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Showing papers in "Results in engineering in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a review of methylene blue dye wastewater decontamination methods is presented, and the state-of-the-art review comprehensively discussed each of these techniques while gaps and/or areas for future research are highlighted.
Abstract: One of the popular cationic dyes that is environmentally persistent, toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic is methylene blue (MB) dye. It is commonly applied as synthetic dye for dyeing fabrics in clothing and textile industries and also for dyeing papers and leathers. Sequel to the magnitude of industrial usage, a large volume of methylene blue dye containing wastewater is discharged into groundwater and surface water. At doses more than 5 mk/kg, the monoamine oxidate inhibitory characteristics of MB dye can induce fatal serotonin toxicity in human, apart from being a threat to fauna in aquatic ecosystem. Thus, it is highly imperative to eliminate MB dye from wastewaters. A number of different removal strategies have been reported in literature for treating methylene blue dye wastewater. In this state-of-the-art review, about 240 review and/or research published articles on methods for methylene blue dye wastewater decontamination or decontamination strategies were chosen for evaluation. This synthesis also discussed the various toxicities linked to MB dye. The assessment of elimination methods revealed that chemical removal methods (photochemical and non-photochemical) could generate secondary pollutants while biological methods are characterized with sensitivity of enzyme to pH. These drawbacks limit their industrial full-scale applications while adsorption technology was found to offer merits over others. The review comprehensively discussed each of these techniques while gaps and/or areas for future research are highlighted.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a comparative study of nanofluid and pure fluid (water) is investigated over a moving upright plate surrounded by a porous surface, which includes the unsteady laminar MHD natural transmission flow of an incompressible fluid.
Abstract: A comparative study of nanofluid (Cu–H2O) and pure fluid (water) is investigated over a moving upright plate surrounded by a porous surface. The novelty of the study includes the unsteady laminar MHD natural transmission flow of an incompressible fluid, to get thermal conductivity of nanofluid is more than pure fluid. The chemical reaction of this nanofluid with respect to radiation absorption is observed by considering the nanoparticles to attain thermal equilibrium. The present work is validated with the previously published work. The upright plate travels with a constant velocity u0, and the temperature and concentration are considered to be period harmonically independent with a constant mean at the plate. The most excellent appropriate solution to the oscillatory pattern of boundary layer equations for the governing flow is computed utilizing the Perturbation Technique. The impacts of factors on velocity, temperature, and concentration are visually depicted and thoroughly elucidated. The fluid features in the boundary layer regime are explored visually and qualitatively. This enhancement is notably significant for copper nanoparticles.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors proposed a system to forecast solar radiation using Neural Networks, which can forecast radiation values for any day using different meteorological data from the previous day using Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU).
Abstract: Solar radiation is the energy or radiation we get from the sun, time-varying data. Solar radiation plays a vital role in various sectors. With better prediction, performances in these sectors can be enhanced. In this work, we proposed a system to forecast solar radiation using Neural Networks. Meteorological data from five different cities of Bangladesh were used. The system can forecast radiation values for any day using different meteorological data from the previous day. Three different networks were trained using the meteorological data, which are the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). Also, predictions were made for all five cities separately. An elaborate evaluation of all three models has been done to produce a comparison using widely used performance metrics. The GRU model produced the best result among all three models, with a MAPE score of 19.28%.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a bibliographic review of the current state-of-the-art of the biomass gasification is carried out, focusing in the gasification technologies, syngas cleaning processes, simulation methodologies on process parameters.
Abstract: The search for alternatives to fossil energy traditional sources led to the development of a set of energy conversion processes, which include biomass thermochemical conversion technologies, such as torrefaction, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, or gasification. These conversion technologies have shown significant evolutions, and there are already several examples available of application on an industrial scale. Biomass gasification processes have also presented significant developments, mainly when associated with the production of syngas with potential for energy recovery or to produce synthetic fuels, but mainly due to its potential to be used as a sustainable hydrogen production technology. In the present work, a bibliographic review of the current state-of-the-art of the biomass gasification is carried out, focusing in the gasification technologies, syngas cleaning processes, simulation methodologies on process parameters. Finally, future developments and possibilities are also analyzed and discussed, with the introduction of a new approach to hydrogen production based on the use of an adapted combustion process with air deficit.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a detailed review of wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) hardware systems, physical process, monitoring, property characterization, application and future prospects is presented to facilitate quick and easy understanding of current status and future prospect of WAAM.
