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Showing papers in "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews in 2019"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work provides a comprehensive overview of fundamental principles that underpin blockchain technologies, such as system architectures and distributed consensus algorithms, and discusses opportunities, potential challenges and limitations for a number of use cases, ranging from emerging peer-to-peer energy trading and Internet of Things applications, to decentralised marketplaces, electric vehicle charging and e-mobility.
Abstract: Blockchains or distributed ledgers are an emerging technology that has drawn considerable interest from energy supply firms, startups, technology developers, financial institutions, national governments and the academic community. Numerous sources coming from these backgrounds identify blockchains as having the potential to bring significant benefits and innovation. Blockchains promise transparent, tamper-proof and secure systems that can enable novel business solutions, especially when combined with smart contracts. This work provides a comprehensive overview of fundamental principles that underpin blockchain technologies, such as system architectures and distributed consensus algorithms. Next, we focus on blockchain solutions for the energy industry and inform the state-of-the-art by thoroughly reviewing the literature and current business cases. To our knowledge, this is one of the first academic, peer-reviewed works to provide a systematic review of blockchain activities and initiatives in the energy sector. Our study reviews 140 blockchain research projects and startups from which we construct a map of the potential and relevance of blockchains for energy applications. These initiatives were systematically classified into different groups according to the field of activity, implementation platform and consensus strategy used. 1 Opportunities, potential challenges and limitations for a number of use cases are discussed, ranging from emerging peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading and Internet of Things (IoT) applications, to decentralised marketplaces, electric vehicle charging and e-mobility. For each of these use cases, our contribution is twofold: first, in identifying the technical challenges that blockchain technology can solve for that application as well as its potential drawbacks, and second in briefly presenting the research and industrial projects and startups that are currently applying blockchain technology to that area. The paper ends with a discussion of challenges and market barriers the technology needs to overcome to get past the hype phase, prove its commercial viability and finally be adopted in the mainstream.

1,399 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review article gives an overview of recent advances in the development of hybrid supercapacitors, storage mechanism, criteria of formation, components, different electrode and electrolyte materials, electrochemical profile assessment, design fabrication and their applications.
Abstract: Hybrid supercapacitors with their improved performance in energy density without altering their power density have been in trend since recent years. The hybrid supercapacitor delivers higher specific capacitance in comparison to the existing electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) and pseudocapacitors. Generally, the asymmetric behavior of hybrid supercapacitors which is the combination of EDLC and pseudocapacitor acts as an enhancer in its respective capacitance values. This asymmetric approach marks a new beginning towards the much-needed pollution free, long lasting and proficient energy-storing performance. Corresponding to their utilization in hybrid electric vehicles and similar sort of power necessity based devices; the research in developing new advanced storage devices finds an enormous and vast future ahead. The most significant factor for the energy efficient applications demands a considerably higher ratio of surface to the volume by incorporation of new materials. This review article gives an overview of recent advances in the development of hybrid supercapacitors, storage mechanism, criteria of formation, components, different electrode and electrolyte materials, electrochemical profile assessment, design fabrication and their applications.

862 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of these new P2P electricity markets that starts with the motivation, challenges, market designs moving to the potential future developments in this field is contributed, providing recommendations while considering a test-case.
Abstract: The advent of more proactive consumers, the so-called “prosumers”, with production and storage capabilities, is empowering the consumers and bringing new opportunities and challenges to the operation of power systems in a market environment. Recently, a novel proposal for the design and operation of electricity markets has emerged: these so-called peer-to-peer (P2P) electricity markets conceptually allow the prosumers to directly share their electrical energy and investment. Such P2P markets rely on a consumer-centric and bottom-up perspective by giving the opportunity to consumers to freely choose the way they buy their electric energy. A community can also be formed by prosumers who want to collaborate, or in terms of operational energy management. This paper contributes with an overview of these new P2P markets that starts with the motivation, challenges, market designs moving to the potential future developments in this field, providing recommendations while considering a test-case.

592 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different methods for lignin depolymerization can be divided into thermochemical treatment, mechanical treatment, chemical catalysis, and biological treatment, and their characteristics and products are extensively discussed in this article.
