scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Sadhana-academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of OCR work on Indian scripts, mainly on Bangla and Devanagari—the two most popular scripts in India, and the various methodologies and their reported results are presented.
Abstract: The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on optical character recognition (OCR) for Roman, Chinese, and Japanese scripts. A lot of work has been also reported on OCR efforts for various Indian scripts, like Devanagari, Bangla, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, etc. In this paper, we present a review of OCR work on Indian scripts, mainly on Bangla and Devanagari—the two most popular scripts in India. We have summarized most of the published papers on this topic and have also analysed the various methodologies and their reported results. Future directions of research in OCR for Indian scripts have been also given.

70 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes lossless scalable RBC for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images based on Integer Wavelet Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image.
Abstract: Many classes of images contain spatial regions which are more important than other regions. Compression methods capable of delivering higher reconstruction quality for important parts are attractive in this situation. For medical images, only a small portion of the image might be diagnostically useful, but the cost of a wrong interpretation is high. Hence, Region Based Coding (RBC) technique is significant for medical image compression and transmission. Lossless compression schemes with secure transmission play a key role in telemedicine applications that help in accurate diagnosis and research. In this paper, we propose lossless scalable RBC for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. The main objective of this work is to reject the noisy background and reconstruct the image portions losslessly. The compressed image can be accessed and sent over telemedicine network using personal digital assistance (PDA) like mobile.

47 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the state-of-the-art thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of crystallization is presented, with a focus on the trends which can be used as perspectives for future studies in this field.
Abstract: Crystallization is extensively used in different industrial applications, including the production of a wide range of materials such as fertilizers, detergents, food and pharmaceutical products, as well as in the mineral processing industries and treatment of waste effluents. In spite of the wide-spread use of crystallization, a clear understanding of the thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of the design methodologies are not yet well established. More often than not crystallization is still considered an art especially in fine-chemicals, pharmaceuticals and life-sciences sector. It is essential to understand and relate key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects to crystallizer performance, not just in terms of yield but also in terms of product quality (characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, polymorphism and the amount of strain as well as the uptake of solvent or impurities in the crystal lattice). This paper attempts to do that by critically reviewing published experimental and modelling studies on establishing and enhancing state-of-the-art thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of crystallization. Efforts are made to discuss and raise points for emerging modelling tools needed for a flexible design and operation of crystallizers and crystallization processes that are needed to meet the ever increasing demand on precise product specifications. Focus is on bringing out the trends which can be used as perspectives for future studies in this field.

45 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials.
Abstract: The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the reaction kinetics, the effectiveness of the binder is enhanced which leads to improvements in mechanical as well as durability properties. The curing cycle employed are ambient air curing, water curing and hot air curing. The specimens were exposed to thermal regime at (90°C/150°C/200°C) for duration of 24, 48 or 72 hours at the age of 3rd and 7th day followed with air curing or water curing till 28 days. The results showed a marked difference in compressive strength ranging from 217 to 142 MPa with change in curing regimes. The samples when thermally cured at the age of 3rd and 7th day produced an average ultimate strength of 217–152 MPa and 196–150 MPa, respectively.

43 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, mild steel-mild steel (MS-MS) joints fabricated through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro analyser (EPMA), Vicker's microhardness measurement and tensile strength.
Abstract: In this paper, mild steel–mild steel (MS-MS) joints fabricated through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro analyser (EPMA), Vicker’s microhardness measurement and tensile strength. The XRD spectrum of the developed joints shows substitution type of solid solution form in the joint zone. The back scattered electron (BSE) images of the joint obtained by SEM show complete melting of powder particle and consequently diffusion bonding takes place between the substrate and the powder particle. The electron probe micro analysis shows diffusion of element across the joint. The Vicker’s micro hardness of the joints was measured to be 420 ± 30 Hv, which is higher than that of substrate hardness 230 ± 10 Hv. The tensile strength of the sample was measured by an universal testing machine and found to be 240 MPa which is about 50% of base material strength. The SEM micrographs of the fractured sample indicate mixed modes of failure during fracture of the joint; both ductile and brittle modes of failures occurred as indicated by dimple and cleavage of the brittle faces, respectively.

41 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 was investigated, and the relationship between the variables and the technological parameters was determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model.
Abstract: This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, on the six performance outputs-surface roughness parameters and cutting force components, are explored by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model. Results show how much surface roughness is mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting speed. The depth of cut exhibits maximum influence on cutting force components as compared to the feed rate and cutting speed.

40 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels is given in this paper.