Abstract: Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) outstandingly features in lower cost and higher efficiency than other metal additive manufacturing technologies, which has a great potential in large-scale industrial production. The paper gives a detailed review, which involves WAAM hardware system, physical process, monitoring, property characterization, application and future prospects, to facilitate quick and easy understanding of current status and future prospects of WAAM. WAAM hardware systems are of primary importance and mainly based on four types of arc welding machine. The paper summarized the features of different hardware systems, displayed their suitability for different raw materials, and discussed their respective advantages. There is complex physical phenomenon in WAAM, and many technological parameters, such as heat input, current, wire feeding speed and so on, are investigated to understand the physical mechanism. Monitoring is essential for the additive process, in which optical inspection, spectral sensing, acoustic sensing, thermal sensing, electrical sensing and multi-sensor monitoring system all have been applied. Property characterization is always done to evaluate the quality of additive parts, and typical defects such as high residual stress, deformation, porosity, crack and delamination are reported. Examples of industrial products fabricated by WAAM are introduced. Finally, the paper concluded six possible research directions in future. It is necessary to establish detailed databases about additive parts for sorted hardware systems and metals with suitable operating conditions. Hybrid additive and subtractive technology, additional rolling or temperature control process, multi-scale and multi-physics research, multi-variable monitoring system, and artificial intelligence would help to improve the manufacturing level.

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , African almond leaves (ALs) were used for the preparation of sustainable and eco-friendly adsorbent through chemical activation, followed by pyrolysis at 700 oC for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution.
Abstract: African almond leaves (ALs) were used for the preparation of sustainable and eco-friendly adsorbent through chemical activation, followed by pyrolysis at 700 oC for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. Phosphoric acid activated African almond leaves biochar (PALB) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), pH point zero charge (pH pzc) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The influence of various adsorption parameters was investigated for determination of optimum conditions for sequestration of MB dye. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetic models were equally assessed. Mesoporous PALB with surface area 816 m2/g and radius 1 nm has excellent removal efficiency due to removal of >98% MB dye from aqueous solution at room temperature 303 K, pH 8, initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, adsorption dose of 0.2 g/L and contact time 30 min. Adsorption isotherm and kinetic were best fitted with Freundlich and pseudo-first order (PFO) kinetic models. Positive value of enthalpy (ΔHo) showed that the adsorption process was endothermic, while the negative value of free energy (ΔGo) suggested that the process was spontaneous and the positive value of entropy (ΔSo) indicated increase in randomness at adsorbate/adsorbent interface. PALB displayed a good monolayer adsorption capacity (Q max) of 263.95 mg/g when compared to those of other adsorbents reported in the literature for removal of MB dye from aqueous solution. This study established potential ability of PALB as eco-friendly adsorbent for adsorption of MB dye from aqueous solution.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the performance of using a photovoltaic -heat pump system has been experimentally studied by installation the solar PV on the rooftop of the Ayla hotel building in Jordan which is seemly simpler than that of solar thermal to be utilized to supply heating demand and can supply any available electric load associated with the building or directly to the grid.
Abstract: In the previous few decades, the demand for heating and cooling systems has notably increased besides the requirement to get energy in a more efficient and sustainable method. Consequently, the thought of solar photovoltaic powered heat pumps has become more good-looking to match the heating demand with a renewable and environmentally friendly energy supply. In this present work, the performance of using a photovoltaic - heat pump system has been experimentally studied by installation the solar photovoltaic on the rooftop of the Ayla hotel building in Jordan which is seemly simpler than that of solar thermal to be utilized to supply heating demand and can supply any available electric load associated with the building or directly to the grid, As a result by identified the key performance indicators of the system the simple payback period is calculated to be about 1.94 years where the net profit that yearly saved is about 185,850 JOD. • The demand for heating systems has notably increased besides the requirement to get energy in a sustainable method. • The thought of solar photovoltaic (PV) powered heat pumps (HP) has become more good-looking to match the heating demand. • The performance of using PV-HP system has been experimentally studied by installation the solar PV. • The simple payback period is calculated to be about 1.94 years where the net profit that yearly saved is about 185,850 JOD.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the problem of steady laminar flow of nanofluid on a two dimensional boundary layer using heat transfer of Cassona cross the linearly stretching sheet is explored.
Abstract: The current research explores the problem of steady laminar flow of nanofluid on a two dimensional boundary layer using heat transfer of Cassona cross the linearly stretching sheet. The governing equations are partial differential equations which are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations by using some similarity transformation. The converted form of the combined non-linear higher-order ODEswith a set of boundary conditions are solved by means of Runge-Kutta 4th-order approach along with the shooting method. The nanoparticle concentration profiles, velocity, and temperature are examined by taking account of their influence of Prandtl number, “Brownian motion parameter”, Lewis number, thermophoresis, and Casson fluid parameter. It is reported that the temperature increase as Nt and Nb increases which causes thickening of the thermal boundary layer. Also it is observed that, there is increment in temperature profile for increasing values of Brownian motion parameter and the energy distribution grows with increment in the values of Thermophoresis parameter. The comparison for the local Nusselt & local Sherwood number has been tabulated with respect to variation of the Brownian Motion Parameter and Thermophoresis parameter. All the findings of the results are graphically represented and discussed.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the microstructural and mechanical properties of hybrid composites developed by the reinforcement of solvated polystyrene with expanded polyethylene powder and kaolin were investigated.