Abstract: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature. Due to its high amount of phenolic compounds storage, lignin is considered as an alternative source for various polymers and biomaterials production. Except for the native lignin in lignocellulose, a massive amount of technical lignin is being produced daily all over the world. However, the complex structure and low reactivity of lignin limit its further applications and currently, most of the lignin is burned for generating energy. Therefore, the depolymerization of lignin is considered one of the important challenges in lignin utilization. Methods for lignin depolymerization can be divided into thermochemical treatment, mechanical treatment, chemical catalysis, and biological treatment. Different methods for lignin depolymerization, their characteristics and products are extensively discussed in this review.

541 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review categorises data-driven battery health estimation methods according to their underlying models/algorithms and discusses their advantages and limitations, then focuses on challenges of real-time battery health management and discuss potential next-generation techniques.
Abstract: Accurate health estimation and lifetime prediction of lithium-ion batteries are crucial for durable electric vehicles. Early detection of inadequate performance facilitates timely maintenance of battery systems. This reduces operational costs and prevents accidents and malfunctions. Recent advancements in “Big Data” analytics and related statistical/computational tools raised interest in data-driven battery health estimation. Here, we will review these in view of their feasibility and cost-effectiveness in dealing with battery health in real-world applications. We categorise these methods according to their underlying models/algorithms and discuss their advantages and limitations. In the final section we focus on challenges of real-time battery health management and discuss potential next-generation techniques. We are confident that this review will inform commercial technology choices and academic research agendas alike, thus boosting progress in data-driven battery health estimation and prediction on all technology readiness levels.

538 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the current field and knowledge in regards to MFCs and the known mechanisms underpinning MFC technology, which allows bacteria to facilitate in electron transfer processes is given in this article.
Abstract: Research into alternative renewable energy generation is a priority, due to the ever-increasing concern of climate change. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one potential avenue to be explored, as a partial solution towards combating the over-reliance on fossil fuel based electricity. Limitations have slowed the advancement of MFC development, including low power generation, expensive electrode materials and the inability to scale up MFCs to industrially relevant capacities. However, utilisation of new advanced electrode-materials (i.e. 2D nanomaterials), has promise to advance the field of electromicrobiology. New electrode materials coupled with a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms in which electrogenic bacteria partake in electron transfer could dramatically increase power outputs, potentially reaching the upper extremities of theoretical limits. Continued research into both the electrochemistry and microbiology is of paramount importance in order to achieve industrial-scale development of MFCs. This review gives an overview of the current field and knowledge in regards to MFCs and discusses the known mechanisms underpinning MFC technology, which allows bacteria to facilitate in electron transfer processes. This review focusses specifically on enhancing the performance of MFCs, with the key intrinsic factor currently limiting power output from MFCs being the rate of electron transfer to/from the anode; the use of advanced carbon-based materials as electrode surfaces is discussed.

434 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a concise, understandable overview of existing methods, key issues, technical challenges, and future trends of the battery state estimation domain, for the first time, in SOC/SOE/SOH/SOP/SOT/SOS estimation.
Abstract: Batteries are presently pervasive in portable electronics, electrified vehicles, and renewable energy storage. These indispensable engineering applications are all safety-critical and energy efficiency-demanding such that batteries must be meticulously monitored and manipulated, where effectively estimating the internal battery states is a key enabler. The primary goal of this paper is to present a concise, understandable overview of existing methods, key issues, technical challenges, and future trends of the battery state estimation domain. More specifically, for the first time, the state of the art in State of Charge (SOC), State of Energy (SOE), State of Health (SOH), State of Power (SOP), State of Temperature (SOT), and State of Safety (SOS) estimation is all elucidated in a tutorial yet systematical way, along with existing issues exposed. In addition, from six different viewpoints, some future important research opportunities and evolving trends of this prosperous field are disclosed, in order to stimulate more technologically innovative breakthroughs in SOC/SOE/SOH/SOP/SOT/SOS estimation.

418 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of battery design features, advantages, disadvantages, and environmental impacts are assessed, and it is shown that batteries are efficient, convenient, reliable and easy-to-use energy storage systems (ESSs).
