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Showing papers in "Revista De Derecho (valdivia) in 2014"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a framework for assessing the goals and benefits of transparency in public decision making is proposed, and how transparency is related to other principles, including those of the First Amendment.
Abstract: The paper addresses the issue of transparency in public decision making, offering a proposed framework for assessing the goals and benefits, and how transparency is related to other principles, including those of the First Amendment. The text discusses the definition of transparency: the degree of transparency is a function of three variables: the possessor of information, the information that is to be made transparent, and to whom access to information will be given. Then, it addresses the aims of transparency, in particular, its regulatory, democracy enhancing, efficiency promoting, and epistemological goals. The text notes how transparency is conservative, seeking to prevent the worst outcomes even at the occasional cost of foreclosing the best ones.

33 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a descriptive and cross-sectional research based on qualitative data, which examines the legal regulation of CSR in Colombia, from the analysis of the principles of Global Compact grouped into four areas: human rights, labor, environmental and fight against corruption.
Abstract: This paper examines how the principles of corporate social responsibility are included in the Colombian legal system. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional research based on qualitative data, which examines the legal regulation of CSR in Colombia, from the analysis of the principles of Global Compact grouped into four areas: human rights, labor, environmental and fight against corruption. It is concluded that the different aspects of CSR are regulated to a greater or lesser extent in the Colombian legal system, which shows that this is not, at least not entirely voluntary and that the regulation in this area as well as voluntary initiatives are appropriate and necessary, not contradictory, but are complementary instead.

22 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A pesar de que la Comunidad Andina se ha constituido en el proceso de integracion mas antiguo de Suramerica, reiteradamente se ha manifestado la crisis d...
Abstract: Resumen es: A pesar de que la Comunidad Andina se ha constituido en el proceso de integracion mas antiguo de Suramerica; reiteradamente se ha manifestado la crisis d...

11 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The article 9 of the Colombian Criminal Code defines, as system governing principle, the punishable behavior concept as mentioned in this paper, which is the most important item of crime's theory. But the interpretation of this concept has not yet been studied in the legal system.
Abstract: Article 9 of the Criminal Code defines, as system governing principle, the punishable behavior concept. The following text, questioning the uncritical reception of foreign theories to the legal system, (also Codes, rules, etc.) presents some of the most important items of crime's theory (behavior concept, negative and result sense, causation and ascription, malice systematic location and imputable liability) through Colombian criminal doctrine's interpretation.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concepto de Paz en la Constitucion Politica de Colombia de 1991 is polivalente, ejercicio mostrara una mayor eficacia o un mayor peso de algunos conceptos respecto de los otros as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: El concepto de Paz en la Constitucion Politica de Colombia de 1991 es polivalente. Segun la jurisprudencia constitucional en Colombia, puede asumir diversas expresiones segun sean los sujetos involucrados, las situaciones en conflicto y los mecanismos para solucionarlos. Evaluar estos conceptos permite un acercamiento dogmatico a lo que la Constitucion Politica de 1991 quiere y, por ende, lo que las autoridades y los particulares deben hacer en relacion con este concepto. Para tal fin, se recurre a algunos de los criterios que permiten acercarse al peso abstracto de los principios en el principio de proporcionalidad. Este ejercicio mostrara una mayor eficacia o un mayor peso de algunos conceptos respecto de los otros.

9 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a reflection is made on the notion of validity of law from the viewpoint of the philosopher John Finnis, and it is concluded that the aforementioned author understood the concept of natural law in a different way than the traditional natural law.
Abstract: The concept of validity of law has been analyzed by different theoretical doctrines. In this article, a reflection is made on the notion of validity of law from the viewpoint of the philosopher John Finnis. In this documentary research, it is concluded that the aforementioned author understands the concept of validity of law in a different way than the traditional natural law. In fact, John Finnis takes some elements of natural law, but he creates a concept integrated by several criteria.

