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Showing papers in "Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology in 2012"


Journal Article
TL;DR: A bird's eye view on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of L. camara is given.
Abstract: The knowledge of traditional medicine and medicinal plants and their study of scientific chemical principles may lead to the discovery of newer and cheaper drugs. Lantana camara is well known to cure several diseases and used in various folk medicinal preparations. In last few decades, scientist and researchers around the globe have elaborately studied the chemical composition of whole plant of L. camara as well as biological pharmacological activities. These studies established the therapeutic potential of Lantana camara in modern medicines and a possible candidate for the drug discovery. The present review gives a bird's eye view on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of L. camara.

76 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitation of hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug.
Abstract: Transdermal drug delivery system provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thus reduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy. Transdermal drugs are self-contained, discrete dosage form. Transdermal drug delivery-an approach used to deliver drugs through the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous and transmucosal routes. Much attention has been given in recent years with regard to the transdermal delivery devices. Broadly this system can be considered as single layer and multilayer. Ficks first law of diffusion is the principle of drug kinetics. Nature and concentration of polymers determines the control of drug release. Drug related factors and physiochemical properties of membranes affects drug penetration. Wide information has been given from drug selection, fabrication to final formulation and various characterizations. Several transdermal applications include hormone replacement therapy, management of pain, angina pectoris, smoking cessation and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitation of hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. This review includes a brief insight on physiological properties of the skin, several techniques of transdermal drug delivery.

28 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The findings suggested ethanolic extract of Russula albonigra afford significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury in mice by restoring the liver antioxidant status.
Abstract: The hepatoprotective potential of the ethanolic extract of a wild edible mushroom (Russula albonigra) was studied in vivo in mice carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin were tested in both treated and untreated groups. Carbon tetrachloride has enhanced the SGPT, SGOT, ALP and bilirubin levels, reflecting the liver injury caused by CCl4. Treatment with ethanolic extract of Russula albonigra at a dose of 150 mg/kg once daily has brought back the altered levels of biochemical markers to the near normal levels. Silymarin was used as standard reference drug. The hepatic antioxidant status such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were reduced in the CCl4 alone treated animals with subsequent increase in lipid peroxidation. Administration of the extract challenge restored the hepatic antioxidant status. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. The findings thus suggested ethanolic extract of Russula albonigra afford significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury in mice by restoring the liver antioxidant status.

20 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The results revealed fascinating diversity of Streptomyces in the form of spore colour varying from white, gray, blue, red and pink, and the antibiotic spectrum of the isolates revealed activity to varied extents, the metabolites had antibacterial and antifungal activity.
Abstract: Western Ghats of India are one of the thirty four biodiversity hot spots in the world. Biodiversity of Western Ghats has been richly explored in the form of flora and fauna but microbial forms have not been fully evaluated. Present study has been under taken to isolate and characterize Streptomyces species, a major antibiotic producing filamentous bacteria from Western Ghats soils of Karnataka, India. The isolates were characterized by their spore mass colour, aerial mycelium, texture, colony morphology, back ground colour, spore chain morphology and antibiotic production. Staining and biochemical characterisation tests were performed. The antibiotic property of the metabolites has been studied against 28 organisms including 16 pathogenic bacteria, 5 pathogenic yeasts and 7 filamentous fungi by well in agar method. The results from these studies revealed fascinating diversity of Streptomyces in the form of spore colour varying from white, gray, blue, red and pink. The colonies formed were discrete, lichenoid, leathery, powdery and butyrous colonies. The aerial and substrate mycelium varied in their colour of white, grey and blue series. The spore chain morphology studies revealed different arrangements of rectus, flexibilis, retinaculum aperatum – open loops, hooks and spira – simple spirals, short and compact spirals. The pigments were dark red, green, yellow, brown and brownish red in colour. The antibiotic spectrum of the isolates revealed activity to varied extents, the metabolites had antibacterial and antifungal activity. Results revealed that the metabolites are broad and narrow spectrum in activity. The zone of inhibition ranged from 0 to 40 mm. 50% of the metabolites inhibited both bacterial and fungal agents. 35% had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, 30% explicitly inhibited gram negative bacteria, 5% were specific for gram positive bacteria, 5% showed antifungal activity only and 5% were antiyeast in activity.