Abstract: As more renewable energy is developed, energy storage is increasingly important and attractive, especially grid-scale electrical energy storage; hence, finding and implementing cost-effective and sustainable energy storage and conversion systems is vital. Batteries of various types and sizes are considered one of the most suitable approaches to store energy and extensive research exists for different technologies and applications of batteries; however, environmental impacts of large-scale battery use remain a major challenge that requires further study. In this paper, batteries from various aspects including design features, advantages, disadvantages, and environmental impacts are assessed. This review reaffirms that batteries are efficient, convenient, reliable and easy-to-use energy storage systems (ESSs). It also confirms that battery shelf life and use life are limited; a large amount and wide range of raw materials, including metals and non-metals, are used to produce batteries; and, the battery industry can generate considerable amounts of environmental pollutants (e.g., hazardous waste, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic gases) during different processes such as mining, manufacturing, use, transportation, collection, storage, treatment, disposal and recycling. Battery use at a large scale or grid-scale (>50 MW), which is widely anticipated, will have significant social and environmental impacts; hence, it must be compared carefully with alternatives in terms of sustainability, while focusing on research to quantify externalities and reduce risk. Alternatives such as pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage must be encouraged because of their low environmental impact compared to different types of batteries.

416 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a critical review of heat transfer applications of nanofluids, including radiators, circular tube heat exchangers, plate heat exchanger, shell and tube heat exchange, and heat sinks.
Abstract: This paper presents a critical review of heat transfer applications of nanofluids. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size, shape, and nanofluid flow rate on Nusselt number, heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, friction factor and pressure drop from numerous studies reported recently are presented. Effects of various geometric parameters on heat transfer enhancement of system using nanofluids have also been reviewed. Heat transfer devices covered in this paper include radiators, circular tube heat exchangers, plate heat exchangers, shell and tube heat exchangers and heat sinks. Various correlations used for experimental validation or developed in reviewed studies are also compiled, compared and analyzed. The pros and cons associated to the applications of nanofluids in heat transfer devices are presented in details to determine the future direction of research in this arena.

388 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review provides a contemporary assessment of progresses recorded on synergistic interplay among catalyst components (active metals, support, promoters and binders) during dry reforming using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques.
Abstract: The abrupt and massive deactivation of methane dry reforming catalysts especially Ni-based is still a monumental impediment towards its industrialization and commercialization for production of value-added syngas via Fischer-Tropsch process. The need for further and more critical understanding of inherent and tailored interactions of catalyst components for performance and stability enhancement during reforming reaction cannot be over-emphasized. This review provides a contemporary assessment of progresses recorded on synergistic interplay among catalyst components (active metals, support, promoters and binders) during dry reforming using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Advancements achieved during interplay leading to improvements in properties of existing catalysts and discovery of novel ones were stated and expatiated. Reaction pathways, catalytic activities, selection of appropriate synthesis route and metal/support deactivation via sintering or carbon deposition have over time been successfully studied and explained using information from these crucial component interactions. This perspective describes the roles of these interactions and their applications towards development of robust catalysts configurations for successful industrial applications.

367 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a worldwide overview of power-to-gas projects producing hydrogen or renewable substitute natural gas focusing projects in central Europe is presented, including previously unreviewed projects and combining project names with details such as plant location.
Abstract: This review gives a worldwide overview on Power-to-Gas projects producing hydrogen or renewable substitute natural gas focusing projects in central Europe. It deepens and completes the content of previous reviews by including hitherto unreviewed projects and by combining project names with details such as plant location. It is based on data from 153 completed, recent and planned projects since 1988 which were evaluated with regards to plant allocation, installed power development, plant size, shares and amounts of hydrogen or substitute natural gas producing examinations and product utilization phases. Cost development for electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation was analyzed and a projection until 2030 is given with an outlook to 2050. The results show substantial cost reductions for electrolysis as well as for methanation during the recent years and a further price decline to less than 500 euro per kilowatt electric power input for both technologies until 2050 is estimated if cost projection follows the current trend. Most of the projects examined are located in Germany, Denmark, the United States of America and Canada. Following an exponential global trend to increase installed power, today's Power-to-Gas applications are operated at about 39 megawatt. Hydrogen and substitute natural gas were investigated on equal terms concerning the number of projects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated 40 thermal networks in operation in Europe that are able to cover both the heating and cooling demands of buildings by means of distributed heat pumps installed at the customer substations.