8 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze how members of the legal community create, set and use legal knowledge transmitted mainly responding to texts discourse genres, and conclude that the analysis of legal community should be sensitive to the discursive dynamics of the community and how they exchange goods and services through the use of texts.
Abstract: This article reflects on how the Chilean legal community relates to the society through the production of discourse. The aim is to establish the basis of a model of discourse relations between legal experts and laymen. To achieve this goal we analyze how members of the legal community create, set and using legal knowledge transmitted mainly responding to texts discourse genres. We conclude that the analysis of the legal community should be sensitive to the discursive dynamics of the community and how they exchange goods and services through the use of texts. Discursive dynamic – specialized genres – legal discourse – chilean legal community *1Investigacion realizada en el marco del proyecto FONDECYT regular No 1110332. ** 2 Abogada y estudiante del Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Humanas c/m en discurso y Cultura,

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a critical analysis of three aspects related to the origin and application of exceptio non-adimpleti contractus is presented, including the enforceability of bilateral obligations and the pos-sibility of opposing, with general reach, exceptions of non-performance in cases of foreseeable breaches.
Abstract: This paper centers on a critical analysis of three aspects related to the origin and application of exceptio non adimpleti contractus: first, the enforceability of bilateral obligations and, within it, the pos-sibility of opposing, with general reach, exceptions of non-performance in cases of foreseeable breaches; next, breaches that give origin to the exceptio, which necessarily imply taking sides regarding the need for estab-lishing the severity of the breach, so that legal actions may succeed; and, finally, the proof for exceptions of non-performance. Furthermore, and as a tangent to the above, the paper will discuss some effect-related aspects. To accomplish this, the discussion will mainly focus on national jurispru-dence in order to establish criteria and/or propose an adequate interpretation based on problems that have arisen. In addition, the paper will face the foundations and nature of this institution and will complementarily approach national and compared doctrine.

6 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose that the uniformity of judicial decisions is a desired value that the supreme court are meant to achieve by different procedures, in almost all legal systems.
Abstract: Uniformity of judicial decisions is a desired value that supreme courts are meant to achieve by different procedures, in almost all legal systems Some of th