Abstract: The world is facing severe problems of energy crisis and environmental problem. This situation makes people to focus their attention on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass is recognized to be the major potential source for energy production. There are ranges of biomass utilization technologies that produce useful energy from biomass. Gasification is one of the important techniques out of direct combustion, anaerobic digestion – Biogas, ethanol production. Gasification enables conversion of these materials into combustible gas (producer gas), mechanical and electrical power, synthetic fuels, and chemical. The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focused on mathematical modeling of dropwise condensation process at multiple scales, including formation of drops at the atomistic scale, droplet growth, coalescence, instability, slide off and fall-off, followed by fresh nucleation of liquid droplets.
Abstract: Vapor-to-liquid phase change in the form of discrete drops on or underneath a substrate is called dropwise condensation. The process is hierarchical in the sense that it occurs over a wide range of length and timescales. As the associated heat transfer coefficient is much higher than the film and mixed mode of condensation, it is of considerable interest in applications. The present study is focused on mathematical modelling of dropwise condensation process at multiple scales. The model includes formation of drops at the atomistic scale, droplet growth, coalescence, instability, slide off and fall-off, followed by fresh nucleation of liquid droplets. The model shows that the largest stable cluster size in the atomic model matches the minimum drop radius estimated from thermodynamic considerations. The minimum drop radius is insensitive to surface texturing and does not provide controllability at larger length and timescales. A closer examination of droplet distribution over the substrate reveals that small drops are locations of high heat transfer rates, which diminishes with increasing drop radius. The largest drop diameter depends on its stability and hence, the interfacial forces at phase boundaries. Therefore, drop instability controls the heat transfer coefficient in dropwise condensation. Enhancement of heat transfer necessitates that these drops grow with time, become unstable and be swept away as quickly as possible. Enhancement may be achieved either by (i) inclining the substrate or (ii) by creating an interfacial force at the three-phase contact line by a wettability gradient over the horizontal substrate, inducing drop motion. Wall heat transfer and shear stress under moving drops have been determined using a CFD model. A simple model of coalescence has been adopted in this work. Simulation studies on the effect of fluid properties, surface inclination and its wettability condition on drop size distribution, cycle time, heat transfer coefficient, and wall shear stress are comprehensively discussed in the present article.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of FSP parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed and groove width on microstructure and microhardness of surface composites was investigated.
Abstract: Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to fabricate boron carbide (B4C) particulate reinforced copper surface composites. The effect of FSP parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed and groove width on microstructure and microhardness was investigated. A groove was contrived on the 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B4C particles. FSP was carried out using five various tool rotational speeds, processing speeds and groove widths. Optical and scanning electron microscopies were employed to study the microstructure of the fabricated surface composites. The results indicated that the selected FSP parameters significantly influenced the area of surface composite, distribution of B4C particles and microhardness of the surface composites. Higher tool rotational speed and lower processing speed produced an excellent distribution of B4C particles and higher area of surface composite due to higher frictional heat, increased stirring and material tranportation. The B4C particles were bonded well to the copper matrix and refined the grains of copper due to the pinning effect of B4C particles. B4C particles retained the original size and morphology because of its small size and minimum sharp corners in the morphology.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the optimization of chemical composition, processing (forging and rolling) and heat treatment parameters to obtain the best combination of mechanical properties in case of a Fe-15Cr-5Ni-4Cu precipitation hardenable stainless steel was discussed.
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the optimization of chemical composition, processing (forging and rolling) and heat treatment parameters to obtain the best combination of mechanical properties in case of a Fe–15Cr–5Ni–4Cu precipitation hardenable stainless steel. The e-copper precipitates that form during aging are spherical in shape and coherent with the matrix and principally provide strengthening in this alloy. The orientation relationship is found to be Kurdjumov–Sachs (K–S), which is common in fcc–bcc systems. Results obtained from metallurgical evaluation (mechanical property and metallography) on 15–5 PH alloy during type certification on 3 different melts were used for the optimization, attempted in this study. The mechanical properties following strain deformation has been carried out using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the aged conditions, the 15–5 PH alloy exhibited brittle failure with extensive cleavage and/or quasicleavage fracture. This paper reports all results and also factually shows that indigenously developed and produced 15–5 PH stainless steel matches in its properties with the equivalent aeronautical grade precipitation hardening stainless steels globally produced by internationally renowned manufactures.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution.