20 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The present results revealed that this mushroom might be utilized as a promising dietary supplement for patients with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, etc.
Abstract: Mushrooms are a high valued source of nutrition and mineral constituents which are of paramount importance in the present age. Here, different nutritional parameters, i.e., protein, carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, crude fiber and mineral contents of Ramaria aurea were evaluated. Results showed that this mushroom had significant amount of carbohydrate, protein, free amino acids and crude fiber where as low amount of fat signifies its importance as diet for the sufferers of diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, etc. Mineral analyses showed that this mushroom was good source of calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and iron. Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases and hence antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The cold water, hot water and ethanolic extract of Ramaria aurea were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different systems namely inhibition of lipid peroxidation, DPPH free radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activities among the three different extracts, ethanolic extract showed the strongest antioxidant activities in all the test systems. Furthermore, crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts also increased significantly nitric oxide production (319.1, 383.4 and 605.8 pmol NO produced/mg dry wt/h respectively) over the control. The present results revealed that this mushroom might be utilized as a promising dietary supplement.

15 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In buccal drug delivery systems mucocoadhesion is the key element so various mucoadhesive polymers have been utilized in different dosages form, including Chewing gum, tablets, Patches, Hydrogel, Thiolated tablets are discussed.
Abstract: Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Mucoadhesive are synthetic or natural polymer, which interact with the mucus.layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules constituting a major part of mucus. The concept of mucoadhesive as alters many investigator to the possibility that this polymer can be used over come physiological barrier in long-term drug delivery. Buccal mucosa is the preferred site for both systemic and local drug action. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of choice, particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of administration. Problems such as high first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal environment can be circumvented by administering the drug via the buccal route. Moreover, rapid onset of action can be achieved relative to the oral route and the formulation can be removed if therapy is required to be discontinued. It is also possible to administer drugs to patients who unconscious and less cooperative. In buccal drug delivery systems mucoadhesion is the key element so various mucoadhesive polymers have been utilized in different dosages form. Various bioadhesive dosages form such as Chewing gum, tablets, Patches, Hydrogel, Thiolated tablets are discussed in this review article.

15 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Solid lipid nanoparticles are very complex systems with clear advantages and disadvantages to other colloidal carriers and further work needs to be done to understand the structure and dynamics of SLN on molecular level in vitro and in vivo studies.
Abstract: The overall performance of the drug not only depends on its activity but also depends on the dosage form in which it is delivered. Colloidal carriers have attracted increasing attention during recent years. They include nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, micelles, soluble polymer-drug conjugated polymeric nanoparticles, lipid based carriers such as liposomes and solid-lipid nanoparticles. Solid lipid nanoparticles are one of the novel potential carrier systems in the range of 100-150nm as alternative materials to polymers which is identical to oil in water emulsion for parenteral nutrition, but the liquid lipid of the emulsion is replaced by a solid lipid. They have many advantages such as good biocompatibility, low toxicity and lipophilic drugs are better delivered by solid lipid nanoparticles and the system is physically stable. SLN are very complex systems with clear advantages and disadvantages to other colloidal carriers. Further work needs to be done to understand the structure and dynamics of SLN on molecular level in vitro and in vivo studies.

15 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: It can be assumed that PEVs enhanced drug transport through the skin barrier thanks to a synergic effect of vesicles and labrasol, and may hold promising therapeutic value for treating hair growth disorders, by increasing cutaneous minoxidil bioavailability and reducing transdermal permeation.
Abstract: In this work we focused on how the concentration of Labrasol® and preparation method of phospholipid vesicles might influence their physico-chemical features and skin delivery performances. Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared using caprylcaproyl macrogol-8 glyceride (Labrasol®, HLB 14), a solubilizer/penetration enhancer for topical formulations. A cheap and unpurified commercial mixture of phospholipids, fatty acids and triglycerides (Phospholipon® 50) was used to incorporate minoxidil (2% w/v). During the preparation, labrasol was added at different concentrations in the lipid phase or mixed with the water phase. The film hydration method was used, followed by sonication, when appropriate. The effects that these variables might have on PEVs colloidal characteristics were investigated. Multi- and oligolamellar vesicles were obtained, depending on the production procedure, around 100 nm, negatively charged (~ -60 mV), able to incorporate minoxidil in good yields (up to 74%), and stable during storage. Further, vesicles were evaluated for ex vivo (trans)dermal delivery through new born pig skin, showing improved minoxidil local accumulation, influenced by labrasol concentration and insertion in the aqueous or lipid phase of the vesicular formulations. Overall, it can be assumed that PEVs enhanced drug transport through the skin barrier thanks to a synergic effect of vesicles and labrasol. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating hair growth disorders, by increasing cutaneous minoxidil bioavailability and reducing transdermal permeation.