Abstract: This study investigated the microstructural and mechanical properties of hybrid composites developed by the reinforcement of solvated polystyrene with expanded polyethylene powder and kaolin. The hybridized composites were synthesized using hand layup and cold mixing methods, and cured at room temperature for 3 days. The characterization was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), while the mechanical characteristics of the developed composites were evaluated by the Rockwell Hardness ASTM D785 standard. It was observed that an increase in kaolin content, at the expense of the polyethylene powder, increases the hardness strength of the composites, with the hardest composite (96.3 HRB) being obtained at a 25% kaolin mixer. The FTIR results revealed the presence of various functional groups, while the SEM analysis showed that the smoothness of the composite's surfaces increases with increase in kaolin content. The EDS analysis revealed the presence of several elements, mostly from the kaolin filler, suggesting the reason for its high density impacted on the kaolin/polyethylene filler composites. The importance of the study is the conversion of more than one solid waste into new and useful products. • Hybrid Polystyrene composites reinforced by kaolin and powdered polyethylene were developed. • The microstructural and mechanical properties of hybrid reinforced composites were determined. • Effects of filler combinations on properties elucidated.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recent development of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) increases the opportunities in all the sectors as discussed by the authors , but its direct application to civil engineering problems can be challenging.
Abstract: The recent development of machine learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) increases the opportunities in all the sectors. ML is a significant tool that can be applied across many disciplines, but its direct application to civil engineering problems can be challenging. ML for civil engineering applications that are simulated in the lab often fail in real-world tests. This is usually attributed to a data mismatch between the data used to train and test the ML model and the data it encounters in the real world, a phenomenon known as data shift. However, a physics-based ML model integrates data, partial differential equations (PDEs), and mathematical models to solve data shift problems. Physics-based ML models are trained to solve supervised learning tasks while respecting any given laws of physics described by general nonlinear equations. Physics-based ML, which takes center stage across many science disciplines, plays an important role in fluid dynamics, quantum mechanics, computational resources, and data storage. This paper reviews the history of physics-based ML and its application in civil engineering.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , an assessment of the energy sources in Jordan with the aim of exploring the ways to enhance the energy situation in Jordan by adopting renewable energy with the energy systems in Jordan.
Abstract: Energy and energy security represent the strategic goal of the various countries of the world because of the importance of energy in fulfilling the needs of life. Energy consumption forms are considered active research topics these days with the aim of rationalizing energy consumption as much as possible. Energy sources are also a problem as they are not available in an equal manner to meet the need in the countries of the world. From here a deep looking after the energy sources and the alternatives become of great importance. In this study, investigation about energy sources and alternatives in Jordan, with the aim of taking a sufficient idea of what is available in Jordan from the sources and alternatives. Jordan is depending on the imported oil from the neighborhood countries by 95% of the total needs of the energy generation. The energy needs in Jordan increased by 5% annually on average were some times more than 5% as the energy needs increase in 2019 by 8.5% compared to 2018. This work highlight an assessment of the energy sources in Jordan with the aim of exploring the ways to enhance the energy situation in Jordan by adopting renewable energy with the energy systems in Jordan. The work also proposes some solutions to the energy problem from switching to energy-saving buildings and benefiting from the energy lost sources Finally, it emphasizes the importance of confronting climate change to preserve the environment. • This work analyses energy sources in Jordan and studies ways to improve their use and diversify their sources. • This work highlight the sources of strength and opportunities as well as weaknesses and threats facing the energy in Jordan. • The rate of increase in energy demand in Jordan is 5% annually and is still rising. • Solar and wind energy are among the most important renewable energy sources available in Jordan. • The use of energy-saving devices is one of the most important reasons to conserve energy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors focus on the problem of determining extreme positional responses at one location when the aft thruster fails during offloading using data with a shorter time record from another location at the SST.
Abstract: A subsea shuttle tanker (SST) is a pioneering underwater submarine specifically designed to economically transport CO2 to smaller hydrocarbon fields. During loading and unloading of the CO2, the SST hovers over the well and experiences extreme heave motions resulting in extreme hydrostatic loading. Sustaining the hydrostatic loading is indispensable as it forms the dominating load and is a driving factor determining the SST hull's collapse design. Furthermore, the SST's extreme surge motion regulates the length of the flowline to evade snap loads. This paper focuses on the problem of determining these extreme positional responses at one location when the aft thruster fails during offloading using data with a shorter time record from another location at the SST. This scenario could be of practical engineering importance when either one of the sensors is malfunctioning or another similar vessel is being designed for the same environmental condition. A 2D planar Simulink model is used to generate the empirical data required for the study. • A method to improve the extreme response prediction of a subsea shuttle tanker hovering in ocean current using an alternative highly correlated response signal is proposed. • The method proposed is a bivariate method which is more conservative than using a pair of uncoupled univariate design points in the same return period. • The responses are significantly improved from more than 15% error to within 3% error. •New state of the art statistical method is applied to non-linearly correlated subsea vessel motions. •Practical and accurate prediction of extreme subsea vessel motions is done. •Introduced efficient transfer of information between two synchronous highly correlated stochastic vessel motions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors explored the convection of copper oxide-water nanofluid flow within a square domain having two wavy vertical surfaces in existence of the hydro-magnetic field using non-uniform dynamic model.
