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Showing papers in "Reviews of Modern Physics in 2005"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments.
Abstract: Coherent preparation by laser light of quantum states of atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the amplitudes of optical transitions. In this way the optical properties of a medium can be dramatically modified, leading to electromagnetically induced transparency and related effects, which have placed gas-phase systems at the center of recent advances in the development of media with radically new optical properties. This article reviews these advances and the new possibilities they offer for nonlinear optics and quantum information science. As a basis for the theory of electromagnetically induced transparency the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser. They then discuss pulse propagation and the adiabatic evolution of field-coupled states and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments. The extension of these concepts to very weak optical fields in the few-photon limit is then examined. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects and potential new applications.

4,218 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the physics of small volumes (nanoliters) of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing the relative importance of various physical phenomena as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Microfabricated integrated circuits revolutionized computation by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar promise for the large-scale automation of chemistry and biology, suggesting the possibility of numerous experiments performed rapidly and in parallel, while consuming little reagent. While it is too early to tell whether such a vision will be realized, significant progress has been achieved, and various applications of significant scientific and practical interest have been developed. Here a review of the physics of small volumes (nanoliters) of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing the relative importance of various physical phenomena. Specifically, this review explores the Reynolds number Re, addressing inertial effects; the Peclet number Pe, which concerns convective and diffusive transport; the capillary number Ca expressing the importance of interfacial tension; the Deborah, Weissenberg, and elasticity numbers De, Wi, and El, describing elastic effects due to deformable microstructural elements like polymers; the Grashof and Rayleigh numbers Gr and Ra, describing density-driven flows; and the Knudsen number, describing the importance of noncontinuum molecular effects. Furthermore, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean that the influence of boundaries is typically significant. A variety of strategies have been developed to manipulate fluids by exploiting boundary effects; among these are electrokinetic effects, acoustic streaming, and fluid-structure interactions. The goal is to describe the physics behind the rich variety of fluid phenomena occurring on the nanoliter scale using simple scaling arguments, with the hopes of developing an intuitive sense for this occasionally counterintuitive world.

4,044 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators is presented, with a rigorous mathematical treatment, specific numerical methods, and many variations and extensions of the original model that have appeared in the last few years.
Abstract: Synchronization phenomena in large populations of interacting elements are the subject of intense research efforts in physical, biological, chemical, and social systems. A successful approach to the problem of synchronization consists of modeling each member of the population as a phase oscillator. In this review, synchronization is analyzed in one of the most representative models of coupled phase oscillators, the Kuramoto model. A rigorous mathematical treatment, specific numerical methods, and many variations and extensions of the original model that have appeared in the last few years are presented. Relevant applications of the model in different contexts are also included.

2,864 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2010 self-consistent set of values of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use is presented in this article.
Abstract: This paper gives the 2010 self-consistent set of values of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use. The 2010 adjustment takes into account the data considered in the 2006 adjustment as well as the data that became available from 1 January 2007, after the closing date of that adjustment, until 31 December 2010, the closing date of the new adjustment. Further, it describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the constants, including the selection of the final set of input data based on the results of least-squares analyses. The 2010 set replaces the previously recommended 2006 CODATA set and may also be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants.

2,770 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as mentioned in this paper is a numerical algorithm for the efficient truncation of the Hilbert space of low-dimensional strongly correlated quantum systems based on a rather general decimation prescription.
Abstract: The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a numerical algorithm for the efficient truncation of the Hilbert space of low-dimensional strongly correlated quantum systems based on a rather general decimation prescription. This algorithm has achieved unprecedented precision in the description of one-dimensional quantum systems. It has therefore quickly become the method of choice for numerical studies of such systems. Its applications to the calculation of static, dynamic, and thermodynamic quantities in these systems are reviewed here. The potential of DMRG applications in the fields of two-dimensional quantum systems, quantum chemistry, three-dimensional small grains, nuclear physics, equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical physics, and time-dependent phenomena is also discussed. This review additionally considers the theoretical foundations of the method, examining its relationship to matrix-product states and the quantum information content of the density matrices generated by the DMRG.