11 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Among all the formulations emulgels were found to be effective vehicles to deliver AZT because of the effective partition in both oil and aqueous phases.
Abstract: Zidovudine (AZT) is the widely used anti-retroviral drug associated with serious gastric side effects upon oral delivery also having short half life and poor partition coefficient. Upon oral administration it also undergoes first pass metabolism. Transdermal delivery of AZT encounters all the problems associated with oral route. In the present study we developed hydrogels as well as emugels loaded with AZT and investigated the ability of hydrogels as well as emulgels to deliver the AZT via transdermal route. All the gels were evaluated for their physical properties, drug content, viscosity, pH, spreadability and in vitro drug release. In vitro release pattern for all the formulations were found to be zero order diffusion controlled. All the formulations were found to be compatible with skin and stable as per ICH guidelines. Among all the formulations emulgels were found to be effective vehicles to deliver AZT because of the effective partition in both oil and aqueous phases.

10 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used freeze dry microscopy and differential thermal analysis (DTA)/electrical impedance (EI) for human serum albumin (HSA) freezing solution to determine the freeze drying cycle (FDC) to ensure acceptable cake integrity, reconstitution time and long-term stability.
Abstract: The objective of the research work was to use freeze dry microscopy (FDM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA)/electrical impedance (EI) for human serum albumin (HSA) freezing solution to determine the freeze drying cycle (FDC) to ensure acceptable cake integrity, reconstitution time and long-term stability. The HSA solutions with stabilizers were freeze dried at -40oC and 0.06hPa for 72h. HSA content was determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Optimized composition was used to determine critical temperature by FDM and DTA/EI. Based on observations FDC was designed and the optimized composition was processed. Freeze dried products were visually inspected for morphology. Reconstitution time was determined by Thiermann method and residual moisture analysis by Karl Fischer titration. Freeze dried products were investigated for glass transition temperature using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and for amorphization using x-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. FDM and integrated DTA/EI studies provided specific information required for primary drying to process HSA compositions. Highest HSA recovery was observed in composition containing 1%w/v HSA, 25%w/v sucrose, 1.0%w/v sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.3%w/v polyvinylpyrrolidone K30. Reconstitution times of products were 15-20 sec. Residual moisture content was below 3%w/w retaining 99.56%w/v of HSA. XRD pattern indicated amorphous nature of material. DSC thermogram showed Tg well above storage temperature. Results revealed need of thorough understanding of freezing and annealing temperatures, shelf temperature, vacuum level and its duration during processing for freeze drying. Development and validation of efficient and economical FDC for HSA can be designed using FDM and DTA/EI.

