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Showing papers in "Revista De Historia Economica in 2020"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present information on wages and prices in order to build welfare ratios for skilled and unskilled workers between 1912 and 1940, showing that despite significant differences in nominal wages and costs of living throughout the country, real wage differentials remained lower than those estimated by earlier studies.
Abstract: espanol?Cual fue el tamano de la desigualdad regional en los niveles de vida de Brasil durante las primeras decadas del siglo XX? Este articulo presenta informacion municipal y estatal sobre salarios y precios con el fin de construir indices de bienestar para trabajadores cualificados y no cualificados entre 1912 y 1940. A pesar de diferencias significativas en los salarios nominales y coste de la vida en todo el pais, las diferencias de los salarios reales se muestran inferiores a las estimadas en estudios anteriores. Williamson (1999) argumento que los salarios reales en el sureste eran aproximadamente seis veces mas altos que en el noreste durante la decada de 1930. La nueva evidencia presentada en este articulo sugiere que los salarios fueron en promedio solo 1,5 veces mas altos. EnglishWhat was the degree of Brazil’s regional inequality in living standards during the first decades of the 20th century? This paper presents municipal and state information on wages and prices in order to build welfare ratios for skilled and unskilled workers between 1912 and 1940. Despite the significant differences in nominal wages and costs of living throughout the country, real wage differentials remained lower than those estimated by earlier studies. Williamson (1999) argued that real wages in the Southeast were approximately six times higher than in the Northeast during the 1930s. The new evidence in this paper suggests that wages were on average only 1.5 times higher.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors showed that neither marriage nor widowhood prevented women from participating in the labour market of Portugal in the mid-eighteenth-century, arguing that marriage provided women with the resources they needed to work in various capacities in all economic sectors.
Abstract: espanolDesafiando la historiografia actual sobre las diferencias entre la participacion femenina en los mercados laborales del noroeste y del sur de Europa y su impacto en el desarrollo economico, este articulo muestra que ni el matrimonio ni la viudez impidieron las mujeres de participaren en la economia portuguesa de mediados del XVIII. El matrimonio proporciono a las mujeres los recursos necesarios para trabajar en en diversas capacidades. Este articulo sostiene tambien que las solteras tenian un incentivo para trabajar, y lo hacian como asalariadas. Finalmente, la comparacion de nuestros datos de ocupaciones femeninas con otros casos europeos muestra que la literatura requiere una revision y el desarrollo de una imagen mas matizada de la division norte-sur. EnglishChallenging current ideas in mainstream scholarship on differences between female labour force participation in southern and north-western Europe and their impact on economic development, this article shows that in Portugal, neither marriage nor widowhood prevented women from participating in the labour market of mid-eighteenth-century. Our research demonstrates that marriage provided women with the resources they needed to work in various capacities in all economic sectors. This article also argues that single Portuguese women had an incentive to work and did so mostly as wage earners. Finally, the comparison of our dataset on female occupations from tax records with other European cases calls for a revision of the literature and the development of a more nuanced picture of the north-south divide.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that public mortgage registries, which had improved the registration of properties used as collateral since their creation in 1768, favored the subscription of larger contracts and contributed to the development of a more impersonal credit market.
Abstract: ABSTRACT New Institutional Economics treats early modern Spain as an example of a state whose political and contracting institutions hindered economic growth. However, the assumption that Spanish political institutions were predatory in this respect has been called into question. This paper challenges the idea that Spain was unable to develop sufficiently good contracting institutions, of which we know relatively little. Using data from Malaga's notarial credit market, I show that legal institutions facilitated contractual compliance in private financial transactions. Specifically, public mortgage registries, which had improved the registration of properties used as collateral since their creation in 1768, favoured the subscription of larger contracts. Furthermore, results suggest that registries could have contributed to the development of a more impersonal credit market.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that Portugal benefited from comparatively low interest rates from the 13th century onwards, well before the generalised drop in interest rates in Europe, and they find that the country's low and stable interest rates can be explained by its wide availability of land, combined with monetary stability and a favorable institutional network.
Abstract: In this paper we show that Portugal benefitted from comparatively low-interest rates from the 13th century onwards, well before the generalised drop in interest rates in Europe. Contrary to the thesis that frontier economies struggle with high-interest rates and scarcity of capital, we find that the country's low and stable interest rates can be explained by its wide availability of land, combined with monetary stability and a favourable institutional network. These conclusions are built upon an entirely new dataset of interest rates and returns on capital for Portugal in the period 1230–1500.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors assess the numeracy of religious minorities, particularly Jews, and other defendants of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions, and compare it with the general Iberian population.