2,341 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce the current state of development in the application of ferroelectric thin films for electronic devices and discuss the physics relevant for the performance and failure of these devices.
Abstract: This review covers important advances in recent years in the physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides, the strongest emphasis being on those aspects particular to ferroelectrics in thin-film form. The authors introduce the current state of development in the application of ferroelectric thin films for electronic devices and discuss the physics relevant for the performance and failure of these devices. Following this the review covers the enormous progress that has been made in the first-principles computational approach to understanding ferroelectrics. The authors then discuss in detail the important role that strain plays in determining the properties of epitaxial thin ferroelectric films. Finally, this review ends with a look at the emerging possibilities for nanoscale ferroelectrics, with particular emphasis on ferroelectrics in nonconventional nanoscale geometries.

1,908 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the current theoretical understanding of the physical processes believed to take place in GRB's can be found in this article, where the authors focus on the afterglow itself, the jet break in the light curve, and the optical flash that accompanies the GRB.
Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRB's), short and intense pulses of low-energy $\ensuremath{\gamma}$ rays, have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in the late sixties. During the last decade, several space missions---BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, BeppoSAX and now HETE II (High-Energy Transient Explorer)---together with ground-based optical, infrared, and radio observatories have revolutionized our understanding of GRB's, showing that they are cosmological, that they are accompanied by long-lasting afterglows, and that they are associated with core-collapse supernovae. At the same time a theoretical understanding has emerged in the form of the fireball internal-external shocks model. According to this model GRB's are produced when the kinetic energy of an ultrarelativistic flow is dissipated in internal collisions. The afterglow arises when the flow is slowed down by shocks with the surrounding circumburst matter. This model has had numerous successful predictions, like the predictions of the afterglow itself, of jet breaks in the afterglow light curve, and of the optical flash that accompanies the GRB's. This review focuses on the current theoretical understanding of the physical processes believed to take place in GRB's.

1,800 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a qualitative analysis of the proximity effect in the presence of an exchange field and then a description of the properties of superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures is provided.
Abstract: The proximity effect at superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces produces damped oscillatory behavior of the Cooper pair wave function within the ferromagnetic medium. This is analogous to the inhomogeneous superconductivity, predicted long ago by Fulde and Ferrell (P. Fulde and R. A. Ferrell, 1964, ``Superconductivity in a strong spin-exchange field,'' Phys. Rev. 135, A550--A563), and by Larkin and Ovchinnikov (A. I. Larkin and Y. N. Ovchinnikov, 1964, ``Inhomogeneous state of superconductors,'' Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1136--1146 [Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 762--769 (1965)]), and sought by condensed-matter experimentalists ever since. This article offers a qualitative analysis of the proximity effect in the presence of an exchange field and then provides a description of the properties of superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures. Special attention is paid to the striking nonmonotonic dependence of the critical temperature of multilayers and bilayers on the ferromagnetic layer thickness as well as to the conditions under which ``$\ensuremath{\pi}$'' Josephson junctions are realized. Recent progress in the preparation of high-quality hybrid systems has permitted the observation of many interesting experimental effects, which are also discussed. Finally, the author analyzes the phenomenon of domain-wall superconductivity and the influence of superconductivity on the magnetic structure in superconductor-ferromagnet bilayers.

1,626 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the experimental methods for the production of free nanoclusters is presented, along with theoretical and simulation issues, always discussed in close connection with the experimental results.
Abstract: The structural properties of free nanoclusters are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the interplay of energetic, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors in the explanation of cluster structures that are actually observed in experiments. The review starts with a brief summary of the experimental methods for the production of free nanoclusters and then considers theoretical and simulation issues, always discussed in close connection with the experimental results. The energetic properties are treated first, along with methods for modeling elementary constituent interactions and for global optimization on the cluster potential-energy surface. After that, a section on cluster thermodynamics follows. The discussion includes the analysis of solid-solid structural transitions and of melting, with its size dependence. The last section is devoted to the growth kinetics of free nanoclusters and treats the growth of isolated clusters and their coalescence. Several specific systems are analyzed.