10 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The hydro alcoholic peel extract of Punica granatum Linn var.
Abstract: The hydro alcoholic peel extract of Punica granatum Linn. var. arakta was investigated for its effect on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effect was studied at two dose levels, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The activity was compared with the standard drug glibenclamide (2 mg/kg, orally). The plant extract significantly lowered blood glucose level in both normal (P<0.05) and diabetic (P<0.01) rats.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Solid dispersion is used for enhancing dissolution rate of a therapeutically active substance and in turn its absorption and in vivo efficacy as discussed by the authors and is generally prepared with drug which is having poor aqueous solubility and hydrophilic carrier.
Abstract: Solid dispersion is used for enhancing dissolution rate of a therapeutically active substance and in turns its absorption and in vivo efficacy. Solid dispersion is generally prepared with drug which is having poor aqueous solubility and hydrophilic carrier. Generally Polyethylene Glycol, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Mannitol, Urea, Gums, Eudragit are used as hydrophilic carriers. Certain Hydrophilic Swellable Polymers Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, Pregelatinized Starch, Sodium Starch Glycolate are also used. Sometimes surfactant is also added to further improve wetting property of solid dispersion. In solid dispersion particle size of drug is reduced or a crystalline pure drug is converted into amorphous form and hence the solubility of drug is increased. Solid dispersion is not only used in improving dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug but also in masking the taste of the drug substance, preparing rapid disintegration oral tablets and in producing sustained release microspheres. Various methods are available to prepare solid dispersion generally solvent evaporation method, melting method, melt solvent method, kneading method, cogrinding method, co-precipitation method, modified solvent evaporation method, spray drying, gel entrapment technique, co-precipitation with supercritical fluid. Evaluations of solid dispersion are done by Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-Ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, solubility and dissolution experiments.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on curcumin, used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, hepatoprotective, dissolve gallstone effects, gastrointestinal effects, tonic for the digestive system.
Abstract: Curcuma longa L., (Zingiberaceae) grows up to 3–5 ft tall and has dull yellow flowers. The rhizome is an underground stem that is thick, oblong, ovate, pyriform and fleshy ringed with the bases of old leaves. The plant has oblong, pointed leaves with funnel-shaped yellow flowers. It contains several phytoconstituents belonging to category of alkaloids, glycosides, triterpenoids, sterols, include three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. It is popular in indigenous system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homeopathy for the treatment of diseases and human ailments. A wide range of biological and pharmacological activities of curcumin has been investigated and is used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, hepatoprotective, dissolve gallstones, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal effects, tonic for the digestive system; to dispel worms, strengthen the body, antifertility, menstrual irregularity anti diabetic, antivenom, hypolipidemic, nephroprotective, anticoagulant, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, sinusitis and anti HIV properties. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its properties.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Both extracts possess hypoglycemic activity in normal as well as in diabetic rats, and repeated administration of AlcE and Aq inhibited the increase in blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance induced by dexamethasone as compared to dexamETHasone induced diabetic rats.
Abstract: The objective of the study is to investigate the alcoholic (AlcE) and aqueous (Aq) extracts of leaves of Terminalia tomentosa (Combretaceae) leaves for hypoglycemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Crude aqueous (Aq) and alcoholic (AlcE) extracts of the leaves of T. tomentosa were administered to both normal and alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) induced diabetic male albino rats (Wister strain). AlcE and Aq had significantly decreased the blood-glucose level (BGL) in a dose-dependent manner after repeated administration for seven days. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, both the extracts decreased blood sugar levels with significant improvement in glucose tolerance and body weight at the end of 1st, 2ndand 3rdweek after the test extract treatment. In case of dexamethasone induced insulin resistant diabetic rats, repeated administration of AlcE and Aq inhibited the increase in blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance induced by dexamethasone as compared to dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that both extracts possess hypoglycemic activity in normal as well as in diabetic rats.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The present review explores the description, traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of Anthocephalus cadamba so that its potential as a multipurpose medicinal agent can be understood and appreciated.
Abstract: Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. belonging to family Rubiaceae enjoys a very prominent position in Ayurveda. History of Kadamba can be traced back to Vedas, Puranas and Samhita. It grows naturally in Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam. The plant has been extracted by conventional methods such as infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation. The preliminary phytochemical screening of Anthocephalus cadamba whole plant (barks, leaves, flowers and fruits) showed the presence of saponins, terpenes, sesquiterpenes glycosides, alkaloids and absence of anthraquinones and flavonoids. A variety of phytoconstituents, such as cadambine, cadamine, β-sitosterol, quinovic acid, chlorogenic acid etc. have been isolated from the extracts. The plant has also been studied for its various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, sedative, antiepileptic, antioxidant, antitumor, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, wound healing and antidiarrhoeal. The present review explores its description, traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity so that its potential as a multipurpose medicinal agent can be understood and appreciated.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A Simple, sensitive, specific, spectrophotometric method has been developed for the detection of Sildenafil citrate in pure form and Pharmaceutical formulations and results were in good agreement with label claim.
