Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
About: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Polycystic ovary & Endometrium. It has an ISSN identifier of 1477-7827. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 2148 publication(s) have been published receiving 71839 citation(s).
Topics: Polycystic ovary, Endometrium, Pregnancy, Follicular phase, Sperm
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes is reviewed and female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques is discussed.
Abstract: In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species) and antioxidants remain in balance When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS) occurs OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (ie menopause) OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species) and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants) ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal embryopathies, preterm labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia
TL;DR: At least 30 million men worldwide are infertile with the highest rates in Africa and Eastern Europe, and a novel and unique way to calculate the distribution of male infertility around the world is demonstrated.
Abstract: Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 485 million couples Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall However, this number does not accurately represent all regions of the world Indeed, on a global level, there is a lack of accurate statistics on rates of male infertility Our report examines major regions of the world and reports rates of male infertility based on data on female infertility Our search consisted of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and population-based studies by searching the terms “epidemiology, male infertility, and prevalence” We identified 16 articles for detailed study We typically used the assumption that 50% of all cases of infertility are due to female factors alone, 20-30% are due to male factors alone, and the remaining 20-30% are due to a combination of male and female factors Therefore, in regions of the world where male factor or rates of male infertility were not reported, we used this assumption to calculate general rates of male factor infertility Our calculated data showed that the distribution of infertility due to male factor ranged from 20% to 70% and that the percentage of infertile men ranged from 2·5% to 12% Infertility rates were highest in Africa and Central/Eastern Europe Additionally, according to a variety of sources, rates of male infertility in North America, Australia, and Central and Eastern Europe varied from 4 5-6%, 9%, and 8-12%, respectively This study demonstrates a novel and unique way to calculate the distribution of male infertility around the world According to our results, at least 30 million men worldwide are infertile with the highest rates in Africa and Eastern Europe Results indicate further research is needed regarding etiology and treatment, reduce stigma & cultural barriers, and establish a more precise calculation
TL;DR: The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success.
Abstract: Oxidative stress (OS), a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms through which OS affects female reproductive abilities, and will facilitate further explorations of the possible benefits of antioxidants to treat infertility.
TL;DR: There is a dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-oxidant substances in human ejaculate and a threshold for ROS levels that may induce functional sperm ability or may lead to male infertility is unsolved.
Abstract: There is a dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-oxidant substances in human ejaculate. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation can overwhelm protective mechanism and initiate changes in lipid and/or protein layers of sperm plasma membranes. Additionally, changes in DNA can be induced. The essential steps of lipid peroxidation have been listed as well as antioxidant substances of semen. A variety of detection techniques of lipid peroxidation have been summarized together with the lipid components of sperm membranes that can be subjected to stress. It is unsolved, a threshold for ROS levels that may induce functional sperm ability or may lead to male infertility.
TL;DR: It is concluded that estrogen or its α-receptor is an absolute necessity for fertility in the male and is responsible for maintaining a differentiated epithelial morphology.
Abstract: Testosterone and estrogen are no longer considered male only and female only hormones. Both hormones are important in both sexes. It was known as early as the 1930's that developmental exposure to a high dose of estrogen causes malformation of the male reproductive tract, but the early formative years of reproductive biology as a discipline did not recognize the importance of estrogen in regulating the normal function of the adult male reproductive tract. In the adult testis, estrogen is synthesized by Leydig cells and the germ cells, producing a relatively high concentration in rete testis fluid. Estrogen receptors are present in the testis, efferent ductules and epididymis of most species. However, estrogen receptor-α is reported absent in the testis of a few species, including man. Estrogen receptors are abundant in the efferent ductule epithelium, where their primary function is to regulate the expression of proteins involved in fluid reabsorption. Disruption of the α-receptor, either in the knockout (αERKO) or by treatment with a pure antiestrogen, results in dilution of cauda epididymal sperm, disruption of sperm morphology, inhibition of sodium transport and subsequent water reabsorption, increased secretion of Cl-, and eventual decreased fertility. In addition to this primary regulation of luminal fluid and ion transport, estrogen is also responsible for maintaining a differentiated epithelial morphology. Thus, we conclude that estrogen or its α-receptor is an absolute necessity for fertility in the male.
Related Journals (5)
Biology of Reproduction
16.1K papers, 759.3K citations
Fertility and Sterility
32.7K papers, 1M citations
16.1K papers, 831.7K citations
12.5K papers, 469.6K citations
15.1K papers, 410K citations