1,563 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the decoherence program, including its more recent results, and its application and consequences are investigated in the context of the main interpretive approaches of quantum mechanics. But their implications for the quantum measurement problem have remained a matter of great controversy.
Abstract: Environment-induced decoherence and superselection have been a subject of intensive research over the past two decades, yet their implications for the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, most notably the quantum measurement problem, have remained a matter of great controversy. This paper is intended to clarify key features of the decoherence program, including its more recent results, and to investigate their application and consequences in the context of the main interpretive approaches of quantum mechanics.

1,270 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the triplet component of the condensate generated by superconductor-ferromagnet structures is considered, which is odd in frequency and even in momentum, making it insensitive to nonmagnetic impurities.
Abstract: This review considers unusual effects in superconductor-ferromagnet structures, in particular, the triplet component of the condensate generated in those systems. This component is odd in frequency and even in momentum, which makes it insensitive to nonmagnetic impurities. If the exchange field is not homogeneous in the system, the triplet component is not destroyed even by a strong exchange field and can penetrate the ferromagnet over long distances. Some other effects considered here and caused by the proximity effect are enhancement of the Josephson current due to the presence of the ferromagnet, induction of a magnetic moment in superconductors resulting in a screening of the magnetic moment, and formation of periodic magnetic structures due to the influence of the superconductor. Finally, theoretical predictions are compared with existing experiments.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a broad variety of pulse control and tomographic techniques have been developed for, and used in, NMR quantum computation and many of these will be useful in other quantum systems now being considered for the implementation of quantum information processing tasks.
Abstract: Fifty years of developments in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have resulted in an unrivaled degree of control of the dynamics of coupled two-level quantum systems. This coherent control of nuclear spin dynamics has recently been taken to a new level, motivated by the interest in quantum information processing. NMR has been the workhorse for the experimental implementation of quantum protocols, allowing exquisite control of systems up to seven qubits in size. This article surveys and summarizes a broad variety of pulse control and tomographic techniques which have been developed for, and used in, NMR quantum computation. Many of these will be useful in other quantum systems now being considered for the implementation of quantum information processing tasks.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the role of spin pumping in layered structures is discussed and the main body of the theory is semiclassical and based on a mean-field Stoner or spin-density functional picture, but quantum-size effects and electron-electron correlations are also discussed.
Abstract: Two complementary effects modify the GHz magnetization dynamics of nanoscale heterostructures of ferromagnetic and normal materials relative to those of the isolated magnetic constituents. On the one hand, a time-dependent ferromagnetic magnetization pumps a spin angular-momentum flow into adjacent materials and, on the other hand, spin angular momentum is transferred between ferromagnets by an applied bias, causing mutual torques on the magnetizations. These phenomena are manifestly nonlocal: they are governed by the entire spin-coherent region that is limited in size by spin-flip relaxation processes. This review presents recent progress in understanding the magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures from first principles, focusing on the role of spin pumping in layered structures. The main body of the theory is semiclassical and based on a mean-field Stoner or spin-density-functional picture, but quantum-size effects and the role of electron-electron correlations are also discussed. A growing number of experiments support the theoretical predictions. The formalism should be useful for understanding the physics and for engineering the characteristics of small devices such as magnetic random-access memory elements.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The quantum cluster theory as discussed by the authors is a set of approximations for infinite lattice models which treat correlations within the cluster explicitly, and correlations at longer length scales either perturbatively or within a mean-field approximation.
Abstract: This article reviews quantum cluster theories, a set of approximations for infinite lattice models which treat correlations within the cluster explicitly, and correlations at longer length scales either perturbatively or within a mean-field approximation. These methods become exact when the cluster size diverges, and most recover the corresponding mean-field approximation when the cluster size becomes 1. Although quantum cluster theories were originally developed to treat disordered systems, they have more recently been applied to the study of ordered and disordered correlated systems, which will be the focus of this review. After a brief historical review, the authors provide detailed derivations of three cluster formalisms: the cluster perturbation theory, the dynamical cluster approximation, and the cellular dynamical mean-field theory. They compare their advantages and review their applications to common models of correlated electron systems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most successful cosmological models to date envision structure formation as a hierarchical process in which gravity is constantly drawing lumps of matter together to form increasingly larger structures as discussed by the authors, and clusters of galaxies currently sit atop this hierarchy as the largest objects that have had time to collapse under the influence of their own gravity.
