal or cavity insulation).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review of big data analytics for smart energy management from four major aspects, namely power generation side management, microgrid and renewable energy management, asset management and collaborative operation, as well as demand side management (DSM).
Abstract: Large amounts of data are increasingly accumulated in the energy sector with the continuous application of sensors, wireless transmission, network communication, and cloud computing technologies. To fulfill the potential of energy big data and obtain insights to achieve smart energy management, we present a comprehensive study of big data driven smart energy management. We first discuss the sources and characteristics of energy big data. Also, a process model of big data driven smart energy management is proposed. Then taking smart grid as the research background, we provide a systematic review of big data analytics for smart energy management. It is discussed from four major aspects, namely power generation side management, microgrid and renewable energy management, asset management and collaborative operation, as well as demand side management (DSM). Afterwards, the industrial development of big data-driven smart energy management is analyzed and discussed. Finally, we point out the challenges of big data-driven smart energy management in IT infrastructure, data collection and governance, data integration and sharing, processing and analysis, security and privacy, and professionals.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the framework, benefits and challenges of vehicle to grid technology and summarized the main optimization techniques to achieve different vehicle-to-grid objectives while satisfying multiple constraints.
Abstract: Energy crisis and environmental issues have encouraged the adoption of electric vehicle as an alternative transportation option to the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Recently, the development of smart grid concept in power grid has advanced the role of electric vehicles in the form of vehicle to grid technology. Vehicle to grid technology allows bidirectional energy exchange between electric vehicles and the power grid, which offers numerous services to the power grid, such as power grid regulation, spinning reserve, peak load shaving, load leveling and reactive power compensation. As the implementation of vehicle to grid technology is a complicated unit commitment problem with different conflicting objectives and constraints, optimization techniques are usually utilized. This paper reviews the framework, benefits and challenges of vehicle to grid technology. This paper also summarizes the main optimization techniques to achieve different vehicle to grid objectives while satisfying multiple constraints.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the Smart Grid with its general features, functionalities and characteristics is presented in this paper, where the authors have identified the research activities, challenges and issues of Smart Grid fundamental and related technologies.
Abstract: Energy sustainability and environmental preservation have become worldwide concerns with the many manifestations of climate change and the continually increasing demand for energy. As cities and nations become more technologically advanced, electricity consumption rises to levels that may no longer be manageable if left unattended. The Smart Grid offers an answer to the shift to more sustainable technologies such as distributed generation and microgrids. A general public awareness and adequate attention from potential researchers and policy makers is crucial. This paper presents an overview of the Smart Grid with its general features, functionalities and characteristics. It presents the Smart Grid fundamental and related technologies and have identified the research activities, challenges and issues. It demonstrates how these technologies have shaped the modern electricity grid and continued to evolve and strengthen its role in the better alignment of energy demand and supply. Smart Grid implementation and practices in various locations are also unveiled. Concrete energy policies facilitate Smart Grid initiatives across the nations. Interestingly, Smart Grid practices in different regions barely indicate competition but rather an unbordered community of similar aspirations and shared lessons.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the potential of microalgae and macroalgae for the production of bio-diesel and micro-algae as a promising alternative source to the conventional feedstocks for the third generation biofuel production.
Abstract: Due to diminishing petroleum reserves and deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from fossil-based fuels, research on renewable and environment friendly fuels has received a lot of impetus in the recent years. However, the availability of the non-edible crops serve as the sources for biofuel production are limited and economically not feasible. Algae are a promising alternative source to the conventional feedstocks for the third generation biofuel production. There has been a considerable discussion in the recent years about the potential of microalgae for the production of biofuels, but there may be other more readily exploitable commercial opportunities for macroalgae and microalgae. This review, briefly describes the biofuels conversion technologies for both macroalgae and microalgae. The gasification process produces combustible gases such as H2, CH4, CO2 and ammonia, whereas, the product of pyrolysis is bio-oil. The fermentation product of algae is ethanol, that can be used as a direct fuel or as a gasohol. Hydrogen can be obtained from the photobiological process of algal biomass. In transesterification process, algae oil is converted into biodiesel, which is quite similar to those of conventional diesel and it can be blended with the petroleum diesel. This study, also reviewed the production of high value byproducts from macroalgae and microalgae and their commercial applications. Algae as a potential renewable resource is not only used for biofuels but also for human health, animal and aquatic nutrition, environmental applications such as CO2 mitigation, wastewater treatment, biofertilizer, high-value compounds, synthesis of pigments and stable isotope biochemicals. This review is mainly an attempt, to investigate the biorefinery concept applied on the algal technology, for the synthesis of novel bioproducts to improve the algal biofuels as even more diversified and economically competitive. The employment of a high-value, co-product strategy through the integrated biorefinery approach is expected to significantly enhance the overall commercial implementation of the biofuel from the algal technology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps, where each step reflects one major technological change.