Abstract: A Simple, sensitive, specific, spectrophotometric method has been developed for the detection of Sildenafil citrate in pure form and Pharmaceutical formulations. The optimum condition for the analysis of the drug was established. Sildenafil citrate exhibiting absorption at 228nm and obeyed beers law in the concentration range 10 to 50µg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9998 and slope of line was found to be 0.07877. The percent S.D. for intra assay precision of the method was found to be 1.9976% whereas Inter assay precision was found to be 0.8332%. The sample solution was stable up to 24 hours. The assay results were found to be in good agreement with label claim. The degradation study was checked at different conditions like with acid, alkali, dry heat, oxidative and photolytic. All the results found in degradation study were satisfactory. So this proposed method was simple sensitive, precise, quick and useful for routine quality control.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The following study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of gallic acid and Gallic acid Phytosomes at different doses against CCl4 induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats.
Abstract: Phytoconstituents like many polyphenols are poorly absorbed either due to their multiple-ring large size molecules which cannot be absorbed by simple diffusion, or due to their poor miscibility with oils and other lipids, severely limiting their ability to pass across the lipid-rich outer membranes of the enterocytes of the small intestine. Watersoluble phytoconstituent molecules (mainly polyphenols) can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, which are called Phytosomes. Gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a naturally occurring plant phenol. So the following study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of gallic acid and gallic acid Phytosomes (GAP) at different doses against CCl4 induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wister albino rats by administering CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, i.p) once only. Simultaneously, GAP (40, 60 mg/kg, p.o.), GA (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), and the reference drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.).were administered orally. Levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and SALP), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were assessed in serum.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Ethanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity than other extracts and this effect could be attributed to high phenolic content in ethanol extract, the first report on antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of ripe pericarp of P. longifolia.
Abstract: The present study examined the antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of the ripe pericarp of Polyalthia longifolia Thw. (Annonaceae).The powdered ripe pericarp was extracted successively with ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol. Antioxidant activity of solvent extracts was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing assay. Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The solvent extracts scavenged DPPH free radical dose dependently with IC50 value of 52.22±0.05, 61.82±0.01 and 06.85±0.05μg/ml for ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol extract respectively. An increase in the absorbance with increase in the concentration of extracts was observed in ferric reducing assay indicating reducing potential. The phenolic content of ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol extract was found to be 95±0.09, 85±0.01 and 224±0.10 μg Gallic acid equivalents/mg of extract respectively. Ethanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity than other extracts and this effect could be attributed to high phenolic content in ethanol extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of ripe pericarp of P. longifolia.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The basic pharmacophoric requirements for the successful development in the designing of novel antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular, and antiinflammatory mercapto triazole agents are highlighted.
Abstract: Compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole moiety find wide range of applications and substituted 1,2,4-triazoles are becoming more prevalent in functional materials that are at the cutting edge of new technology. The biological activities of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives are well documented and important discoveries in this area are continued, though the electron donor and coordinating ability of 1,2,4-triazoles has also seen an increase in their use as ligands, functional polymers, and industrial coatings. 1,2,4-triazole has shown its importance as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, antidepressant, antitubercular, analgesic, antimalarial and anticancer agents. This article is based on different pharmacological activities exhibited by the various compounds containing mercapto and/or thione substituted 1,2,4-triazole heterocyclic ring systems. This review highlighted the basic pharmacophoric requirements for the successful development in the designing of novel antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular, and antiinflammatory mercapto triazole agents.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This review focuses on the approaches of cancer nanotechnology in the advancement of cancer therapy and target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies.
Abstract: The application of nanotechnology for cancer therapy has received considerable attention in recent years. Cancer nanotechnology is an upcoming field with extensive applications in science, medicine and engineering. It provides a unique approach and comprehensive technology against cancer through early diagnosis, prediction, prevention, personalized therapy and medicine. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas in which nanotechnology would play a vital part. This review focuses on the approaches of cancer nanotechnology in the advancement of cancer therapy.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Analysis of total phenolic content in both the extracts exhibited the presence of significant amount of phenolic compounds which could possibly be the reason for antioxidant potential of the tested plants.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Barleria mysorensis L. (Acanthaceae) and Furcraea foetida L. (Agavaceae) leaves. Aqueous extract of B. mysorensis and F. foetida leaves were screened for the presence of major phytochemical groups by various biochemical methods. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts confirmed the presence of tannins, phenolic compounds, saponins, flavanoid and phytosterols in both the extracts, although carbohydrates were present only in F. foetida. Antioxidant activity of extracts was performed by in vitro methods, such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method. Both extracts execute effective antioxidant activity in both the assay, however, F. foetida exhibit significantlt (p < 0.05) high activity than B. mysorensis. Analysis of total phenolic content in both the extracts exhibited the presence of significant amount of phenolic compounds which could possibly be the reason for antioxidant potential of the tested plants. The results suggest possible use of B. mysorensis and F. foetida for the development of highly potent, safe and novel antioxidant compounds.