Abstract: espanolEstimamos las capacidades numericas (numeracy) de minorias religiosas -judios en particular- y otros reos de la Inquisicion Espanola y Portuguesa, y las comparamos con el resto de la poblacion iberica. Nuestra base de datos incluye 13.000 individuos que participaron en juicios de la Inquisicion, y 17.000 individuos recogidos en censos y registros parroquiales que sirven de grupo de control. Discutimos minuciosamente la representatividad de nuestras muestras para las poblaciones en cuestion. Nuestros resultados apuntan a una ventaja sustancial de los acusados de judaismo con respecto a la mayoria catolica. Asimismo, los sacerdotes catolicos y otros grupos religiosos elitistas, que fueron el blanco de la Inquisicion, tenian un nivel alto de habilidades numericas. EnglishWe assess the numeracy (age heaping) of religious minorities, particularly Jews, and other defendants of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions, and compare it with the general Iberian population. Our database includes 13,000 individuals who took part in Inquisition trials, and 17,000 individuals recorded in censuses and parish registers who serve as a control group. We thoroughly discuss the representativeness of our samples for the populations we aim to capture. Our results point at a substantial numeracy advantage of the Judaism-accused over the Catholic majority. Furthermore, Catholic priests and other groups of the religious elite who were occasional targets of the Inquisition had a similarly high level of numeracy

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the evolution of the Chilean economy in the late 19th and early 20th century, a period when the country's convergence with developed countries came to an end.
Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper studies the evolution of the Chilean economy in the late 19th and early 20th century, a period when the country's convergence with developed countries came to an end. We analyse this problem in the context of the modern literature on the middle-income trap. The social, political and economic history of Chile between 1875 and 1939 is examined and the presence of most of the factors associated with the middle-income trap is found. We complement this narrative through a quantitative analysis based on the synthetic control method and argue that the process of state-led industrialisation undertaken in the country leading to the formation of CORFO was a key economic and political event. Our work presents some general lessons for developing countries facing a similar context.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the causal impact of the increase in the number of primary schools between 1940 and the early 60s on enrolment and literacy, all at the county level.
Abstract: espanolEn 1940, el Gobierno Portugues aprobo un ambicioso plan de construccion de infraestructuras con el objetivo de aumentar el numero de escuelas primarias en 60%. Basandonos en una nueva base de datos, empezamos por describir la situacion de la escolarizacion en Portugal anterior al plan, asi como la estrategia de localizacion de las nuevas escuelas proyectadas por el plan. A continuacion, estimamos el impacto que tuvo el aumento del numero de escuelas primarias en cada provincia entre 1940 y el inicio de los anos 60 en la matriculacion y alfabetizacion de los ninos. Concluimos que el incremento en el numero de escuelas primarias fue responsable del 80% en el aumento de la matriculacion y del 13% en el aumento de la alfabetizacion. EnglishIn 1940, the Portuguese government approved a massive primary school construction plan that projected a 60 per cent increase in the number of primary schools. Based on the collection of a new dataset, we describe literacy levels in Portugal prior to the plan as well as the plan’s strategy regarding the location of schools. We then estimate the causal impact of the increase in the number of schools between 1940 and the early 60s on enrolment and literacy, all at the county level. We conclude the increase in the number of schools was responsible for 80 per cent of the increase in enrolment and 13 per cent of the increase in the literacy rate of the affected cohorts.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, age-heaping levels of males and females and ethnic groups across locations in Central New Spain are estimated and compared through ad hoc indicators with other countries, inferring that a more empirical emphasis on the institutional legacy of the viceregal period and more attention to human capital since pre-Conquest times will benefit the progress of Hispanic American economic history.
Abstract: This article presents new evidence and analysis on age heaping -a proxy for numeracy and therefore for human capital- in New Spain during the Enlightenment. Human capital plays an important role in economic growth and welfare. It is also one of the dimensions of inequality. Our results are at odds with many of the usual assumptions on which most Mexicanist historiography is based. Age heaping levels of males and females and ethnic groups across locations in Central New Spain are estimated and compared through ad hoc indicators with other countries. We infer that a more empirical emphasis on the institutional legacy of the viceregal period and more attention to human capital since pre-Conquest times will benefit the progress of Hispanic American economic history.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, baskets of consumption for Buenos Aires were reconstructed for the 1780-1820 period, applying current international methodologies, based on primary sources, and the authors found that the consumption pattern did not vary substantially in the period and, considering the salary of both urban and rural workers, were able to establish that standards of living were high and experienced a significant increase after 1835, especially during the 1840s.