Abstract: We explored natural convection of copper oxide-water nanofluid flow within a square domain having two wavy vertical surfaces in existence of the hydro-magnetic field using non-uniform dynamic model. Two vertical surfaces on the left and right are regarded as connecting outlets through which heat can pass and considered as the colder walls, the bottom surface is regarded as a uniform heat source, and the upper boundary line is regarded as an insulating surface through which heat cannot pass. The Galerkin's extension in the finite element analysis has been incorporated to design, transform, and solve the nanofluid equations. The results reveal that when the thermal Rayleigh number upturns, the amplitude of the velocity, streamlining, isotherms efficacy, and uniformity of the isoconcentration labeling increase for a nanofluid with reduced nanoparticle volume percentage. As the magnetic pitch intensifies, the flow strength drops, and effective flow occurs in the vertical magnetic field. Flow convolution develops as more waves are formed on a vertical surface. The average heat transmission rose by 158% as the Rayleigh number grew from 104 to 106. The mean heat transmission increases by 10.18% when the nanoparticle volume segment is increased from 0.025 to 0.05. The heat transmission rate is higher on the vessel's non-wave vertical surface. Heat transfer is reduced by 16.98% when the wave number is augmented to 2 and increased by 3.62% when the wave number is risen from 2 to 4.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a novel organic corrosion inhibitor, named 3, 5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl m (4-((4-hydroxybenzylidene) amino) phenyl) methanone (DPHM) has been effectively synthesized and characterized.
Abstract: A novel organic corrosion inhibitor, named 3, 5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl m (4-((4-hydroxybenzylidene) amino) phenyl) methanone (DPHM) has been effectively synthesized and characterized. The diagnosis of functional groups and constituents of DPHM has been conducted by FTIR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The inhibitor efficacy for low-carbon steel in 1 M HCl was evaluated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The inhibition efficiency was increased with increasing the temperature and DPHM concentrations. The inhibition efficiency approaches a maximum value of 89.5% at 400 ppm of DPHM and 60 °C. The efficiency of the inhibitor was attributed to the formation of a protective mono-layer on the steel surface. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was used to inspect the adsorption process mechanism. Theoretical quantum chemical simulations were used to investigate the mechanism of inhibition. The results revealed that the DPHM was the donor of electron, while the steel surface was an electron acceptor. Mathematical and statistical modelling were used as powerful tool for data representation. Exponential model, with 0.992 correlation coefficient, was the most accurate one.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a review was carried out to compare the efficiencies of the advanced and modern techniques for the capturing of CO2 and those (technologies) which are already in place.
Abstract: The review was carried out to compare the efficiencies of the advanced and modern techniques for the capturing of CO2 and those (technologies) which are already in place. The ever-growing concern for the need to reduce and eliminate the effects of CO2 in the atmosphere has led to major areas of CO2 capture, over the years, to be explored and applied. Several techniques such as adsorption, absorption, cryogenic separation technique, membrane and a combination of two or more of these techniques were explored to determine which was most effective in the carbon capture process. A combination of the principles of these techniques were explored to determine how they can be applied in the advanced techniques of the CO2 capturing and storage processes, within this new age. Absorption stands out as the most commonly used technique for carbon capture. However, it is energy intensive and depending on the solvent used (i.e., ethanol), can be corrosive to the vessel it is utilized in. The review explored advanced methods for carbon dioxide capture such as the use of ionic liquids, zeolites, molten carbonate fuel cell and integration with several other components that enhance, not only their efficiencies, but also other physio-chemical properties that encourage its advancement. These were explored in the course of writing this review paper. From the review, it was discovered that Ionic liquids, integrated with membranes, enhance selectivity towards efficient CO2 capture. Zeolites occur naturally or are produced synthetically. They comprise of metal ions, are porous and made of certain ligands. They apply the principle of adsorption to remove CO2 and store. Molten carbonate fuel cells operate at high temperatures (usually at 600 °C) and have CO2 removal efficiencies of up to 60%. The review paper was, successfully, able to identify some of the major advanced technologies in the process of Carbon capture and the principles, efficiencies and cost-effectiveness were described, appropriately. From the literature, molten carbonate fuel cells were the best of the three advanced methods, with high efficiency and operations at high (and varying) ranges of temperature.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the effect of steel fibres on the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is investigated, and the performance of different SCC specimens was characterized for compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, rebound hammer, permeability, flexural strength, toughness, splitting tensile strength and impact resistance.
