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JournalISSN: 1462-0324


About: Rheumatology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Rheumatoid arthritis & Arthritis. It has an ISSN identifier of 1462-0324. Over the lifetime, 15754 publication(s) have been published receiving 480709 citation(s). more

Topics: Rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis, Population more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/28.3.185
01 Jun 1989-Rheumatology

869 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
01 Jan 2011-Rheumatology
Abstract: Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the transcription factor IRF5 that lead to higher mRNA expression are associated with many autoimmune diseases. Here we show that IRF5 expression in macrophages was reversibly induced by inflammatory stimuli and contributed to the plasticity of macrophage polarization. High expression of IRF5 was characteristic of M1 macrophages, in which it directly activated transcription of the genes encoding interleukin 12 subunit p40 (IL-12p40), IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 and repressed the gene encoding IL-10. Consequently, those macrophages set up the environment for a potent T helper type 1 (TH1)-TH17 response. Global gene expression analysis demonstrated that exogenous IRF5 upregulated or downregulated expression of established phenotypic markers of M1 or M2 macrophages, respectively. Our data suggest a critical role for IRF5 in M1 macrophage polarization and define a previously unknown function for IRF5 as a transcriptional repressor. more

Topics: Macrophage polarization (72%)

839 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/KEG072
01 Feb 2003-Rheumatology
Abstract: Objective. The objective of this study was to verify the usefulness of a simple disease activity index (SDAI) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. The SDAI is the numerical sum of five outcome parameters: tender and swollen joint count (based on a 28-joint assessment), patient and physician global assessment of disease activity [visual analogue scale (VAS) 0-10 cm] and level of C-reactive protein (mg/dl, normal <1 mg/dl). Analysis initially focused on MN301, one of the three phase III clinical trials of leflunomide, in order to assess possible correlations between the SDAI and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28). Results were then compared with the other two trials, MN302 and US301. A total of 1839 patients were evaluated. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, the SDAI, DAS 28, American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria and mean HAQ scores were determined for each patient and compared by linear regression for significant correlation. The SDAI was compared qualitatively to the ACR 20% at 3, 6 and 12 months. The index was further validated by comparing the SDAI with survey results obtained from rheumatologists' evaluations of disease activity in test cases. The survey results included defining categorical changes in the SDAI indicating major, minor or no improvement in disease activity in response to treatment. Changes in total Sharp score at 6 and 12 months of treatment were determined for each of these categories of the SDAI and for comparable categories of the DAS 28. Results. The mean SDAI calculated for patients at baseline in study MN301 was 50.06 (range 25.10-96.10) and was, respectively, 50.55 (range 22.10-98.10) and 43.20 (range 12.90-78.20) in studies MN302 and US301. In all three trials, the SDAI was correlated with a high level of statistical significance to the DAS 28 and HAQ scores at baseline, endpoint and change at endpoint. Patients achieving the ACR 20, 50, 70 or 90% response showed proportionate changes in the SDAI. Analysis of surveyed physician responses showed a significant association between the perception of disease activity and the SDAI, as well as changes in the SDAI. Qualitative analysis of radiographic progression at 6 and 12 months for patients showing either major, minor or no improvement of the SDAI showed correspondingly larger increases of the total Sharp score at 12 months. Conclusion. The SDAI is a valid and sensitive assessment of disease activity and treatment response that is comparable with the DAS 28 and ACR response criteria; it is easy to calculate and therefore a viable tool for day-to-day clinical assessment of RA treatment. Overall results indicate that the SDAI has content, criterion and construct validity. more

794 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/36.5.551
01 May 1997-Rheumatology
Abstract: The EuroQol (EQ-5D) generic health index comprises a five-part questionnaire and a visual analogue self-rating scale. The questionnaire may be used as a health index to calculate a 'utility' value or as a health profile. The validity, reliability and responsiveness of EQ-5D were tested in 233 patients with rheumatoid arthritis stratified by functional class. EQ-5D demonstrated moderate to high correlations with measures of impairment and high correlations with disability measures. Stepwise regression models showed that EQ-5D utility values and visual analogue scores were explained best as a function of pain, disability, disease activity and mood (R2 approximately 70%), although other variables (side-effects, years of education) were required to explain the visual analogue scores. The EQ-5D health index and visual analogue scale are more responsive than any of the other measures, except pain and doctor-assessed disease activity. The reliability of the EQ-5D index and EQ-5D visual analogue scale is as good or better than that of all other instruments except the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Some patients with severe long-standing disease had health states which attracted utility values below zero, i.e. from a societal perspective they were regarded as being in states 'worse than death'. The practical and ethical implications of these utility valuations are discussed, and at present the utility values should be used and interpreted with caution. With this caveat, EQ-5D is simple to use, valid, responsive to change and sufficiently reliable for group comparisons. It is of potential use as an outcome measure in clinical trials, audit and health economic studies, but further work is required on its performance in other clinical contexts and on the interpretation of the utility values. more

Topics: EQ-5D (65%), Visual analogue scale (55%)

737 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/KEH199
V P K Nell1, Klaus P Machold, G Eberl, Tanja Stamm  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jul 2004-Rheumatology
Abstract: Objective. Delay of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy is a major contributing factor for poor outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although early therapy has been shown to be particularly effective, there is still uncertainty about the optimal time point of DMARD introduction. We wanted to test if a therapeutic window of opportunity may exist within the first few months of the disease. Methods. In this case-control parallel-group study, 20 very early RA (VERA) patients with median disease duration of 3 months were age and gender matched to a group of 20 late early RA (LERA) patients with median disease duration of 12 months until first DMARD initiation. Follow-up time was 36 months. Primary outcome measures were the disease activity score (DAS28) and radiological joint destruction using the Larsen method. Results. Already after 3 months of DMARD therapy we found a significant difference of improvement in favour of the VERA patients in the DAS28. This trend continued over the study period. At study end the DAS28 showed an improvement of 2.8±1.5 in the VERA vs 1.7±1.2 in the LERA group (P c < 0.05). The Larsen scores showed a statistically significant retardation of progression in the VERA compared with the LERA. Conclusion. Our results indicate that there is a window of opportunity for highly successful treatment of RA in the first year, and especially within the first 3 months of therapy. Thus, early diagnosis and therapy may be the crucial step in achieving optimal control of disease progression and prognosis in RA. more

729 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

David A. Isenberg

197 papers, 10.7K citations

Paul Emery

149 papers, 5.7K citations

Alan J. Silman

100 papers, 6.5K citations

Kimme L. Hyrich

75 papers, 1.5K citations

David Scott

71 papers, 4.5K citations

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