Journal•ISSN: 0034-4885

# Reports on Progress in Physics

IOP Publishing

About: Reports on Progress in Physics is an academic journal published by IOP Publishing. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Physics & Superconductivity. It has an ISSN identifier of 0034-4885. Over the lifetime, 2247 publications have been published receiving 364813 citations.

Topics: Physics, Superconductivity, Spectroscopy, Quark, Scattering

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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TL;DR: In this article, the linear response of a given system to an external perturbation is expressed in terms of fluctuation properties of the system in thermal equilibrium, which may be represented by a stochastic equation describing the fluctuation, which is a generalization of the familiar Langevin equation in the classical theory of Brownian motion.

Abstract: The linear response theory has given a general proof of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which states that the linear response of a given system to an external perturbation is expressed in terms of fluctuation properties of the system in thermal equilibrium. This theorem may be represented by a stochastic equation describing the fluctuation, which is a generalization of the familiar Langevin equation in the classical theory of Brownian motion. In this generalized equation the friction force becomes retarded or frequency-dependent and the random force is no more white. They are related to each other by a generalized Nyquist theorem which is in fact another expression of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This point of view can be applied to a wide class of irreversible process including collective modes in many-particle systems as has already been shown by Mori. As an illustrative example, the density response problem is briefly discussed.

4,096 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the theory and application of Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) since its inception in 1977 are discussed, focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, the analogy with particle dynamics and the numerous areas where SPH has been successfully applied.

Abstract: In this review the theory and application of Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) since its inception in 1977 are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the strengths and weaknesses, the analogy with particle dynamics and the numerous areas where SPH has been successfully applied.

4,070 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the status of zinc oxide as a semiconductor is discussed and the role of impurities and defects in the electrical conductivity of ZnO is discussed, as well as the possible causes of unintentional n-type conductivity.

Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.

3,291 citations

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TL;DR: The recent literature concerning the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been reviewed and correlations have been made comparing the behaviours of the different families of magnetic materials which exhibit large or unusual MCE values.

Abstract: The recent literature concerning the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been reviewed. The MCE properties have been compiled and correlations have been made comparing the behaviours of the different families of magnetic materials which exhibit large or unusual MCE values. These families include: the lanthanide (R) Laves phases (RM2, where M = Al, Co and Ni), Gd5(Si1−xGex)4 ,M n(As1−xSbx), MnFe(P1−xAsx), La(Fe13−xSix) and their hydrides and the manganites (R1−xMxMnO3, where R = lanthanide and M = Ca, Sr and Ba). The potential for use of these materials in magnetic refrigeration is discussed, including a comparison with Gd as a near room temperature active magnetic regenerator material. (Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version)

3,002 citations

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TL;DR: Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production.

Abstract: Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics such as work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. For a basic Markovian dynamics implemented either on the continuum level with Langevin equations or on a discrete set of states as a master equation, thermodynamic consistency imposes a local-detailed balance constraint on noise and rates, respectively. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation–dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production. (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) This article was invited by Erwin Frey.

2,834 citations