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of steel fibres on the physical and mechanical properties of Self-compacting concrete (SCC). Six mixes of steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFR-SCC) were prepared with two different steel fibre aspect ratios (l/d) of 60 and 80 at three-volume fractions (Vf) of 0.35%, 0.45% and 0.55%, in addition to a control mix. All specimens were cast with a constant water-binder ratio of 0.34 and 2% silica fume (SF) of cement content as additive. The performance of different SCC specimens was characterized for compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, rebound hammer, permeability, flexural strength, toughness, splitting tensile strength and impact resistance of SCC. With the increase of steel fibre aspect ratio, (1) the workability and rheology decrease; (2) the compressive strength of different SCC mixes shows slight variations; (3) the flexural strength increases the toughness, split tensile strength and impact resistance; (4) the ultrasonic velocity results increase (5) the permeability results decrease.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , ternary TiO2/g-C3N4@Ag nanocomposites with controlled composition were synthesized and used as highly effective bifunctional photocatalysts.
Abstract: Ternary TiO2/g-C3N4@Ag nanocomposites with controlled composition were synthesized and used as highly effective bifunctional photocatalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles were initially prepared via a sol-gel method and afterwards combined with optimum amounts of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) by a hydrothermal procedure to finally produce TiO2/g-C3N4 heterostructures. TiO2/g-C3N4 was impregnated with a silver nitrate aqueous solution containing sodium citrate as a reducing agent resulting in elemental silver nanoparticle (Ag0 NP) integration, as confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following crystallographic, electron-microscopy and spectroscopic characterization, the prepared nanocomposites presented high photocatalytic activity for both oxidation and reduction reactions. The photodegradation of model organic pollutants: methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes and oxytetracycline (OTC) pharmaceutical, together with decomposition of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and Cr(VI), was investigated and the reaction constants were determined. An optimum component ratio was determined, which leads to the effective elimination of pollutants under UV light, with degradation percentages up to 95% for MB and 89% for RhB and 90% removal efficiency of the OTC pharmaceutical. The degradation of both dyes was also confirmed under artificial solar light. Furthermore, the ternary TiO2/g-C3N4@Ag NCs were highly effective for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-NP to aminophenol (>95%) and Cr(VI) to Cr(III) (80%), under UV illumination.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the formation, composition, properties and ecotoxicology effects of selected emerging micro-pollutants (Norfloxacin, Ofloxacsin, Ciprofloxacan, Clofibric acid and Carbamazepine) at different concentrations in hospital wastewater were reviewed.
Abstract: Hospitals played vital role in the maintenance and sustenance of human health. However, hospital activities generate high volume of toxic solid and liquid containing diverse inorganic, organic and microbial wastes released untreated into the ecosystem. The management of hospital wastewater in particular has been a major source of concern due to the presence of unregulated emerging micro-pollutants at concentrations in the range of ng/L to μg/L. These pollutants at low concentration exert different potential health effects on human and aquatic species. In this review, the formation, composition, properties and ecotoxicology effects of selected emerging micro-pollutants (Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Clofibric acid and Carbamazepine) at different concentrations in hospital wastewater were reviewed. The review also elucidates on detection and quantification of concentration of different emerging micropollutants in hospital wastewater by Spectrophotometry techniques, Gas Chromatography, Ion Chromatography, Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Furthermore, treatment of hospital wastewater through physical, biological, chemical, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes such as photocatalysis and photo-Fenton including their operational mechanism were provided. The chemistry and mechanism of degradation of the selected emerging micropollutants into several intermediates were reviewed. It was found that conventional wastewater treatment methods are not designed for effective removal of these unregulated pollutants in hospital wastewater because they exist as mixtures at very high concentrations and exerts different toxicological effects. The review also reveals that no single technology can effectively detoxify the wastewater, instead combination of methods such as (phototcatalytic/adsorption or photo-fenton/adsorption) was found most appropriate for hospital wastewater treatment. Finally, regular monitoring and determination of physicochemical and ecotoxicological parameters and treatment of hospital wastewater are recommended. • Formation, composition and properties of hospital wastewater were examined. • (Eco) toxicology effects of selected emerging micro-pollutants at low concentration in hospital were reviewed. • The usefulness of various techniques for the detection and quantification of concentration of different emerging micro-pollutants in hospital wastewater and their shortcoming were examined. • Hybrid treatment methods were found appropriate for the treatment of hospital wastewater.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used Terminalia arjuna leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor and achieved a maximum of 64.1% efficiency in a 0.2 M HCl medium which can further be improved by improving the experimental conditions.
Abstract: Corrosion causes devastating damage to our machines and structures making the waste billions of dollars. Finding a proper solution to get rid of this problem is in high demand. Synthetic inhibitors are used to solve this problem but it is harmful to the environment. Stainless steel is also made which is too costly. Tremendous research is going on around the world to invent an efficient natural inhibitor. Terminalia arjuna has been used as medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this paper, we tried to find its efficiency as a corrosion inhibitor where mild steel has been used as a specimen. It shows a maximum of 64.1% efficiency in a 0.2 M HCl medium which can further be improved by improving the experimental conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy test suggests the reasons behind the inhibitions. Scanning electron microscopy test shows the surface morphology of the corroded samples and confirms less corrosion effect on mild steel in inhibited solution. • Terminalia arjuna leaves extract has been used as green corrosion inhibitor. • Maximum 64.1% corrosion efficiency is obtained in the research work. • FT-IR, SEM analysis has been performed. • SEM images have been further analyzed by the particle analysis, 2D and 3D surface morphology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a Cellular Lightweight Concrete (CLC) block using silica fume to replace partial cement in a mortar mixture was used to obtain the optimum compressive strength of 1.03 MPa.