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Environmental Framework Law is analyzed based on the current interests that are actually protected by the legislator and the new environmental damage procedure enshrined in the Law N ° 20.600 in order to propose a subtle modification to its structure should allow the intervention of every interested in an environmental damage.
Abstract: The environment as a legal right has a collective nature. An environmental damage involves variety of interests because its deterio-ration matters to many people. The Environmental Framework Law will be analyzed based on the current interests that are actually protected. We will state our personal considerations regarding the necessity to recognize the plaintifFs standing situations obviated by the legislator. Likewise, we will also comment the new environmental damage procedure enshrined in the Law N ° 20.600 in order to propose that a subtle modification to its structure should allow the intervention of every interested in an environmental damage.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the distinction between the requirement of a strict description of criminal offences and the weaker requirement in this aspect affecting the description of administrative offences is made and the reasons for such a distinction become apparent once different kind of practical reasoning involved in the regulation of criminal and administrative law are considered.
Abstract: This paper supports the distinction between the requirement of a strict description of criminal offences and the weaker requirement in this aspect affecting the description of administrative offences. The reasons for such a distinction become apparent once different kind of practical reasoning involved in the regulation of criminal and administrative law are considered. This explains why the article engages in the analysis of Law & Economics and its underlying consequentialist reasoning. It is suggested that an adequate legal standard to assess the description of the administrative offences may respond to the idea of ‘sufficient framework of legality’.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the dificultades and desafios that enfrenta el derecho a la consulta previa como herramienta de proteccion de los derechos de los pueblos indigenas y tribales in Colombia, in particular frente a proyectos de exploracion and explotacion de recursos naturales.
Abstract: Este articulo examina las dificultades y desafios que enfrenta el derecho a la consulta previa como herramienta de proteccion de los derechos de los pueblos indigenas y tribales en Colombia, en particular, frente a proyectos de exploracion y explotacion de recursos naturales. Partiendo de un analisis teorico, el texto explora dos perspectivas de analisis: por una parte, presenta algunas de las limitaciones encontradas en la construccion juridica de esta figura en el ambito nacional, tanto en el marco legal que la regula como en la jurisprudencia constitucional que la ha desarrollado. Por otra, se centra en algunas de las consecuencias teorico-practicas contradictorias que se derivan de su puesta en marcha.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a model built upon an integration of norm theory and action theory is proposed to disambiguate the concept of a guarantor position, whose performance is tested through its application to a wide series of cases.
Abstract: The article sets forward a certain understanding of the so called "improper omission offences", which leads to a clarification of the requirement of a guarantor position. This clarification enables an identification of a systematic ambiguity exhibited by the concept of a guarantor position, which rests upon the fact that the guarantor who omits a given action can also have responsibility as a principal or as an accessory to a commission offence. In order to disambiguate the concept of a guarantor position, the article offers a model built upon an integration of norm theory and action theory, whose performance is tested through its application to a wide series of cases. The case analysis gives a sufficiently vast sample of the different combinatory possibilities concerning the interrelation between the categories of omission by a guarantor and principal and accessory responsibility.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an ensayo propone poner atencion a las practicas academicas of Estados Unidos, cuyas facultades de derecho atravesaron this proceso de academizacion hacia fines del siglo XIX and principios of the siglo XX.
Abstract: Resumen Las facultades de derecho chilenas estan viviendo un proceso de cambio consistente en la proliferacion al interior de ellas de academicos de dedicacion completa y exclusiva. Ello involucra una cierta perdida de protagonismo dentro de las mismas de los docentes que dividen su tiempo entre los tribunales y las aulas universitarias. ?Estamos ante la profesionalizacion de la docencia juridica? Este ensayo sugiere entender este fenomeno mas bien como un caso de conflicto entre dos profesiones, los “academicos” y los “docentes litigantes”, al interior de las facultades. Para comprender el posible destino de este “conflicto de las profesiones”, este ensayo propone poner atencion a las practicas academicas de Estados Unidos, cuyas facultades de derecho atravesaron este proceso de academizacion hacia fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate that Chilean practice has regulated the proof of these questions of fact, consecrating the sovereignty of the trial court to decide the proven facts and to the medical testimony as the best available evidence to infringement of a duty of care.
Abstract: In Chilean justice medical liability is settled based on rules of entries and exits that inform the litigants of the issues of fact that must be proven in each trial. This paper demonstrates that Chilean practice has regulated the proof of these questions of fact, consecrating the sovereignty of the trial court to decide the proven facts and to the medical testimony as the best available evidence to infringement of a duty of care. The uncertainty of therapeutic risk encourages the judicial use of rules of thumb –including res ipsa loquitur– to settle what risks are inherent to the service. This proof regulation applies whether the liability comes from a treatment (medical professionals) as from the health service organization (Hospitals and Clinics).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze the dichotomy between questions of law and questions of fact regarding causation and make a proposal to understand this dichotomy staring staring between questions and facts regarding causation.
Abstract: This article analyses the dichotomy between questions of law and questions of fact regarding causation and makes a proposal to understand this dichotomy star...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The welfare state is a politic-constitutional formula developed after World War II as mentioned in this paper, and it is necessary and vital to respond to current challenges in Chile, particularly on equality and concern for the less advantaged sectors of society.
Abstract: The Welfare State is a politic-constitutional formula developed after World War II. It is not a mere statement, but from its statement, the building of the society must embody the requirements that are a concern which goes beyond assistance. Despite the difficulties and challenges that are placed upon the welfare state, the problem that gave it its origin remains latent. While it's true that economy, its language and codes have attempted to develop and explain all the phenomena of every-day life, the welfare state has not declined, but it is necessary and vital to respond to current challenges in Chile, particularly on equality and concern for the less advantaged sectors of society