Journal Article
TL;DR: 2-(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)-N-phenylacetamide derivatives find useful as anti-infective agents and substitution of bentriazole produces more potent anti- infective agents.
Abstract: 2-(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)-N-phenylacetamide derivatives find useful as anti-infective agents and substitution of bentriazole produces more potent anti-infective agents. Derivatives of benzotriazole substituted 2-(1H-1,2,3benzotriazol-1-yl)-N-phenylacetamide are synthesized and anti microbial activities have been measured against Norfloxacine and Ketoconazole as standards drugs. It is found that the derivatives from 1a to Va are shown to produce good anti microbial actions against, S. Aureus, S. Pygens, B. Subtilis, E.coli, P. Aerigenosa, C Albicanse, A Niger. The all the derivatives show satisfactory anti-microbial activities.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a simple, selective and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the determination of Bromhexine hydrochloride in human plasma.
Abstract: To develop a simple, selective and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the determination of Bromhexine hydrochloride in human plasma. The method had been validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and stability following US CDER guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. Sample was prepared by protein precepitation extraction technique using acetonitrile. Supernat was spotted on TLC plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. Amoxicilin was used as an internal standard. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of n-Butyl aceteate: Methanol:GAA: Water(HPL grade) in tha ratio of 5:2.5:2.5:1v/v/v/v. The drug showed considerable absorbance at 246 nm. The method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 20–120 ng/band. Mean drug recovery was found to be 96.81%. Bromhexine hydrochloride in plasma samples was stable parameters as per US CDER guidelines. The method was found to be precise, accurate and can further be extented to pharmacokinetic studies for therapeutic drug monitoring of Bromhexine hydrochloride in routine clinical practices.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The proposed method was validated by testing its linearity, recovery, repeatability and it was successfully employed for the rapid, specific and sensitive simultaneous quantitative estimation of Atorvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate in capsules.
Abstract: A new, simple, accurate and precise reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative estimation of Atorvastatin Calcium (ATOR) and Clopidogrel Bisulphate (CLOP) in combined capsule dosage form. The method was based on reversed phase liquid chromatography and separation was achieved on a Eurosphere 100-5 C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm). The Eluent was monitored by absorbance at wavelength 240 nm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.01M potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the ratio of 75:25 (v/v) at pH 6.1 with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 60–140 μg mL−1and 294–686 μg mL−1for ATOR and CLOP respectively. The proposed method was validated by testing its linearity, recovery, repeatability and it was successfully employed for the rapid, specific and sensitive simultaneous quantitative estimation of Atorvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate in capsules.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The formulations were therapeutically efficacious, sterile, stable and provided sustained release of the drug over a period of time and demonstrate that the developed system is an alternative to conventional ophthalmic drops, patient compliance, industrially oriented and economical.
Abstract: The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and then undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antibacterial agent moxifloxacin hydrochloride, based on the concept of pH triggered in situ gelation. Carbopol 940 was used in different concentrations (0.3–0.5 w/v) as the gelling agent in combination with HPMC E50 LV (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose) that acted as a viscosity-enhancing agent. The primary criteria for formulation optimization were gelling capacity and rheological behaviour. In addition, formulations were evaluated for pH, and antimicrobial efficacy and drug release. The clarity, pH, gelation in simulated tear fluid and rheological properties of the optimized formulations were satisfactory. In vitro release studies indicated that the Carbopol/HPMC solution retained the drug better than the Carbopol or HPMC solutions alone. The formulations were therapeutically efficacious, sterile, stable and provided sustained release of the drug over a period of time. These results demonstrate that the developed system is an alternative to conventional ophthalmic drops, patient compliance, industrially oriented and economical.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The recent innovations in transdermal drug delivery systems can be a platform for the research and development of pharmaceutical drug dosage form for Transdermal Drug Delivery and its physicochemical methods of evaluation are focused on.
Abstract: Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. The conventional oral dosage forms has significant drawbacks of poor bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and tendency to produce major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation, leading to a need for high or frequent dosing, which can be both cost prohibitive and inconvenient. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) was emerged which will improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs by more precise (i.e. site specific) placement within the body thereby reducing both the size and number of doses. Today number of drugs is taken orally and is found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. This article provides an overview on introduction about the transdermal drug delivery system and types of Transdermal patches, use of polymer as a transdermal drug delivery system, methods of preparation, and its physicochemical methods of evaluation and the types of transdermal systems currently available in the market to focus on the recent innovations in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems which can be a platform for the research and development of pharmaceutical drug dosage form for Transdermal Drug Delivery.