Abstract: The most successful cosmological models to date envision structure formation as a hierarchical process in which gravity is constantly drawing lumps of matter together to form increasingly larger structures. Clusters of galaxies currently sit atop this hierarchy as the largest objects that have had time to collapse under the influence of their own gravity. Thus their appearance on the cosmic scene is also relatively recent. Two features of clusters make them uniquely useful tracers of cosmic evolution. First, clusters are the biggest things whose masses we can reliably measure because they are the largest objects to have undergone gravitational relaxation and entered into virial equilibrium. Mass measurements of nearby clusters can therefore be used to determine the amount of structure in the universe on scales of ${10}^{14}--{10}^{15}{M}_{\astrosun{}}$, and comparisons of the present-day cluster mass distribution with the mass distribution at earlier times can be used to measure the rate of structure formation, placing important constraints on cosmological models. Second, clusters are essentially ``closed boxes'' that retain all their gaseous matter, despite the enormous energy input associated with supernovae and active galactic nuclei, because the gravitational potential wells of clusters are so deep. The baryonic component of clusters therefore contains a wealth of information about the processes associated with galaxy formation, including the efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars and the effects of the resulting feedback processes on galaxy formation. This article reviews our theoretical understanding of both the dark-matter component and the baryonic component of clusters, providing a context for interpreting the flood of new cluster observations that are now arriving from the latest generation of x-ray observatories, large optical surveys, and measurements of cluster-induced distortions in the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Lanczos tridiagonal construction has been used to diagonalize matrices in determinantal spaces of dimensionality up to 10^9 using the Shell Model.
Abstract: The last decade has witnessed both quantitative and qualitative progresses in Shell Model studies, which have resulted in remarkable gains in our understanding of the structure of the nucleus. Indeed, it is now possible to diagonalize matrices in determinantal spaces of dimensionality up to 10^9 using the Lanczos tridiagonal construction, whose formal and numerical aspects we will analyze. Besides, many new approximation methods have been developed in order to overcome the dimensionality limitations. Furthermore, new effective nucleon-nucleon interactions have been constructed that contain both two and three-body contributions. The former are derived from realistic potentials (i.e., consistent with two nucleon data). The latter incorporate the pure monopole terms necessary to correct the bad saturation and shell-formation properties of the realistic two-body forces. This combination appears to solve a number of hitherto puzzling problems. In the present review we will concentrate on those results which illustrate the global features of the approach: the universality of the effective interaction and the capacity of the Shell Model to describe simultaneously all the manifestations of the nuclear dynamics either of single particle or collective nature. We will also treat in some detail the problems associated with rotational motion, the origin of quenching of the Gamow Teller transitions, the double beta-decays, the effect of isospin non conserving nuclear forces, and the specificities of the very neutron rich nuclei. Many other calculations--that appear to have ``merely'' spectroscopic interest--are touched upon briefly, although we are fully aware that much of the credibility of the Shell Model rests on them.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the benefits and challenges of using plasma-based systems in nanofabrication of nanostructured silicon films, low-dimensional semiconducting quantum structures, ordered carbon nanotip arrays, highly crystalline ${\mathrm{TiO}}_{2}$ coatings, and nano-structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics are discussed.
Abstract: The underlying physics of the application of low-temperature, low-pressure reactive plasmas in various nanoassembly processes is described. From the viewpoint of the ``cause and effect'' approach, this Colloquium focuses on the benefits and challenges of using plasma-based systems in nanofabrication of nanostructured silicon films, low-dimensional semiconducting quantum structures, ordered carbon nanotip arrays, highly crystalline ${\mathrm{TiO}}_{2}$ coatings, and nanostructured hydroxyapatite bioceramics. Other examples and future prospects of plasma-aided nanofabrication are also discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a coherent field-theory-derived quantum-mechanical scheme was proposed to calculate the properties of bound states made by two or more heavy quarks.