Abstract: This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact is presented in terms of energy (primary energy supply), environment (carbon dioxide emissions), and economy (total annual socio-economic cost). The steps are ordered in terms of their scientific and political certainty as follows: decommissioning nuclear power, implementing a large amount of heat savings, converting the private car fleet to electricity, providing heat in rural areas with heat pumps, providing heat in urban areas with district heating, converting fuel in heavy-duty vehicles to a renewable electrofuel, and replacing natural gas with methane. The results indicate that by using the Smart Energy System approach, a 100% renewable energy system in Europe is technically possible without consuming an unsustainable amount of bioenergy. This is due to the additional flexibility that is created by connecting the electricity, heating, cooling, and transport sectors together, which enables an intermittent renewable penetration of over 80% in the electricity sector. The cost of the Smart Energy Europe scenario is approximately 10–15% higher than a business-as-usual scenario, but since the final scenario is based on local investments instead of imported fuels, it will create approximately 10 million additional direct jobs within the EU.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed and discussed various battery modelling approaches, including mathematical models, electrochemical models and electrical equivalent circuit models, and concluded that the state-of-the-art in battery modelling is not sufficient for this chemistry, and new modelling approaches are needed.
Abstract: Accurate prediction of range of an electric vehicle (EV) is a significant issue and a key market qualifier. EV range forecasting can be made practicable through the application of advanced modelling and estimation techniques. Battery modelling and state-of-charge estimation methods play a vital role in this area. In addition, battery modelling is essential for safe charging/discharging and optimal usage of batteries. Much existing work has been carried out on incumbent Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technologies, but these are reaching their theoretical limits and modern research is also exploring promising next-generation technologies such as Lithium–Sulphur (Li–S). This study reviews and discusses various battery modelling approaches including mathematical models, electrochemical models and electrical equivalent circuit models. After a general survey, the study explores the specific application of battery models in EV battery management systems, where models may have low fidelity to be fast enough to run in real-time applications. Two main categories are considered: reduced-order electrochemical models and equivalent circuit models. The particular challenges associated with Li–S batteries are explored, and it is concluded that the state-of-the-art in battery modelling is not sufficient for this chemistry, and new modelling approaches are needed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview on the diversity of biomass, technological approaches and microbial contribution to the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) into ethanol can be found in this paper.
Abstract: Bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, which is produced from renewable sources. Although almost all the current fuel ethanol is generated from edible sources (sugars and starch), lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) has drawn much attention in recent times. However, the conversion efficiency as well as ethanol yield of the biomass differs greatly with respect to the source and nature of LCB, primarily due to the variation in lignocellulosic content. Two major polysaccharides in LCB, namely, cellulose and hemicellulose firmly link to lignin and form a complex lignocellulosic network, which is highly robust and recalcitrant to depolymerization. For this reason, generation of ethanol from LCB requires a complicated conversion process that has made it commercially non-competitive. As attempts to exploit LCBs into commercial ethanol production, recent research efforts have been devoted to the techno-economic improvements of the overall conversion process, in addition to screen out promising feedstocks. This review paper presents an overview on the diversity of biomass, technological approaches and microbial contribution to the conversion of LCB into ethanol.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the research related to inertia in a power system is given in this paper, where both the challenges as the solutions from an operator point of view to control a system with low inertia are discussed.
Abstract: The inertia of today׳s power system decreases as more and more converter connected generation units and load are integrated in the power system. This results in a power system which behaves differently from before which causes concerns for many grid operators. Therefore, a detailed study is needed to investigate the relevance of this inertia in the operation, control and stability of the system. Moreover, a new definition of the term system inertia is necessary since is it expected that in the future also the renewable electricity generation units will deliver the so-called virtual (synthetic) inertia. In this paper a review of the research related to inertia in a power system is given. Both the challenges as the solutions from an operator point of view to control a system with low inertia are discussed. Also a new definition of inertia is proposed to incorporate the different forms of inertia which are each described in more detail. From recent studies, it can be concluded that the influence of reduced inertia on frequency stability is generally considered as the main challenge for system operators, but with the additional measures listed in this paper, this impact can be mitigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the concept of integrated community energy systems (ICESs) is presented as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems to integrate distributed energy resources and engage local communities.