Abstract: This article investigates 40 thermal networks in operation in Europe that are able to cover both the heating and cooling demands of buildings by means of distributed heat pumps installed at the customer substations. The technology of thermal networks that work at a temperature close to the ground, can strongly contribute to the decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector and furthermore exploit a multitude of low temperature heat sources. Nevertheless, the nomenclature used in literature shows that misinterpretations could easily result when comparing the different concepts of thermal networks that operate at a temperature level lower than traditional district heating. The scope of this work is to revise the definitions encountered and to introduce an unambiguous definition of Fifth-Generation District Heating and Cooling networks. A drawback-benefit analysis is presented to identify the pros and cons of such technology. The survey on the current networks shows that on average three Fifth-Generation District Heating and Cooling systems per year have entered the heating and cooling market in the last decade. Pioneer countries in such technology are Germany and Switzerland. For some networks, the assessed Linear Heating Power Demand Density results are lower than the feasibility threshold adopted in traditional district heating. High performances and low non-renewable primary energy factors are achieved in systems that exploit a very high share of renewable or urban excess heat sources. With respect to traditional district heating, the surveyed pumping energy consumptions result one order of magnitude higher, whereas the implemented control strategies can be completely different, leading the network temperature to float freely.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this study underground hydrogen storage in various storage types (aquifers, depleted deposits of natural gas and oil, salt caverns) is examined. A road map for the implementation of underground hydrogen storage is presented. Underground hydrogen storage does not significantly differ from natural gas storage. Nevertheless, it is not yet an available and technically feasible manner of storing energy and it will not prove to be one in the near future. The lower cost of hydrogen production through electrolysis will be the decisive factor for the implementation of this method of energy storage on an industrial scale. Numerous problems and challenges in this field are presented. The fact that specific properties of gaseous hydrogen will have to be handled adequately to provide tightness during underground storage, transport and withdrawal has been noted. The choice of geological structures for underground hydrogen storage should be based on a detailed geological analysis, taking geological and engineering criteria into account. Any possibility of hydrogen escape beyond the limits of an underground storage facility should result in the rejection of the hazardous location. The factors related to the surface installations should be considered only after the selection based on geological criteria has been conducted. Geological, technological, economic, legal and social obstacles have to be overcome before the underground hydrogen storage is implemented on a full scale. As a result of the complexity of the issue coupled with the lack of experience in this kind of operations a prolonged period of studies can be expected. Any future implementations will have to be preceded by extensive studies aimed at a better understanding of the processes of hydrogen interaction with ambient rocks and the installations. Plans to reduce all the hazards involved should be prepared. These activities should proceed in well-defined time frames.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Challenge steps in the implementation of KF family algorithms in model-based online SOC estimation processes, such as selection of battery model, initial SOC and filter tuning, are elaborated for the efficient development of a battery management system, especially for EV application.
Abstract: Carbon impression and the growing reliance on fossil fuels are two unique concerns for world emission regulatory agencies. These issues have placed electric vehicles (EVs) powered by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) on the forefront as alternative vehicles. The LIB has noticeable features, including high energy and power density, compared with other accessible electrochemical energy storage systems. However, LIB is exceedingly nonlinear and dynamic; therefore, it generally requires an accurate online state-of-charge (SOC) estimation algorithm for real-time applications. Accurate battery modelling is an essential and primary requirement of online SOC estimation to simulate the dynamics. In this paper, different modelling methods suitable for online SOC estimation are discussed, and four groups of available online SOC estimation approaches are reviewed. After the general survey, the study explores the available Kalman filter (KF) family algorithms suitable for model-based online SOC estimation. The mathematical process and limitations of different KF family algorithms are analysed in depth and discussed. Moreover, challenging steps in the implementation of KF family algorithms in model-based online SOC estimation processes, such as selection of battery model, initial SOC and filter tuning, are elaborated for the efficient development of a battery management system, especially for EV application. The on-going research is propelled by KF-based online SOC estimation approaches distinctly emphasised through reviewing various studies for future research progression.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a techno-economic review of hydrogen energy systems including power-to-power, powerto-gas, hydrogen refuelling and stationary fuel cells.