Abstract: We briefly review how nonrelativistic effective field theories give us a definition of the QCD potentials and a coherent field-theory-derived quantum-mechanical scheme to calculate the properties of bound states made by two or more heavy quarks. In this framework heavy quarkonium properties depend only on the QCD parameters (quark masses and αs) and nonpotential corrections are systematically accounted for. The relation between the form of the nonperturbative potentials and the low-energy QCD dynamics is also discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the electromagnetic response of high-Tc superconductors using terahertz, infrared, and optical spectroscopies is presented, with an emphasis on conceptual issues, including evolution of the electronic spectral weight in doped Mott-Hubbard insulators, the d-wave superconducting energy gap and the normal-state pseudogap, anisotropic superfluid response, electronic phase segregation, emergence of coherent electronic state as a function of both temperature and doping, the vortex state, and the energetics of the super
Abstract: Recent studies of the electromagnetic response of high-Tc superconductors using terahertz, infrared, and optical spectroscopies are reviewed. In combination these experimental techniques provide a comprehensive picture of the low-energy excitations and charge dynamics in this class of materials. These results are discussed with an emphasis on conceptual issues, including evolution of the electronic spectral weight in doped Mott-Hubbard insulators, the d-wave superconducting energy gap and the normal-state pseudogap, anisotropic superfluid response, electronic phase segregation, emergence of coherent electronic state as a function of both temperature and doping, the vortex state, and the energetics of the superconducting transition. Because the theoretical understanding of these issues is still evolving the review is focused on the analysis of the universal trends that are emerging out of a large body of work carried on by many research teams. Where possible data generated by infrared/optical techniques are compared with the data from other spectroscopic and transport methods.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The 2006 self-consistent set of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This paper gives the 2006 self-consistent set of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use. Further, it describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the constants, including the selection of the final set of input data based on the results of least-squares analyses. The 2006 adjustment takes into account the data considered in the 2002 adjustment as well as the data that became available between 31 December 2002, the closing date of that adjustment, and 31 December 2006, the closing date of the new adjustment. The new data have led to a significant reduction in the uncertainties of many recommended values. The 2006 set replaces the previously recommended 2002 CODATA set and also may be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of quantum cloning machines can be found in this paper, where the role of cloning in quantum cryptography, the link between optimal cloning and light amplification via stimulated emission, and the experimental demonstrations of optimal quantum cloning.
Abstract: The impossibility of perfectly copying (or cloning) an arbitrary quantum state is one of the basic rules governing the physics of quantum systems. The processes that perform the optimal approximate cloning have been found in many cases. These "quantum cloning machines" are important tools for studying a wide variety of tasks, e.g. state estimation and eavesdropping on quantum cryptography. This paper provides a comprehensive review of quantum cloning machines (both for discrete-dimensional and for continuous-variable quantum systems); in addition, it presents the role of cloning in quantum cryptography, the link between optimal cloning and light amplification via stimulated emission, and the experimental demonstrations of optimal quantum cloning.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a brief introduction to the history, availability, and characterization of stable isotopes, including their many applications in science and technology, is given, followed by a concise discussion of the effects of isotopic composition on the vibrational spectra, including the influence of average isotopic masses and isotopic disorder on the phonons.