Abstract: Foam concrete has practical and economic advantages in construction, including reducing the structure's weight by building foundations. The market demand for foam concrete such as Cellular Lightweight Concrete (CLC) block has increased recently. One way to reduce the density of CLC is to add air pores to the cement paste or mortar mixture. However, the addition of pores can reduce the strength of lightweight bricks. Therefore, there is a need for innovation to improve the quality of CLC block by replacing some of the cement with other added materials. This study aims to obtain a good quality CLC block using silica fume to replace partial cement in a mortar mixture. The specimens are a CLC block measuring 10 cm wide, 20 cm high and 60 cm long. Variation of mortar mixture using silica fume percentage of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% of cement weight. The output data generated from this sample are compressive strength, displacement, stress, strain and the modulus of elasticity. The test results obtained the optimum CLC compressive strength of 1.03 MPa at 10% silica fume composition. This optimum compressive strength of CLC was simulated using the LUSAS finite element analysis to obtain the displacement and stress-strain patterns. Based on the LUSAS numerical analysis, the optimum compressive strength of the CLC block was 1.06 MPa. This study shows that adding 10% silica to the CLC mortar mixture can increase the compressive strength by 81.25% compared to mortar without silica fume.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the analysis of heat dissipation over a layered stretching sheet under the control of magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convective flow of Eyring-Powell fluid is described.
Abstract: The analysis of heat dissipation over a layered stretching sheet under the control of magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convective flow of Eyring-Powell fluid is described in this study. The effect of heat emission and immersion is investigated. A viscous, incompressible, two-dimensional, and laminar fluid is assumed. The governing equations of momentum and temperature pictures are translated into a collection of non-linear differential equations using conformable similarity transformations. To obtain the mathematical solution of the governing equations, the shooting approach is modified. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta formulation is applied for the integration and Newton's formulation suffices to simplify initial guess values. MATLAB is used for all the programming. The effect of respective distinct flow parameters on the temperature, velocity, represented through graphical forms, and the interpretation of some helpful engineering aggregates such as the skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are explained graphically for different variables. It has been shown that increasing the thermal stratification parameter reduces fluid velocity and also temperature, and vice versa is noticed for the heat production variable. • In the presence of thermal radiation and a heat source/sink, a steady boundary layer flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid via a stretched sheet with changing thickness is numerically explored. • The effect of a magnetic field and mixed convection on the Eyring-Powell fluid has been investigated and compared to previous findings. • We attempted to determine the impacts of uniform and non-uniform heat sources/sinks on the fluid using spatial and temperature-dependent factors in this work. • As the magnetic parameter rises, so does the retarding force, and as a result, the velocity falls as the temperature and concentration profiles rise. • The presence of a heat source contributes more energy to the thermal boundary layer, causing the temperature of the fluid to rise, while the presence of a heat sink absorbs the heat energy from the boundary layer, causing the temperature of the fluid to fall.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the effect of crumb rubber recycled from wasted tires on properties of structural lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) was investigated, and two types of concrete were tested: control LWAC and rubberized lightweight aggreg concrete (RLWAC).
Abstract: This study investigated the effect crumb rubber recycled from wasted tires on properties of structural lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Two types of concrete were tested: control LWAC and rubberized lightweight aggregate concrete (RLWAC). The control LWAC consisted of cement, fine aggregate (river sand), and lightweight coarse aggregate (porous aggregates). For the RLWAC, the fine aggregate was replaced by crumb rubber at the rate of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by volume. The water to cement ratio for both concrete types was set at 0.35. The experiment series consisted of density (ASTM C567), compressive strength (ASTM C39), flexural strength (ASTM C78), thermal conductivity (ASTM C518), and sound absorption coefficient (ISO 10534-2). Results showed the decrease in density of about 10%, compressive strength of 21.4%, and flexural strength of 35.4% with the increasing crumb rubber replacement ratio up to 50%. For thermal and sound properties, the increasing crumb rubber content of up to 50% improved the thermal insulation of concrete, as seen by the decrease in thermal conductivity by about 14.6%. RLWAC also exhibited superior sound insulating properties to LWAC as seen by higher sound absorption coefficient over the working sound frequency range. In order to satisfy the requirements of ASTM C330 and ACI 318, the optimum crumb rubber replacement was recommended at less than 10%.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigated the routine of polycrystalline silicon PV modules using dissimilar cooling techniques and compared the PV modules with and without cooling, and found that front surface cooling by forced water from distributed nozzles is the most efficient cooling technique.