Journal Article
TL;DR: It is concluded that aqueous extract of I. fistulosa leaves possess significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms and could be used as a potential source of antimicrobial compounds.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to screen the aqueous extract of leaves of Ipomoea fistulosa (Convolvulaceae), Furcraea foetida (Agavaceae), and Barleria mysorensis (Acanthaceae) for antimicrobial activity by in vitro methods. Antimicrobial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar and Potato Dextrose agar for bacteria and fungi respectively. Among the three plant I. fistulosa showed the highest activity, it showed broad spectrum activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Micrococcus letues, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The aqueous extract of I. fistulosa showed maximum relative percentage inhibition against S. aureus (189.71%). Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by modified agar well diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar and Potato Dextrose agar for bacteria and fungi respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of I. fistulosa varied from 0.05–50 mg/ml. With these results we conclude that aqueous extract of I. fistulosa leaves possess significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms and could be used as a potential source of antimicrobial compounds.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a new precise, sensitive and accurate RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Donepezil and Memantine in Bulk and Tablets was described, which was achieved on Agilent C8 (150mm x 4.6mm i.d., 3.5mm particle size) column with UV detection at 230nm.
Abstract: This investigation describes a new precise, sensitive and accurate RP-HPLC method for the Simultaneous estimation of Donepezil and Memantine in Bulk and Tablets. The resolution of two drugs was achieved on Agilent C8 (150mm x 4.6mm i.d., 3.5mm particle size) column with UV detection at 230nm and the mobile phase consist of Buffer, water and Acetonitrile (50:5:45 v/v).Using chromatographic conditions described Donepezil and Memantine were well resolved with mean retention times of 3.707 and 6.976 min, respectively. Linear response (r>0.999) was observed over the range of 50–70μg/ml for Donepezil and 100–140μg/ml for Memantine. The lower limit of quantification and lower limit of detection was 9.95 and 3.0 for Donepezil and 10.01 and 3.14 for Memantine. The Validation parameters were performed according to the ICH guidelines and the proposed method can be useful in the routine analysis for the determination of Donepezil and Memantine in Pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In present study in vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of Peristrophe bivalvis Merrill showed potential to prevent cancer in a dose dependent manner.
Abstract: In present study in vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of Peristrophe bivalvis Merrill was evaluated. In vitro anticancer activity was assayed by tryphan blue dye exclusion method and brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. Extracts were found to be cytotoxic in dose dependent manner in both methods. Ethanolic extract was found to be potent than aqueous extract. Leaves showed more significant anticancer activity as compared to stems. The CTC50 of ethanolic extract of leaves was found to be 175.25±12.34 μg/ml in EAC cell lines. The LC50 of ethanolic extract of leaves was176.49±7.43 μg/ml. It indicated that Peristrophe bivalvis Merrill has potential to prevent cancer in a dose dependent manner.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Five novel [(1H-benzotriazol-1-ylacetyl)amino]acetic acid derivatives are confirmed to be endowed with effective antimicrobial activities.
Abstract: Five novel [(1H-benzotriazol-1-ylacetyl)amino]acetic acid derivatives were synthesized by substituting corresponding amino acids on a reaction intermediate 1H-benzotriazol-1-ylacetyl chloride. The derivatives were characterized by physical, chemical parameters, TLC and spectral data. Synthesized derivatives from Ib to Vb were screened for anti microbial activity against, S. Aureus, B. Subtilis, E. coli, S. typhi, C Albicanse, A Niger. MIC was measured against norfloxacine and ketoconazole. Present study confirms the synthesized derivatives endowed with effective antimicrobial activities.