Abstract: Based on primary sources, baskets of consumption for Buenos Aires are reconstructed for the 1780-1820 period, applying current international methodologies. They build on previous work based on 1835 data. It can be seen that the consumption pattern did not vary substantially in the period and, considering the salary of both urban and rural workers, we are able to establish that standards of living were high and experienced a significant increase after 1835, especially during the 1840s. This placed Buenos Aires among the cities of the Western world with highest welfare ratio levels.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze the evolution of wages in the construction offices of Segovia, one of the most important Castilian and Spanish manufacturing towns, between 1571 and 1807.
Abstract: espanolEl articulo analiza la evolucion de los precios y salarios reales en los oficios de la construccion en una de las principales ciudades manufactureras de la Castilla Moderna, Segovia, entre 1571 y 1807. La segunda parte analiza los salarios nominales obtenidos por los oficiales y peones de albanil de la ciudad, mientras que la tercera presenta al indice de precios de Segovia entre 1571 y 1807. Por ultimo, la cuarta parte analiza la evolucion de los salarios reales en los oficios de la construccion de la ciudad. Estos evolucionaron en linea con la economia local: despues de culminar en el primer cuarto del siglo XVII experimentaron un declive continuado, de forma que en 1807 los salarios reales de los oficiales y peones de albanil segovianos apenas llegaban a un 50 por cien de los salarios reales del primer cuarto del siglo XVII. EnglishThis paper deals with the evolution of wages in the construction offices of Segovia, one of the most important Castilian and Spanish manufacturing towns, between 1571 and 1807. Part two deals with the nominal wages earned by the building officials and labourers of the city and part three presents the Segovian prices index between 1571 and 1807. Finally, part four analyses the evolution of the real wages earned in the construction offices of the town. Segovian real wages evolved in line with the local economy; after peaking in the first quarter of the 17th century, they experienced a continuous decline, so in 1807 the real wages of Segovian building officials and labourers were 50 per cent of those of the first quarter of the 17th century.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present some hypotheses regarding the caloric intake of the plebeian and non-elite social groups, and introduce two Laspeyres indexes of food prices for Montevideo in 1760-1810.
Abstract: espanolEl documento recopila informacion sobre los principales alimentos que formaban parte de la dieta de los habitantes de Montevideo. Luego, presenta algunas hipotesis sobre la ingesta calorica de los grupos sociales plebeyos y no elitistas, introduce dos indices de precios de los alimentos de Laspeyres para Montevideo en 1760-1810, analiza las etapas de la historia de precios de Montevideo en el periodo y compara el caso de Montevideo con las ciudades vecinas. EnglishThis paper gathers information on the diet of the people of Montevideo. It puts forward some hypotheses regarding the caloric intake of the plebeian and non-elite social groups, introduces two Laspeyres indexes of food prices for Montevideo in 1760-1810, analyses the movements of food prices in Montevideo in this period and compares the case of Montevideo with neighbouring cities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of public banks to mitigate the ups and downs of the external sector and mitigate its effects on local actors has been discussed in this article, where the authors contribute both to the debate on the financial impact of the war and postwar conflict in Argentina.
Abstract: ABSTRACT The outbreak of the First World War had a strong impact on Latin American economies, due to the sharp interruption of the influx of capital and the deep disturbances that it caused in international trade. In the Argentine case, a notable aspect was, together with the increase in the fiscal deficit, the growing trade and payment balance surplus. Public indebtedness was reoriented towards the domestic market by the means of a state bank Banco de la Nación, and this institution also granted a large loan to the governments of England and France, to finance the export of cereals to those countries. This work seeks to contribute both to the debate on the financial impact of the war and postwar conflict in Argentina, as well as to the role of public banks to mitigate the ups and downs of the external sector and mitigate its effects on local actors.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The turno pacifico, which allowed the main political parties to alternate in office without dragging the military into politics, was also associated with a conscious budget policy as mentioned in this paper, which did not rely on increases in total military expenditure (which actually stagnated during most of the Restoration).
Abstract: In 1833-1874, Spain suffered 0.7 coups per year. By contrast, the Restoration (1874-1923) saw the eradication of successful coups. This can be partially attributed to the turno pacifico, which allowed the main political parties to alternate in office without dragging the military into politics. We suggest, however, that the reduction in coup risk was also associated with a conscious budget policy. This, though, did not rely on increases in total military expenditure (which actually stagnated during most of the Restoration), but on the steady improvement of officers' remunerations and promotions. This strategy was probably detrimental to Spanish military capacity abroad, but was consistent with the objective of keeping the military out of politics. (Less)

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparación of stocks of capital humano between Argentina, Australia, Canada, and United States is presented, showing that Argentina del período present a problema de desigualdad regional (i.e., persistencia of esa desíualidad) ausente in el resto of las “economías de reciente poblamiento”.