Abstract: The photovoltaic (PV) systems suffer efficiency drop and performance retrogression as their operating temperature increases. This research investigates the routine of polycrystalline silicon PV modules using dissimilar cooling techniques and compares the routine of the PV modules with and without cooling. The available studied PV module output maximum power decreases by up to 0.42% for every one-degree increase in temperature. To investigate the cooling techniques, the experiments were done in July 2021 at the Faculty of Engineering, Ismailia, Egypt (30°35′N 32°16′E). The used cooling methods were; forced air cooling onto the PV module front surface by a direct current fan (case 1); back surface cooling by circulating a coolant in a heat exchanger copper serpentine fixed at the PV module back surface, water (case 2), and copper oxide nanofluid (0.2% mass fraction) (case 3) was used as different coolants in the serpentine; front surface cooling using water as a coolant that flows from small nozzles equally distributed along with the pipe fixes at the PV module frame (case 4). After comparing the recorded results of the four cooling techniques with a conventional system, cooling efficiency, the front PV module surface water cooling technique produced the best results. This technique is easy to be designed, manufactured, and installed. Also, it saves the cost of cleanliness of the surface of the PV module from dirt and dust. These cooling techniques increase the conventional PV system voltage output by 2.7%, 2.43%, 0.9%, and 7.43% and decrease in average temperature by 13.46%, 8.64%, 7.27%, and 29.37%, with an increase in PV energy conversion efficiency by 2.94%, 2.46%, 2.2% and 6.84% via using air cooling, water back cooling, nanofluid back cooling and waterfront cooling respectively. • PV solar panel efficiency decreases as the panel temperature increases. • Four cooling techniques effect on PV panel performance are tested. • As the panel temperature decreases its output voltage, power and efficiency increases. • Front surface cooling by forced water from distributed nozzles is the most efficient cooling technique.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the effect of operation parameters on the yield of the produced sunflower biodiesel, with the use of low cost and time efficient central composite response surface methodology, was investigated.
Abstract: In the current global climate emergency and with the interesting environmental advantages of biodiesel, a look into the commercialisation of such greener fuel is essential. While raw materials account for the most in the production cost, time and energy can be economised using statistical models. The optimisation of free methyl esters (FAME) synthesised from waste sunflower oil over a novel CaO/Al2O3, and methanol was carried out at the alcohol and oil ratio of 12:1. The aim was to investigate the effect of operation parameters on the yield of the produced sunflower biodiesel, with the use of low cost and time efficient central composite response surface methodology. The chosen variables were catalyst loading, temperature, and time while the response was the yield. The catalyst loading was the most consequential parameter on yield. The linear regression model was obtained to predict responses given by these variables, with 95% confidence. The predicted and experimental yield was comparable with 92.773% and 95.665% respectively. A significant yield of 98.23% was obtained at optimal operating conditions of catalyst loading (2.5 wt%), time (5 h) and temperature (60 °C). The properties of optimised FAME were within international standard limits set for biodiesel except for the high concentrations of Ca and Mg.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the tensile and flexural properties of polyester composites reinforced with KF waste were evaluated using ASTM D-638 and D-790, respectively.
Abstract: The textile industries produce huge KF waste which should be utilized optimally. In this study, the KF waste was used to produce a composite. The mechanical properties of KF waste reinforced composites were observed. The important factor which affects the mechanical properties is the fiber configuration. Tensile and flexural tests were used to characterize the composite's products. The tensile properties were evaluated according to ASTM D-638, while the flexural properties were examined following ASTM D-790. The results showed that the unidirectional fiber orientation had the highest tensile (76.5 MPa) and flexural (151.3 MPa) strengths. The results show that the polyester composites reinforced with KF waste exhibit equivalent tensile and flexural properties of composites composed of regular KFs if arranged in unidirectional orientation. Thus, the appropriate fiber orientation gives the best composite results.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a support vector machine (SVM) and a histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) were applied to classify images of the human gait in order to meet the objectives.
Abstract: Gait recognition provides the opportunity to identify different walking styles of people without physical intervention. However, covariates such as changing clothes and carrying conditions may influence recognition accuracy. Our objective was to identify the walking patterns of people for different covariates through analyzing images from publicly available data set CASIA-B on gait. On the dataset, the proposed method was evaluated by using GEI (gait energy image) as inputs for normal walking, changing clothes, and carrying conditions in a multi-view environment. A support vector machine (SVM) and a histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) were applied to classify images of the human gait in order to meet the objectives. Observations show that, under consideration of the mean of the individual accuracies, the accuracy of recognition is in the following order: clothing > normal walk > carrying at a 90° angle. Measurement accuracy of 87.9% was achieved for the coat-wearing people and measurement accuracy of 83.33% was achieved for all the mentioned covariates. The accuracy of the clothing covariate stated as 87.9% is a useful for people especially for different season like winter.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the general battery structure, concept, and materials are presented along with recent technological advances, along with numerous opportunities to overcome some significant constraints to battery performance, such as improved techniques and higher electrochemical performance materials.