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The presente trabajo examina the principales instrumentos de derecho contractual contemporaneo a nivel internacional, con el objeto de demostrar la reformulacion del rol del juez in el derecho de contratos moderno, cuya tendencia es a entregar mayores facultades a los tribunales for intervenir en el contenido del contrato, permitiendo la adaptaci y preservacion del negocio en orden a resguardar los intereses of ambas
Abstract: El presente trabajo examina los principales instrumentos de derecho contractual contemporaneo a nivel internacional, con el objeto de demostrar la reformulacion del rol del juez en el derecho de contratos moderno, cuya tendencia es a entregar mayores facultades a los tribunales para intervenir en el contenido del contrato, permitiendo la adaptacion y preservacion del negocio en orden a resguardar los intereses de ambas partes. Asimismo, se incluye el estudio de aquellas situaciones en que tradicionalmente el juez ha cumplido un rol preponderante, como la declaracion de nulidad o la resolucion del contrato, las cuales pasan a ser una facultad de la parte afectada con el vicio o el incumplimiento, lo cual demuestra una mayor consideracion por la satisfaccion del interes de dicha parte.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the current status of women's political participation with the most recent studies that demonstrate the power and strength of the prejudices that hinder equality is reviewed, and the authors analyze the doctrine of equality rights explaining why it is necessary to apply social compensation measures, and mechanisms to ensure true representation.
Abstract: This paper reviews the current status of women’s political participation with the most recent studies that demonstrate the power and strength of the prejudices that hinder equality. We analyze the doctrine of equality rights explaining why it is necessary to apply social compensation measures, and mechanisms to ensure true representation. Finally, we study the performance of affirmative action mechanisms and some of the most relevant criticism with the purpose of delimiting the possible scope of the egalitarian measures suitable in Chile.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze the democratic legal education in the public university to determine its degree of application and the benefit to be obtained from the tried analysis is towards public university and its democracy, whose connotation does not only have to be in relation to the government form, but alsotowards the own society that the terminal product of the Maxima receives house of studies.
Abstract: The article aims to analyze the democratic legal education in the public university to determine its degree of application. This is justified considering the importance that has the public university like an indispensable element in the formation of citizens who are later expected to interact in a social dynamics that implies getting involved in the state policy. The university has been and must continue being the training center and by tradition for politically and socially apt men, for individuals that are able to become involved in their State. The benefit to be obtained from the tried analysis is towards the public university and its democracy - whose connotation does not only have to be in relation to the government form, but alsotowards the own society that the terminal product of the Maxima receives house of studies. For that reason, Dewey’s postulates are reviewed with respect to the democratic legal education in the public university are applicable and it is considered that they are indeed applicable, since they specifically propose processes of education destined to the formation of citizens with abilities and capacities, and the public university has as its core objective the humanistic formation of individuals and inserted citizens in a state

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical analysis of the new Chilean regulation in the field of femicide is presented, highlighting the issues in correctly defining the phenomenon, the focus will be on different countries' legislation on the subject, in order to identify possible models through a comparative analysis.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is a critical analysis of the new Chilean regulation in the field of femicide. After highlighting the issues in correctly defining the phenomenon, the focus will be on different countries' legislation on the subject, in order to identify possible models through a comparative analysis. The international contextualization of the Chilean law will support the debate in light of the implementation of the goals of Ley N°20.480. Current technical debate is insufficient, but indispensable in formulating a necessary proposal for the reform.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A preliminary political history of the participation of the Colombian Arabs in local, regional and national politics, with a special focus on the city of Barranquilla and the Colombian Caribbean region, is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This article aims to present through an exploratory research a first preliminary political history of the participation of the Colombian Arabs in local, regional and national politics, with a special focus on the city of Barranquilla and the Colombian Caribbean region. It mainly focuses on the period of time that goes from the 1950s until the end of the 1980s, which is considered as the missing link in order to understand the full involvement of the third generation of the descendants of Arab origins in the political life of the city and the region. These ages were analyzed through the local press, along with the data of the Registraduria Nacional on the local and national elections between 1958 and 1986. The second generation of Arab migrants did not involve massively in politics in these ages, but some figures among them took advantages of the economic crisis and political vacuum in the city in order to achieve important positions of power as local or national representatives