Abstract: Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the significant performance of the proposed MACO approach.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a computational tool for investigating condensation processes and equipment with particular attention to freeze-dryers, where mathematical modelling and CFD simulations are used to achieve a better comprehension of the flow dynamics and of the process of ice condensation and deposition in the condenser, in order to evaluate condenser efficiency and gain deeper insights for the improvement of its design.
Abstract: The aim of the present research is the development of a computational tool for investigating condensation processes and equipment with particular attention to freeze-dryers. These condensers in fact are usually operated at very low pressures, making it difficult to experimentally acquire quantitative knowledge of all the variables involved. Mathematical modelling and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are used here to achieve a better comprehension of the flow dynamics and of the process of ice condensation and deposition in the condenser, in order to evaluate condenser efficiency and gain deeper insights of the process to be used for the improvement of its design. Both a complete laboratory-scale freeze-drying apparatus and an industrial-scale condenser have been investigated in this work, modelling the process of water vapour deposition. Different operating conditions have been considered and the influence exerted by the inert gas as well as other parameters has been investigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of vegetable-based cutting fluids and machining with these cutting fluids were analyzed in terms of tool wear, thrust force and surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool.
Abstract: This study focuses on both formulation of vegetable-based cutting fluids (VBCFs) and machining with these cutting fluids. For this purpose, characterizations of chemical and physical analyses of these formulated cutting fluids are carried out. In this study, performances of three VBCFs developed from crude sunflower oil, refined sunflower oil, refined canola oil and commercial semi-synthetic cutting fluid are compared in terms of tool wear, thrust force and surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool. Experimental results show that canola-based cutting fluid gives the best performance due to its higher lubricant properties with respect to other cutting fluids at the constant cutting conditions (spindle speed of 750 rpm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of polarity and other SAW parameters on the heat affected zone size and dilution and established their correlations by using statistical techniques and empirical models.
Abstract: Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of tremendous heat of arc is of big concern as it affects the performance of welded/surfaced structure in service due to metallurgical changes in the affected region. This work was carried out to investigate the effect of polarity and other SAW parameters on HAZ size and dilution and to establish their correlations. Influence of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone was then carried out. Four levels of heat input were used to study their effect on % dilution and HAZ area at both the electrode positive and electrode negative polarities. Proper management of heat input in welding is important, because power sources can be used more efficiently if one knows how the same heat input can be applied to get the better results. Empirical models have been developed using statistical technique.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method to detect cracks in reinforced concrete beams using a single point (i.e., crack points) as the area of concentrated strain by imitating the treatment of micro cracks using the finite element method.
Abstract: The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is a fast-growing emerging technology that provides a low-cost method for measuring the strain of an object. In this study, the feasibility of using this method to observe cracks developed in reinforced concrete beams will be explored so that a practical application can be proposed. The DIC method has been applied for analysing the field of surface displacement and strain; it is not applicable for measuring non-continuous field of displacement. However, if a singular point (i.e., crack points) can be considered as the area of concentrated strain by imitating the treatment of micro-cracks using the finite element method, the region of concentrated strain field based on analyses of digital images can be applied for determining the locations of cracks. Laboratory results show that cracks developed in reinforced cement beams can be observed with a good precision using the von Mises strain field, and that smaller grids lead to clearer crack images. In addition to identifying visible cracks, the DIC image analysis will enable researchers to identify minute cracks that are not visible to naked eyes. Additionally, the DIC method has more accuracy and precision than visual observation for analysing crack loadings so that earlier warnings can be realized before cracks develop in the specimen.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a statistical approach is used to understand the effects of the control parameters on the response variables of hole making process of woven laminated glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites.
Abstract: Drilling and milling processes are extensively used for producing riveted and bolted joints during the assembly operations of composite laminates with other components. Hole making in glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites is the most common mechanical process, which is used to join them to other metallic structures. Bolt joining effectiveness depends, critically, on the quality of the holes. The quality of machined holes in GFRP is strongly dependent on the appropriate choice of the cutting parameters. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the influence of drilling and milling machining parameters on hole making process of woven laminated GFRP material. A statistical approach is used to understand the effects of the control parameters on the response variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to isolate the effects of the parameters affecting the hole making in the two types of cutting processes. The results showed that milling process is more suitable than drilling process at high level of cutting speed and low level of feed rate, when the cutting quality (minimum surface roughness, minimum difference between upper and lower diameter) is of critical importance in the manufacturing industry, especially for precision assembly operation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation as discussed by the authors, and the Indian program on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adheres to this objective.