Abstract: The global demand for energy has increased enormously as a consequence of technological and economic advances. Instantaneous delivery of energy is available, but it cannot be continually supplied via the power grid to technical devices, automobiles, etc. The supply-demand mismatch of energy could be resolved with the use of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) as a power storage device. The overall performance of the LIB is mostly determined by its principal components, which include the anode, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector. The materials of the battery's various components are investigated. The general battery structure, concept, and materials are presented here, along with recent technological advances. There are numerous opportunities to overcome some significant constraints to battery performance, such as improved techniques and higher electrochemical performance materials. The future research approach has been directed toward improving the stability, strength, cyclic, and electrochemical performance of battery materials in each of these fields. • Different kinds of Lithium-ion battery materials has been discussed. • Electrochemical performance of Lithium-ion battery has been discussed. • Present technology of fabricating Lithium-ion battery materials has been extensively discussed. • A new strategy of Lithium-ion battery materials has mentioned to improve electrochemical performance.

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TL;DR: In this article , the second-grade viscoelastic nanofluid was studied in two-dimensional mode on a curve stretching surface and the impact of specific variables on the properties of fluid has been studied.
Abstract: MHD extended flow of second-grade viscoelastic nanofluid is studied in two-dimensional mode on a curve stretching surface. Items like Joule heating and curvature parameter have been applied to inspect the heat transfer and mass transfer rates. To produce the nonlinear ordinary differential system, appropriate transformations are used. The quasi-linearization method is utilized to derive the solutions numerically. The impact of specific variables on the properties of fluid has been studied. Conclusions indicate that the increase in Schmidt number halted the fluid concentration, whereas temperature grew because of an increment in radiation parameter. Viscous fluid velocity and concentration are reduced faster in comparison to viscoelastic fluid. The surface drag force is an increasing function of the non-Newtonian fluid. When values of Nt and Nb are increased, the heat transfer rate of second-grade fluid increases compared to Newtonian fluid. Schmidt number and chemical reaction parameters highly affect the mass transfer of second-grade fluid compared to Newtonian fluid.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the conversion of zinc oxide to ZIF-8 in different solvent mixtures (DMF/water, methanol/water and water) under microwave (MW) and ultrasonic (US) irradiation was described.
Abstract: The conversion of solid matters into metal-organic frameworks has emerged as a new alternative for the synthesis of MOFs. Various synthesis methods have been applied for this transformation using wet-chemistry and solid-state methods to result in the formation of a mixture of MOFand [email protected] Thus, it is highly desired to develop other methods to increase the MOF yield from oxide and accelerate the conversion rate. In this context, the use of ultrasound and microwave methods, known in the preparation of MOFs from metallic salts with an accelerated reaction time and enhanced yield, have surprisingly never been used in the transformation of oxides into MOFs. Herein we describe the conversion of zinc oxide to ZIF-8 in different solvent mixtures (DMF/water, methanol/water and water) under microwave (MW) and ultrasonic (US) irradiation. The results revealed different morphologies and particle sizes in different synthesis conditions and solvents with higher conversion rate using US over MW. The synthesized MOFs demonstrated excellent phosphate adsorption capacity, thereby giving them the potential to be used as effective adsorbent materials for wastewater treatment. This work opens up a new avenue toward the development of MOFs from other inorganic sustainable solid resources using US and MW.

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TL;DR: A review of ionic liquid-based corrosion inhibitors can be found in this article , where the authors discuss the different types of ILs used as corrosion inhibitors, the mechanism of corrosion inhibition in immobilized fluids, the impact of turbulence on corrosion, the price of IL in the future, the eco-friendly (the greenness) of ILS as corrosion inhibitor, and the industrial commercialization of IL.
Abstract: Human activities are becoming more complex and widespread, particularly the use of metal-based materials in everyday life and industry, resulting in increased corrosion that occurs and inhibits the process. Metal corrosion can be slowed by coating the metal with a corrosion inhibitor. Over the last decade, research into ionic liquids (ILs) as corrosion inhibitors has grown at an exponential rate. Metals are effectively inhibited by several cation ILs namely imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridazinium, benzimidazole, pyridinium, and others. ILs-based corrosion inhibitors are used to protect common metals such as carbon steel, copper, magnesium, stainless steel, and zinc. However, IL-based corrosion inhibitors are still used infrequently in industry. As a result, the purpose of this review paper is to demonstrate everything from research to the commercialization process in the industrialized world. The review paper goes into detail about the different types of ILs used as corrosion inhibitors; the mechanism of corrosion inhibition in immobilized fluids; the impact of turbulence on corrosion; the price of ILs in the future; the eco-friendly (the greenness) of ILs as corrosion inhibitors; and the industrial commercialization of ILs. • The use of ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors will be critical in the industrial world. • Ionic liquids will outperform other types of corrosion inhibitors in the future. • The future focus will be on the production process, price, and commercialization of ionic liquid-based corrosion inhibitors.