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analizar las posibilidades y limites de produccion del campo juridico de la justicia comunitaria en Colombia, en especial el...
Abstract: Resumen es: El objetivo de este texto es analizar las posibilidades y limites de produccion del campo juridico de la justicia comunitaria en Colombia, en especial el...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fallo del Tribunal Constitucional recaido en el recientemente resuelto Rol N° 2.408-20131 as mentioned in this paper, a sentencia rechazo declarar inaplicable los articulos 206 del Codigo Civil and 5° transitorio de la Ley N° 19.585.
Abstract: El objetivo central del presente comentario sera analizar la institucion de los derechos implicitos a la luz del fallo del Tribunal Constitucional recaido en el recientemente resuelto Rol N° 2.408-20131. Esta sentencia rechazo declarar inaplicable los articulos 206 del Codigo Civil y 5° transitorio de la Ley N° 19.585. Esto significo un cambio en la jurisprudencia del tribunal respecto a esta materia. En efecto, desde el ano 2009, el tribunal venia declarando inaplicable por inconstitucional la norma del Codigo Civil senalada. La razon que se esgrimia era que el establecimiento de plazos legales de caducidad para el ejercicio de la accion de reconocimiento de filiacion contra los herederos del presunto padre o madre implicaba violar el derecho a la identidad personal. Este derecho no esta contemplado expresamente en la Constitucion; sin embargo, el Tribunal Constitucional indico que el representaba un derecho implicito contenido en los articulos 1° inciso primero y 5° inciso segundo de la carta fundamental.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, el presente trabajo se efectua un analisis critico de la principal jurisprudencia de los tribunales de justicia dictada a proposito del reclamo de ile...
Abstract: Resumen es: En el presente trabajo se efectua un analisis critico de la principal jurisprudencia de los tribunales de justicia dictada a proposito del reclamo de ile...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The special administrative courts, created for the judicial review of administrative acts that are sector-specific, arise from the lack of general administrative courts and have been demanded in response to the increasingly specific, complex and intense regulation of the administrative apparatus.
Abstract: The Special Administrative Courts, created for the judicial review of administrative acts that are sector-specific, arise from the lack of general administrative courts. Their creation has been demanded in response to the increasingly specific, complex and intense regulation of the administrative apparatus. In these instances, the discussion about the limits of the judicial review is revisited in the conflicting positions of the doctrine of the red light and the green light of administrative law, on the one hand, and the challenge to the separation of powers, on the other hand. This debate frames, for instance, the large consensus behind the creation of Environmental Courts and the challenge of their nature by the Supreme Court. The special administrative courts appear today as an eclectic solution, that does not systematically address the problem of judicial review of administrative acts. This is due in particular to the lack of participation of users, consumers and communities in the discussion.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight similarities and differences between the concepts of falsehood and deception, and observe distinctions between counterfeiting private documents is a special form of fraud, while counterfeiting is not a special case of fraud.
Abstract: This paper aims to challenge the thesis according to which counterfeiting private documents is a special form of fraud. For this purpose, it highlights the similarities and differences between the concepts of falsehood and deception. Subsequently, considering the regulating of the Chilean Penal Code, a number of distinctions between these two crimes are observed. Such distinctions focus on the historical origin and evolution; the suitability of the mendacious statement required; the structure of both criminal offences; object protected by each of them; the nature of the damage; and, finally, the role of the damage in each offence.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the aspects of free trade and Rules of Origin as a fundamental aspect of the same, aims to give an overall assessment of the free trade agreements within the Colombian orbit, some of its consequences and the elements that compose them, especially regarding the concern of rules of Origin.
Abstract: The present review of the aspects of free trade and Rules of Origin as a fundamental aspect of the same, aims to give an overall assessment of free trade agreements within the Colombian orbit, some of its consequences and the elements that compose them, especially regarding the concern of Rules of Origin. The study of the Rules of Origin as one of the key aspects of the negotiations of any FTA is crucial in order to understand whether they seek to protect any industry sector, or whether they have been established to facilitate free trade instead. Through a brief assessment of the Free Trade Agreement between Colombia and the United States, the position taken during the negotiations, and the interests of both countries prior to the signing of the agreement, we will make an assessment of how rigorous the Rules of Origin in that agreement may be.