Abstract: Since the end of the cold war, macroscopic amounts of separated stable isotopes of most elements have been available ``off the shelf'' at affordable prices. Using these materials, single crystals of many semiconductors have been grown and the dependence of their physical properties on isotopic composition has been investigated. The most conspicuous effects observed have to do with the dependence of phonon frequencies and linewidths on isotopic composition. These affect the electronic properties of solids through the mechanism of electron-phonon interaction, in particular, in the corresponding optical excitation spectra and energy gaps. This review contains a brief introduction to the history, availability, and characterization of stable isotopes, including their many applications in science and technology. It is followed by a concise discussion of the effects of isotopic composition on the vibrational spectra, including the influence of average isotopic masses and isotopic disorder on the phonons. The final sections deal with the effects of electron-phonon interaction on energy gaps, the concomitant effects on the luminescence spectra of free and bound excitons, with particular emphasis on silicon, and the effects of isotopic composition of the host material on the optical transitions between the bound states of hydrogenic impurities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The physics of magnetically confined plasmas has had much of its development as part of the program to develop fusion energy and is an important element in the study of space and astrophysical Plasmas as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The physics of magnetically confined plasmas has had much of its development as part of the program to develop fusion energy and is an important element in the study of space and astrophysical plasmas. Closely related areas of physics include Hamiltonian dynamics, kinetic theory, and fluid turbulence. A number of topics in physics have been developed primarily through research on magnetically confined plasmas. The physics that underlies the magnetic confinement of plasmas is reviewed here to make it more accessible to those beginning research on plasma confinement and for interested physicists.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the Andreev-Saint-James (ASJ) reflections and spectroscopy in conventional superconductors is presented, and their application to the high-${T}_{c}$ cuprates is discussed.
Abstract: Electrical transport through a normal-metal/superconductor contact at biases smaller than the energy gap can occur via the reflection of an electron as a hole of opposite wave vector. The same mechanism of electron-hole reflection gives rise to low-energy states at the surface of unconventional superconductors having nodes in their order parameter. The occurrence of electron-hole reflections at normal-metal/superconductor interfaces was predicted independently by Saint-James and de Gennes and by Andreev, and their spectroscopic features were discussed in detail by Saint-James in the early sixties. They are generally called Andreev reflections but, in view of the literature, will here be referred to as Andreev--Saint-James (ASJ) reflections. This review presents a historical review of ASJ reflections and spectroscopy in conventional superconductors, and reviews their application to the high-${T}_{c}$ cuprates. The occurrence of ASJ reflections in all studied cuprates is well documented for a broad range of doping levels, implying that there is no large asymmetry between electrons and holes near the Fermi level in the superconducting state. In the underdoped regime, where the pseudogap phenomenon has been observed by other methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and Giaever tunneling, gap values obtained from ASJ spectroscopy are smaller than pseudogap values, indicating a lack of coherence in the pseudogap energy range. Low-energy surface bound states have been observed in all studied hole-doped cuprates, in agreement with a dominant $d$-wave symmetry order parameter. Results are mixed for electron-doped cuprates. In overdoped $\mathrm{Y}{\mathrm{Ba}}_{2}{\mathrm{Cu}}_{3}{\mathrm{O}}_{7\ensuremath{-}\ensuremath{\delta}}\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}(\ensuremath{\delta}l0.08)$ and ${\mathrm{La}}_{2\ensuremath{-}x}{\mathrm{Sr}}_{x}\mathrm{Cu}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}$, ASJ spectroscopy is consistent with the presence of an additional imaginary component of the order parameter. Results of ASJ spectroscopy under applied magnetic fields are also reviewed. A short section at the end is devoted to some recent results on spin effects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a tutorial essay aims to give enough of the formal elements of control theory to satisfy the experimentalist designing or running a typical physics experiment and enough to satisfy a theorist wishing to understand its broader intellectual context.
Abstract: Feedback and control theory are important ideas that should form part of the education of a physicist but rarely do. This tutorial essay aims to give enough of the formal elements of control theory to satisfy the experimentalist designing or running a typical physics experiment and enough to satisfy the theorist wishing to understand its broader intellectual context. The level is generally simple, although more advanced methods are also introduced. Several types of applications are discussed, as the practical uses of feedback extend far beyond the simple regulation problems where it is most often employed. Sketches are then provided of some of the broader implications and applications of control theory, especially in biology, which are topics of active research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the experimental results relevant for the understanding of the microscopic dynamics in liquid metals are reviewed, with special regard to the ones achieved in the last two decades, including the ones obtained in this article.
