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JournalISSN: 0034-4885

Reports on Progress in Physics 

About: Reports on Progress in Physics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Superconductivity & Spectroscopy. It has an ISSN identifier of 0034-4885. Over the lifetime, 2199 publication(s) have been published receiving 327938 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
R Kubo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The linear response theory has given a general proof of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which states that the linear response of a given system to an external perturbation is expressed in terms of fluctuation properties of the system in thermal equilibrium. This theorem may be represented by a stochastic equation describing the fluctuation, which is a generalization of the familiar Langevin equation in the classical theory of Brownian motion. In this generalized equation the friction force becomes retarded or frequency-dependent and the random force is no more white. They are related to each other by a generalized Nyquist theorem which is in fact another expression of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This point of view can be applied to a wide class of irreversible process including collective modes in many-particle systems as has already been shown by Mori. As an illustrative example, the density response problem is briefly discussed.

3,652 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Joseph J Monaghan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this review the theory and application of Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) since its inception in 1977 are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the strengths and weaknesses, the analogy with particle dynamics and the numerous areas where SPH has been successfully applied.

3,578 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.

2,962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The recent literature concerning the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been reviewed. The MCE properties have been compiled and correlations have been made comparing the behaviours of the different families of magnetic materials which exhibit large or unusual MCE values. These families include: the lanthanide (R) Laves phases (RM2, where M = Al, Co and Ni), Gd5(Si1−xGex)4 ,M n(As1−xSbx), MnFe(P1−xAsx), La(Fe13−xSix) and their hydrides and the manganites (R1−xMxMnO3, where R = lanthanide and M = Ca, Sr and Ba). The potential for use of these materials in magnetic refrigeration is discussed, including a comparison with Gd as a near room temperature active magnetic regenerator material. (Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version)

2,726 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Carl M. Bender1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The Hamiltonian H specifies the energy levels and time evolution of a quantum theory. A standard axiom of quantum mechanics requires that H be Hermitian because Hermiticity guarantees that the energy spectrum is real and that time evolution is unitary (probability-preserving). This paper describes an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics in which the mathematical axiom of Hermiticity (transpose +complex conjugate) is replaced by the physically transparent condition of space?time reflection ( ) symmetry. If H has an unbroken symmetry, then the spectrum is real. Examples of -symmetric non-Hermitian quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians are and . Amazingly, the energy levels of these Hamiltonians are all real and positive!Does a -symmetric Hamiltonian H specify a physical quantum theory in which the norms of states are positive and time evolution is unitary? The answer is that if H has an unbroken symmetry, then it has another symmetry represented by a linear operator . In terms of , one can construct a time-independent inner product with a positive-definite norm. Thus, -symmetric Hamiltonians describe a new class of complex quantum theories having positive probabilities and unitary time evolution.The Lee model provides an excellent example of a -symmetric Hamiltonian. The renormalized Lee-model Hamiltonian has a negative-norm 'ghost' state because renormalization causes the Hamiltonian to become non-Hermitian. For the past 50 years there have been many attempts to find a physical interpretation for the ghost, but all such attempts failed. The correct interpretation of the ghost is simply that the non-Hermitian Lee-model Hamiltonian is -symmetric. The operator for the Lee model is calculated exactly and in closed form and the ghost is shown to be a physical state having a positive norm. The ideas of symmetry are illustrated by using many quantum-mechanical and quantum-field-theoretic models.

2,397 citations

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