Abstract: Hydrogen technologies can play an important role in decarbonising our energy system in a variety of ways across the energy value chain. It is therefore critical to identify the strategic roles as well as the conditions under which hydrogen energy systems become attractive for the energy transition. In this paper, the authors present a techno-economic review of hydrogen energy systems including power-to-power, power-to-gas, hydrogen refuelling and stationary fuel cells. We focus on their optimal operation as flexible assets and we identify three actions that can foster their uptake beyond technological progress. First, we recommend optimal electricity supply with dedicated control strategies considering that electricity dominates the levelised cost of hydrogen production via electrolysis. Secondly, hydrogen can enable the further integration of traditionally independent sectors, namely electricity, heat and transport while contributing to decarbonise all. This position can also be advantageous for investors who sell heat and fuels as energy efficient products. Lastly, we examine a whole range of revenues from different products and applications which can be combined (i.e. benefit stacking) to match capital and operational expenditures. We discuss these roles in depth and we conclude that policy makers together with technology developers should elaborate smart strategies to reduce cost by scaling production, stimulate standardisation (e.g., similar to the PV industry) as well as develop new market structures and regulatory frameworks which allow hydrogen technologies to deliver multiple low carbon applications and products.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to review different research works on DR optimisation problems and some directions for future research are proposed.
Abstract: Demand response programs offer efficient solutions for many power system problems, such as high generation cost, high demand’s peak to average ratio, high emissions, reliability issues and congestion in generation, transmission and distribution systems. Their main function is to assist power systems during peak demand hours and also during contingencies. They are a subcategory of the family of demand side management (DSM) strategies. DR programs are classified into two broad categories; price-based DR programs and incentive-based DR programs. In order to exploit their full potential, DR programs must be implemented optimally. Such a problem, which here is referred to as “DR optimisation problem”, is a hot research topic and has been frequently researched in the literature. This paper aims to review different research works on DR optimisation problems. Based on the conducted review, some directions for future research are proposed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the potential risks associated with the exploitation and processing of GM algae and proposed appropriate mitigation strategies to deal with them, which is important to a successful commercialized production of FGB.
Abstract: Fourth generation biofuel (FGB) uses genetically modified (GM) algae to enhance biofuel production. Although GM algae biofuel is a well-known alternative to fossil fuels, the potential environmental and health-related risks are still of great concern. An evaluation of these concerns and accordingly devising appropriate mitigation strategies to deal with them are important to a successful commercialized production of FGB. While extensive research has been carried out on genetic modification and other technologies that aim to increase the productivity of algae strains, only a handful of them deal with the legislative limitations imposed on exploiting and processing GM algae. This paper examines this legislation and the mitigation strategies to meet potential risks associated with the exploitation and processing of FGB. Open-pond system is an economic solution for large-scale cultivation of microalgae; however, the concern regarding the health and environmental risk of cultivating GM algae and the associated stringent regulations is considered as the main barrier of FGB production. Disposal of the residue is another important issue that should be considered in FGB production. The byproducts obtained from energy extraction step and residual water from the harvesting process may contain plasmid or chromosomal DNA that may cause the risk of lateral gene transfer. Hence an appropriate mitigation practices should be used for replacement of the hazardous water residue and by-products with more environmentally friendly alternatives. The results obtained from several field testing projects for open-environment exploitation of GM algae show that under the various conditions used, there was no apparent proof to support possible horizontal gene transfer in release of GM algae.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, several CO2 capture strategies have been proposed to mitigate the issue of climate change caused by the utilization of fossil fuels, which is recognized as a primary option for mitigating the issue.
Abstract: CO2 capture, utilization and storage has been recognized as a primary option to mitigate the issue of climate change caused by the utilization of fossil fuels. Several CO2 capture strategies have b ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that new artificial intelligence-based methodologies are needed to be able to combine the advantages of both kinds of methods in the future.