Abstract: El presente trabajo pretende explorar un aspecto pasado por alto por la literatura de historia económica comparada entre Argentina, Australia y Canadá: el capital humano. Mediante la comparación con estos países en los años de la Primera Globalización, analiza los stocks de capital humano con los que contaba la Argentina durante fines del siglo XIX y la primera parte del XX, y realiza un aporte principal: la Argentina del período presenta un problema de desigualdad regional (y de persistencia de esa desigualdad) ausente en el resto de las “economías de reciente poblamiento”.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the cost of living and evolution of welfare ratios among urban workers in Rio Grande's vila, the main commercial enclave of the southern Portuguese dominions in America.
Abstract: This paper examines the cost of living and evolution of welfare ratios among urban workers in Rio Grande's vila, the main commercial enclave of the southern Portuguese dominions in America. From diverse sources (military and hospital expenditure accounts, merchant credit bills from probate inventories), we build different consumption baskets to calculate their cost in seven benchmark years: 1772, 1792, 1802, 1809, 1816, 1819 and 1823. The evolution of cost of living shows a consistent upward trend during the period, which, however, does not substantially affect welfare ratios. In order to build regional comparisons, we follow Allen's methodology (2001) to estimate welfare ratios of skilled and unskilled workers in Rio Grande, Buenos Aires and Montevideo. The results of using this approach could be useful to adjust the methodology for further international comparisons.

Journal ArticleDOI
Eric Golson1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of comprehensive statistics for the Anglo-Portuguese and German -Portugues relationship, reported in Pounds and according to international standards, including the trade in merchandise, services, capital flows, loans and third-party transfers of funds in favour of the British account.
Abstract: espanolEn septiembre de 1939 Portugal opto por una estrategia realista para preservar el imperio portugues: mantener su neutralidad y seguir siendo tambien un pais aliado de Gran Bretana. La metropoli portuguesa podia mantenerse gracias a las materias primas de sus colonias, pero dependia en gran medida de los medios de transporte britanicos, tanto para el transporte de estos productos como el de las fuerzas armadas portuguesas. Al pasar a ser el transporte belico la opcion prioritaria britanica en 1939, quedaron especialmente al descubierto las vulnerabilidades de la economia de Portugal y de su imperio. El dictador portugues Antonio Salazar trato de mitigar los danos manteniendo relaciones financieras particularmente amistosas con el gobierno britanico, incluido el aumento de las exportaciones de productos y servicios portugueses, y la acumulacion de creditos en libras esterlinas para cubrir los deficits en la balanza de pagos. Este articulo presenta un conjunto mas completo y pormenorizado de estadisticas sobre las relaciones anglo-portuguesas y germano-portuguesas. Las estadisticas, basadas en libras esterlinas y elaboradas de acuerdo con estandares internacionales, se refieren al comercio de mercancias, servicios, flujos de capital, prestamos y transferencias de fondos de terceros a favor de la cuenta britanica. En comparacion con las estadisticas alemanas, las cifras anglo-portuguesas demuestran que el gobierno portugues favorecio a los britanicos en las relaciones financieras, una opcion activamente adoptada por Salazar para preservar el imperio portugues. EnglishIn September 1939, Portugal made a realist strategic choice to preserve the Portuguese Empire maintaining by its neutrality and also remaining an ally of Great Britain. While the Portuguese could rely largely on their colonies for raw materials to sustain the mainland, the country had long depended on British transportation for these goods and the Portuguese military. With the British priority now given to war transportation, Portugal’s economy and Empire were particularly vulnerable. The Portuguese dictator Antonio Salazar sought to mitigate this damage by maintaining particularly friendly financial relations with the British government, including increased exports of Portuguese merchandise and services and permission to accumulate credits in Sterling to cover deficits in the balance of payments. This paper gives an improved set of comprehensive statistics for the Anglo-Portuguese and German– Portuguese relationships, reported in Pounds and according to international standards. The reported statistics include the trade in merchandise, services, capital flows, loans and third-party transfers of funds in favour of the British account. When compared with the German statistics, the Anglo-Portuguese figures show the Portuguese government favoured the British in financial relations, an active choice by Salazar to maintain the Portuguese Empire.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new index of money market and bank lending interest rates in Spain for 1900-1935 is presented, which reveals a structural change in market interest rates vis-à-vis the official rates charged by the Banco de España.
Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper provides a new index of money market and bank lending interest rates in Spain for 1900–1935. New archival evidence reveals a structural change in market interest rates vis-à-vis the official rates charged by the Banco de España (BdE). Before 1914, the BdE rate operated as a ceiling to market rates. The outbreak of the First World War caused market rates to soar and the BdE rate started operating as a floor, as bank liquidity started depending on the BdE. This was accompanied by new banking legislation introduced in 1921, which changed the collateral framework through which the BdE lent to banks. The resulting interest rate index illustrates the persistent impact of financial deglobalisation caused by the outbreak of the War.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Schmit, Schmit, Roberto Daniel, and Daniel as mentioned in this paper presented a study on the role of Ravignani in the formation of the Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana (IHA).
Abstract: Fil: Schmit, Roberto Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. Oficina de Coordinacion Administrativa Saavedra 15. Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana "Dr. Emilio Ravignani". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Filosofia y Letras. Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana "Dr. Emilio Ravignani"; Argentina


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors present series and análisis acerca de la desigualdad salarial de género en la industria de la ciudad de Buenos Aires entre 1903 and 1942.
Abstract: Desde hace algunos años se avanza en investigaciones sobre la evolución, causas y consecuencias de la desigualdad. En ese marco, la desigualdad salarial ha recibido gran atención dadas sus implicancias en relación con las políticas económicas, el crecimiento y el desarrollo. En este artículo se presentan nuevas series y análisis acerca de la desigualdad salarial de género en la industria de la ciudad de Buenos Aires entre 1903 y 1942. Se propone cubrir un área vacante en los estudios del mundo laboral femenino, siempre complejo, y aún más en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Esta aproximación es una aportación a los estudios sobre la desigualdad de género en Argentina, que permitirá comparaciones con otros espacios y regiones.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The South American Funds National Exchequer as discussed by the authors was the first financial innovation since the revolutionary outbreak in Buenos Aires, and its failure allowed the authorities to understand the limits of the fiscal and financial commitment they proposed by means of that institution.
Abstract: The South American Funds National Exchequer was established in 1818 to contribute to the consolidation of the public debt of Buenos Aires. It was the first financial innovation since the revolutionary outbreak in Buenos Aires, and its failure allowed the authorities to understand the limits of the fiscal and financial commitment they proposed by means of that institution. Its suppression, in 1821, offered an antecedent to develop a deep reform of the financial institutional matrix of Buenos Aires, based on the Public Credit office, the Amortization Exchequer and the Bank of Buenos Aires. The South American Funds National Exchequer was, thus, the first movement in the negotiation on the terms of the financial commitment assumed by the nascent State. This paper analyzes the 973 accounting entries of the institution, providing an interpretation of that failure and its importance for the course of public finances in Buenos Aires.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Portugal, a comparative and quantitative approach, rooted in the notion of the counterfactual, was altogether missing from the literature as discussed by the authors and this picture was about to change abruptly with the appearance of a modern classic, Reis (1984), which led to noticeable improvements in the quality of the research produced.
Abstract: Until the mid-1980s, Portuguese economic history existed in relative isolation from the main international currents. A relationship did exist with the French literature of the Annales school, which had influenced Vitorino Magalhães Godinho and others. And historians such as Borges Macedo or Oliveira Marques were aware of some of the international trends. But in the research being produced in Portugal, a comparative and quantitative approach, firmly rooted in the notion of the counterfactual, was altogether missing from the literature. This picture was about to change abruptly with the appearance of a modern classic, Reis (1984). From then onwards, the modern Anglophone approach to economic history has become more frequent in Portugal, though it has never become dominant relatively to the exclusively narrative, descriptive approach of traditional historians. Portugal’s much improved quality of research infrastructure, including university libraries and archives over the last four decades, has led to much easier access to (and interaction with) international scholarship. Together with freedom from censorship since the implementation of democracy and the later appearance of the internet, these developments have led to noticeable improvements in the quality of the research produced. Most of Portugal’s historians are still very much rooted in Portuguese institutions, and studying economic history outside the country is still the exception rather than the norm, but a generation of doctoral students at the European University Institute and elsewhere has focused on Portugal in a comparative perspective, and many of them now teach in Portugal. All of these developments have led to a noticeable methodological improvement in the type of papers that are written, as well as a more nuanced understanding of Portugal’s history, as a result of having a much more comparative outlook than used to be the case. This monographic issue is representative of the best work done in recent years, and it shows how much more integrated Portuguese