Abstract: The experimental results relevant for the understanding of the microscopic dynamics in liquid metals are reviewed, with special regard to the ones achieved in the last two decades. Inelastic neutron scattering played a major role since the development of neutron facilities in the 1960s. The last ten years, however, saw the development of third generation radiation sources, which opened the possibility of performing inelastic scattering with x rays, thus disclosing previously unaccessible energy-momentum regions. The purely coherent response of x rays, moreover, combined with the mixed coherent or incoherent response typical of neutron scattering, provides enormous potentialities to disentangle aspects related to the collectivity of motion from the single-particle dynamics. If the last $20\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}\text{years}$ saw major experimental developments, on the theoretical side fresh ideas came up to the side of the most traditional and established theories. Beside the raw experimental results therefore models and theoretical approaches are reviewed for the description of microscopic dynamics over different length scales, from the hydrodynamic region down to the single-particle regime, walking the perilous and sometimes uncharted path of the generalized hydrodynamics extension. Approaches peculiar of conductive systems, based on the ionic plasma theory, are also considered, as well as kinetic and mode coupling theory applied to hard-sphere systems, which turn out to mimic with remarkable detail the atomic dynamics of liquid metals. Finally, cutting edge issues and open problems, such as the ultimate origin of the anomalous acoustic dispersion or the relevance of transport properties of a conductive system in ruling the ionic dynamic structure factor, are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
Marcos Marino1
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the relation between Chern-Simons gauge theory and topological string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau spaces is given, and the implications of the physics of string/gauge theory duality for knot theory and for the geometry of Calabi Yau manifolds are discussed.
Abstract: A review of the relation between Chern-Simons gauge theory and topological string theory on noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces is given. This relation has made it possible to give an exact solution of topological string theory on these spaces to all orders in the string coupling constant. Here the focus is on the construction of this solution, which is encoded in the topological vertex, and the implications of the physics of string/gauge theory duality for knot theory and for the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss a paradigm that has become of increasing importance in the theory of quantum phase transitions, namely, the coupling of the order-parameter fluctuations to other soft modes and the resulting impossibility of constructing a simple Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory in terms of order parameter only.
Abstract: This review discusses a paradigm that has become of increasing importance in the theory of quantum phase transitions, namely, the coupling of the order-parameter fluctuations to other soft modes and the resulting impossibility of constructing a simple Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory in terms of the order parameter only. The soft modes in question are manifestations of generic scale invariance, i.e., the appearance of long-range order in whole regions in the phase diagram. The concept of generic scale invariance and its influence on critical behavior is explained using various examples, both classical and quantum mechanical. The peculiarities of quantum phase transitions are discussed, with emphasis on the fact that they are more susceptible to the effects of generic scale invariance than their classical counterparts. Explicit examples include the quantum ferromagnetic transition in metals, with or without quenched disorder; the metal-superconductor transition at zero temperature; and the quantum antiferromagnetic transition. Analogies with classical phase transitions in liquid crystals and classical fluids are pointed out, and a unifying conceptual framework is developed for all transitions that are influenced by generic scale invariance.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the theory appropriate to different kinematics domains is described, concentrating on the effects occurring at extreme fields, including strong field synchrotron radiation, channeling radiation, bremsstrahlung, and photon interactions.
Abstract: Crystals present a uniquely simple environment for the investigation of strong electromagnetic fields. When energetic charged particles are incident on crystals close to major crystallographic directions, their electromagnetic interactions depend crucially on the kinematic conditions. The coherence of the crystalline field can produce very strong electric fields in the rest frame of the particle, exceeding the so-called Schwinger field or quantum critical field. In that domain, the radiation emission takes a substantial part of the electron energy and the ``formation zone'' changes character. In this review the theory appropriate to the different kinematics domains is described, concentrating on the effects occurring at extreme fields. Properties discussed include strong field synchrotron radiation, channeling radiation, bremsstrahlung, and photon interactions. Applications are given to radiation sources, bending of particle beams, and sources of polarized GeV photons.