Abstract: Energy systems across the globe are going through a radical transformation as a result of technological and institutional changes, depletion of fossil fuel resources, and climate change. At the local level, increasing distributed energy resources requires that the centralized energy systems be re-organized. In this paper, the concept of Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) is presented as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems to integrate distributed energy resources and engage local communities. Local energy systems such as ICESs not only ensure self-provision of energy but also provide essential system services to the larger energy system. In this regard, a comparison of different energy system integration option is provided. We review the current energy trends and the associated technological, socio-economic, environmental and institutional issues shaping the development of ICESs. These systems can be applied to both developed and developing countries, however, their objectives, business models as well as composition differs. ICESs can be accepted by different actors such as local governments, communities, energy suppliers and system operators as an effective means to achieve sustainability and thereby will have significant roles in future energy systems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of rice husk (RH), an agricultural waste, is abundantly available in rice producing countries like China, India, Bangladesh, Brazil, US, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar, and South East Asia as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Rice husk (RH), an agricultural waste, is abundantly available in rice producing countries like China, India, Bangladesh, Brazil, US, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar, and South East Asia. Despite the massive amount of annual production worldwide, so far RHs have been recycled only for low-value applications. In recent years, many rice mills in rice producing countries have started using RH for the energy production for mill operations as well as household lighting in rural regions. Burning of RHs produces the rice husk ash (RHA). The disposal in landfills or open fields can be problematic and may cause a serious environmental and human health related problems due to the low bulk density of RHA. Several ways are being thought of for disposing RHA by making its commercial use. The amorphous silica forms the main component (83–90%) of RHA. The amorphous silica rich RHA has wide range of applications. High-value applications and current research investigations such as the use of RHA in manufacturing of silica gels, silicon chip, synthesis of activated carbon and silica, production of light weight construction materials and insulation, catalysts, zeolites, ingredients for lithium ion batteries, graphene, energy storage/capacitor, carbon capture, and in drug delivery vehicles are presented. Use of RHA in potential future applications is also discussed. It is suggested that the amorphous silica rich RHA could become a potential resource of low cost precursor for the production of value-added silica based materials for practical applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
Yasin Kabalci1
TL;DR: The smart metering and communication methods used in smart grid are being extensively studied owing to widespread applications of smart grid as mentioned in this paper, and the security requirements of hardware and software in a smart grid is presented according to their cyber and physical structures.
Abstract: The smart metering and communication methods used in smart grid are being extensively studied owing to widespread applications of smart grid. Although the monitoring and control processes are widely used in industrial systems, the energy management requirements at both service supplier and consumer side for individuals promoted the evolution of smart grid. In this paper, it is aimed to disclose in a clear and clean way that what smart grid is and what kind of communication methods are used. All components of a smart grid are introduced in a logical way to facilitate the understanding, and communication methods are presented regarding to their improvements, advantages, and lacking feature. The developing generation, transmission, distribution and customer appliances are surveyed in terms of smart grid integration. The communication technologies are introduced as wireline and wireless classification where the key features are also tabulated. The security requirements of hardware and software in a smart grid are presented according to their cyber and physical structures.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the state-of-the-art of researches which use HOMER for optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems is presented in this paper, where the authors present the most powerful tools for this purpose is Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software that was developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Abstract: World energy consumption is rising due to population growth and increasing industrialization. Traditional energy resources cannot meet these requirements with notice to their challenges, e.g., greenhouse gas emission and high lifecycle costs. Renewable energy resources are the appropriate alternatives for traditional resources to meet the increasing energy consumption, especially in electricity sector. Integration of renewable energy resources with traditional fossil-based resources besides storages creates Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRESs). To access minimum investment and operation costs and also meet the technical and emission constraints, optimal size of HRES׳s equipment should be determined. One of the most powerful tools for this purpose is Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software that was developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), United States. This software has widely been used by many researchers around the world. In this paper a review of the state-of-the-art of researches, which use HOMER for optimal planning of HRES, is presented.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the existing variance of second generation bioethanol production methodologies, namely pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation, as well as the worth of second-generation production for future reference.
Abstract: It is a popular fact that the world's dependency on fossil fuel has caused unfavourable effects, including lessening crude oil reserve, decreasing air quality, rising global temperature, unpredictable weather change, and so on. As the effort to promote sustainability and independency from fossil fuel, bioethanol is now favoured as the blend or fossil petrol substitute. However, the feedstock functionality of first generation bioethanol production is restricted due to its edibleness since it would clash the feeding purpose. Second generation bioethanol production fulfils the impractical gap of first generation since it employs non-edible feedstock sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Lignocellulosic and starchy materials in them are convertible to fermentable sugars that are able to be further processed, resulting anhydrous bioethanol as the end product. This paper critically reviews the existing variance of second generation bioethanol production methodologies, namely pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation, as well as the worth of second generation production for future reference. The discussions in this paper are also fit as the fundamental for feasible planning of second generation bioethanol production plant.