Abstract: Artificial intelligence has showed powerful capacity in detecting and diagnosing faults of building energy systems. This paper aims at making a comprehensive literature review of artificial intelligence-based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods for building energy systems in the past twenty years from 1998 to 2018, summarizing the strengths and shortcomings of the existing artificial intelligence-based methods, and revealing the most important research tasks in the future. Challenges in developing FDD methods for building energy systems are discussed firstly. Then, a comprehensive literature review is made. All methods are classified into two categories, i.e. data driven-based and knowledge driven-based. The data driven-based methods are abundant, including the classification-based, unsupervised learning-based and regression-based. They showed powerful capacity in learning patterns from training data. But, they need a large amount of training data, and have problems in reliability and robustness. The knowledge driven-based methods show powerful capacity in simulating the diagnostic thinking of experts. But, they rely on expert knowledge heavily. It is concluded that new artificial intelligence-based methodologies are needed to be able to combine the advantages of both kinds of methods in the future.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive and in-depth review on BP for LCB and microalgae biomass by focusing on the relevant overviews and perspectives, technological approaches, mechanisms, influencing factors, and recent research progresses is presented.
Abstract: Biological pretreatment (BP) is a promising approach for treating microalgae and lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) during biofuels production that uses mostly fungal and bacterial strains or their enzymes. Pretreatment with fungi requires long incubation time (weeks to months), whereas, bacterial and enzymatic pretreatments can be completed by only a few hours to days. Nevertheless, fungal pretreatment especially with white-rot fungi (WRF) is predominantly used in BP of biomass for its high efficiency and downstream yields. According to the recent reports, delignification of LCB by WRF may vary between 3% and 72% with a maximum 120% increase in the biofuel yield. Compared to the untreated microalgae biomass, the downstream yields of the respective biofuels were found to be increased by 22–159% after bacterial pretreatment, while enzymatic pretreatment improved as much as 485% of the final yield. Despite the results are promising, exploitation of BP on large scale is still bottlenecked by some technoeconomic hurdles, which need to be overcome through further fundamental and applied researches. This paper presents a comprehensive and in-depth review on BP for LCB and microalgae biomass by focusing on the relevant overviews and perspectives, technological approaches, mechanisms, influencing factors, and recent research progresses. Finally, challenges and future outlooks are discussed in the concluding sections.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a path for transitioning the German energy system within the heating, industrial, transport and electricity sectors, taking into consideration renewable resource potentials, energy system costs and primary energy supply.
Abstract: Germany has set ambitious policies for increasing renewable energy shares and decommissioning nuclear energy, but there are certain scientific gaps on how this transition should occur, especially when considering all energy sectors. The purpose of this study is to advance the knowledge of transitioning the German energy system to 100% renewable energy towards 2050. Taking into consideration renewable resource potentials, energy system costs and primary energy supply this study develops a path for transitioning the German energy system within the heating, industrial, transport and electricity sectors. The analysis demonstrates that it is possible to carry out this transition from a technical and economic perspective with some measures being vital for achieving this ambition in a cost-effective manner. The most significant challenge in this transition is regarding resource potentials where especially biomass resources are constrained and under pressure. Finally, the most influential measures for achieving the renewable transition are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the research and development on the effects of catalysts on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to determine the progress of catalytic thermochemical transformation processes is presented in this article.
Abstract: The increasing demand for energy and diminishing sources of fossil fuels have called for the discovery of new energy sources. The effective energy conversion process of biomass is able to fulfill energy needs. Among the advanced biomass conversion technologies, thermochemical processes hold considerable potential approaches and needed for optimization. Thus, this study presents a comprehensive review of the research and development on the effects of catalysts on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to determine the progress of catalytic thermochemical conversion processes. The effects of catalysts on torrefaction, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, and gasification are highlighted. Aspects related to reaction conditions, reactor types, and products are discussed comprehensively with the reaction mechanisms involved in the catalytic effects. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation can occur in the presence of zeolite catalysts during fast pyrolysis while producing highly aromatic bio-oil. A heterogeneous catalyst in liquefaction increases the hydrocarbon content and decreases viscosity, acid value, and oxygenated compounds in the bio-oil. Thus, expanding and enhancing knowledge about catalyst utilization in the thermochemical conversion technologies of biomass will play an important role in the generation of renewable and carbon-neutral fuels.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in 17 emerging countries, spanning the period of 1990-2016, using the bootstrap panel causality test, allowing for dependence across countries and heterogeneity in slope parameters.
Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in 17 emerging countries, spanning the period of 1990–2016. The bootstrap panel causality test, allowing for dependence across countries and heterogeneity in slope parameters, developed by Konya (2006) [1] was employed. The results indicated that the neutrality hypothesis does hold for all of the markets studied except for Poland, which confirmed the growth hypothesis. As such, because of the nonexistence of causality running from renewable energy demand to economic growth, energy saving (mitigation) policies do not have any detrimental influence on the growth rates of these 16 emerging economies. For Poland; however, energy conservation policies may have detrimental effects on the country's economic performance level.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The cultivation conditions for biomass growth and lipid productivity improvement, the available harvesting and lipid extraction technologies, as well as the key challenges and future prospect of microalgae biodiesel production are illustrated.
Abstract: Microalgae has been identified as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production since its cultivation requires less cropland compared to conventional oil crops and the high growth rate of microalgae. Research on microalgae oils often are focused on microalgae oil extraction and biomass harvesting techniques. However, energy intensive and costly lipid extraction methods are the major obstacles hampering microalgae biodiesel commercialisation. Direct biodiesel synthesis avoids such problems as it combines lipid extraction techniques and transesterification into a single step. In this review, the potential of direct biodiesel synthesis from microalgae biomass was comprehensively analysed. The various species of microalgae commonly used as biodiesel feedstock was critically assessed, particularly on high lipid content species. The production of microalgae biodiesel via direct conversion from biomass was systematically discussed, covering major enhancements such as heterogeneous catalysts, the use of ultrasonic and microwave- techniques and supercritical alcohols that focus on the overall improvement of biodiesel production. In addition, this review illustrates the cultivation conditions for biomass growth and lipid productivity improvement, the available harvesting and lipid extraction technologies, as well as the key challenges and future prospect of microalgae biodiesel production. This review serves as a basis for future research on direct biodiesel synthesis from modified microalgae biomass to improve profitability of microalgae biodiesel.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the potential aviation applications where hydrogen and fuel cell technology can be used are discussed and major challenges that limit the wide adoption of hydrogen technology in aviation are highlighted and future research prospects are identified.
Abstract: The world energy consumption is greatly influenced by the aviation industry with a total energy consumption ranging between 2.5% and 5%. Currently, liquid fossil fuel, which releases various types of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, is the main fuel in the aviation industry. As the aviation industry grows rapidly to meet the requirements of the increased world population, the demand for environmentally friendly power technology for various applications in the aviation sector has been increased sharply in recent years. Among the various clean power sources, energy obtained from hydrogen is considered the future for energy generation in the aviation industry due to its cleanness and abundance. This paper aims to give an overview of the potential aviation applications where hydrogen and fuel cell technology can be used. Also, the major challenges that limit the wide adoption of hydrogen technology in aviation are highlighted and future research prospects are identified.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the latest development of hydrothermal carbonization in the field of sewage sludge treatment can be found in this paper, where the authors identify the current challenges and knowledge gaps.
Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization is an important thermochemical conversion process that can be used as an energy-efficient alternative to enhance the dewaterability of sewage sludge and meanwhile to convert sewage sludge into high value-added products, such as clean biofuel, organic fertilizer and precursors of functional materials. This paper presents an overview of the latest development of hydrothermal carbonization in the field of sewage sludge treatment, with a particular focus on critical hydrothermal parameters, physicochemical characteristics of products streams, current understanding on hydrochar formation mechanisms, sewage sludge dewaterability improvement and techno-economic advantages. Recent advances have shown that hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge is an exothermal process, which is governed by temperature to a large extent. Both polymerizations of highly reactive intermediates derived from degradation of biopolymers in sewage sludge and solid-solid conversion of their undissolved fractions are regarded as the major mechanisms of hydrochar formation. The high ash content of hydrochar is probably the limiting factor for its potential applications in energy and functional materials. The chemistry in hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge, closely related to the process parameters and the chemical composition of sewage sludge, offers huge potential to influence the products distribution and characteristics and the process energetics as desired, which provides a promising opportunity to construct a high-efficiency industrial chain for energy and resources recovery from sewage sludge by a controlled hydrothermal process. This review identifies the current challenges and knowledge gaps, and provides new perspectives for future research efforts targeting at sustainable treatment of sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviews the inertia concept in terms of values and their evolution in the last decades, as well as the damping factor values.
Abstract: Traditionally, inertia in power systems has been determined by considering all the rotating masses directly connected to the grid. During the last decade, the integration of renewable energy sources, mainly photovoltaic installations and wind power plants, has led to a significant dynamic characteristic change in power systems. This change is mainly due to the fact that most renewables have power electronics at the grid interface. The overall impact on stability and reliability analysis of power systems is very significant. The power systems become more dynamic and require a new set of strategies modifying traditional generation control algorithms. Indeed, renewable generation units are decoupled from the grid by electronic converters, decreasing the overall inertia of the grid. ‘Hidden inertia’, ‘synthetic inertia’ or ‘virtual inertia’ are terms currently used to represent artificial inertia created by converter control of the renewable sources. Alternative spinning reserves are then needed in the new power system with high penetration renewables, where the lack of rotating masses directly connected to the grid must be emulated to maintain an acceptable power system reliability. This paper reviews the inertia concept in terms of values and their evolution in the last decades, as well as the damping factor values. A comparison of the rotational grid inertia for traditional and current averaged generation mix scenarios is also carried out. In addition, an extensive discussion on wind and photovoltaic power plants and their contributions to inertia in terms of frequency control strategies is included in the paper.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an optimized gasifier and highly active catalyst were proved to be effective for biomass tar elimination, and the tar formation mechanism and the decomposition pathway were also important to advance the optimization of gasification reactors and catalyst design.
Abstract: Biomass gasification converts into syngas, then into other chemicals via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is promising for renewable energy utilization. Although gasification is a sustainable and environmental-friendly technology for value-added utilization of biomass, tar formation is the major problem during the biomass gasification. Tar could condense on the reactor then block and foul equipment. An optimized gasifier and highly active catalyst were proved to be effective for biomass tar elimination. Furthermore, tar formation mechanism and the decomposition pathway were also important to advance the optimization of gasification reactors and catalyst design. This paper summarized the fundamentals, such as gasifier types, Ni-based catalyst, and reaction and deactivation mechanism. This review also sheds light on other excellent catalysts, effective gasifiers and mathematical models of biomass catalytic gasification, and catalyst reaction mechanisms and mathematical models are also discussed in detail. At last, the paper ends with a conclusion and prospective discussion to the latter lab and industrial-scale research.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conduct a systematic literature review to analyze operational strategies (e.g., peak shaving, operations optimization), technology usage, alternative fuels and energy management systems for improving the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ports and terminals.
Abstract: Many ports and terminals endeavor to enhance energy efficiency as energy prices have increased through years and climate change mitigation is a key target for the port industry. Stricter environmental regulations are adopted by authorities to limit pollutants and GHG emissions arising from energy consumption. Increasingly, port operational strategies and energy usage patterns are under scrutiny. To ingrain sustainability and environmental protection of ports, the use of innovative technology appears as a critical conduit in achieving a transition from a carbon-intensive port industry (dependent on fossil fuels) to a low-carbon port model by harnessing renewable energy, alternative fuels (e.g. LNG, hydrogen, biofuel), smarter power distribution systems, energy consumption measurement systems. In this context, this paper conducts a systematic literature review to analyze operational strategies (e.g. peak shaving, operations optimization), technology usage (e.g. electrification of equipment, cold-ironing, energy storage systems), renewable energy, alternative fuels and energy management systems (e.g. smart grid with renewable energy) for improving the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ports and terminals. Research gaps and future research directions are identified. Analysis shows that there is a great potential for ports to achieve further energy efficiency and researchers have many impactful research opportunities.

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TL;DR: In this article, the present state of knowledge concerning geotechnical and structural issues affecting foundation types under consideration for the support structures of offshore wind turbines, and recommendations for future research and development are provided.
Abstract: Offshore wind is a source of clean, renewable energy of great potential value to the power industry in the context of a low carbon society. Rapid development of offshore wind energy depends on a good understanding of technical issues related to offshore wind turbines, which is spurring ongoing research and development programmes. Foundations of offshore wind turbines present one of the main challenges in offshore wind turbine design. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge concerning geotechnical and structural issues affecting foundation types under consideration for the support structures of offshore wind turbines, and provides recommendations for future research and development.