Abstract: The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a steel was borided by using various B2O3 paste mixture in a dc plasma system at temperatures of 973, 1023 and 1073 K for 2, 5 and 7 h in a gas mixture of 70% H2 -30% Ar under a constant pressure of 10 mbar.
Abstract: In the present study, AISI 8620 steel was plasma paste borided by using various B2O3 paste mixture. The plasma paste boriding process was carried out in a dc plasma system at temperatures of 973, 1023 and 1073 K for 2, 5 and 7 h in a gas mixture of 70% H2 -30% Ar under a constant pressure of 10 mbar. The properties of the boride layer were evaluated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers micro-hardness tester and the growth kinetics of the boride layers. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steel revealed FeB and Fe2B phases. Depending on temperature and layer thickness, the activation energies of boron in steel were found to be 124.7 kJ/mol for 100% B2O3.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the state-of-the-art in the area of two-phase flow boiling in small channels is presented, in terms of channel size, flow regimes, heat transfer correlations, pressure drop, critical heat flux and film thickness.
Abstract: Boiling flows are encountered in a wide range of industrial applications such as boilers, core and steam generators in nuclear reactors, petroleum transportation, electronic cooling and various types of chemical reactors. Many of these applications involve boiling flows in conventional channels (channel size ≥ 3 mm). The key design issues in two phase flow boiling are variation in flow regimes, occurrence of dry out condition, flow instabilities, and understanding of heat transfer coefficient and vapor quality. This paper briefly reviews published experimental and modeling work in these areas. An attempt is made to provide a perspective and to present available information on boiling in small channels in terms of channel size, flow regimes, heat transfer correlations, pressure drop, critical heat flux and film thickness. An attempt is also made to identify strengths and weaknesses of published approaches and computational models of boiling in small channels. The presented discussion and results will provide an update on the state-of-the-art and will be useful to identify and plan further research in this important area.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the case properties and diffusion kinetics of GS18NiMoCr36 (GS18), GS22 NiMoCr56 (GS22) and GS32NiCrMo6.4 (GS32) gear steels borided in Ekabor-II powder were investigated by conducting a series of experiments at temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and micro-Vickers hardness tester.
Abstract: In this study, the case properties and diffusion kinetics of GS18NiMoCr36 (GS18), GS22NiMoCr56 (GS22) and GS32NiCrMo6.4 (GS32) gear steels borided in Ekabor-II powder were investigated by conducting a series of experiments at temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and micro-Vickers hardness tester. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steels revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB and Cr2B compounds. The thickness of the boride layer increases by increasing boriding time and temperature for all steels. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 ranged from 1624 to 1905 HV0,05, 1702 to 1948 HV0,05, and 1745 to 2034 HV0,05 respectively, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 were 335 HV0,05, 358 HV0,05 and 411 HV0,05, respectively. The activation energies (Q) of borided steels were 228.644 kJ/mol for GS18, 280.609 kJ/mol for GS22 and 294.359 kJ/mol for GS32. The growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on the GS18, GS22 and GS32 steels and the thickness of boride layers were also investigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated during of rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades and derive models for the prediction of noise levels depending on the operating variables and the rock properties.
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated during of rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades. Influence of the operating variables and rock properties on the noise level are investigated and analysed. Statistical analyses are then employed and models are built for the prediction of noise levels depending on the operating variables and the rock properties. The derived models are validated through some statistical tests. It is found that increasing of peripheral speed, traverse speed and cutting depth result in an increase in noise levels. On the other hand, a decreasing trend for noise levels is initially observed with the increasing of flow rate of cooling fluid. It is also determined that there are moderate correlations between uniaxial compressive strength, density and noise levels. Furthermore, the modelling results reveal that the predictive models have high potentials as guidance for practical applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the median filter is used to preserve the edge which is an important property needed to inpaint edges, which is stable and works for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous background.
Abstract: Image inpainting is the technique of filling-in the missing regions and removing unwanted objects from an image by diffusing the pixel information from the neighbourhood pixels. Image inpainting techniques are in use over a long time for various applications like removal of scratches, restoring damaged/missing portions or removal of objects from the images, etc. In this study, we present a simple, yet unexplored (digital) image inpainting technique using median filter, one of the most popular nonlinear (order statistics) filters. The median is maximum likelihood estimate of location for the Laplacian distribution. Hence, the proposed algorithm diffuses median value of pixels from the exterior area into the inner area to be inpainted. The median filter preserves the edge which is an important property needed to inpaint edges. This technique is stable. Experimental results show remarkable improvements and works for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous background. PSNR (quantitative assessment) is used to compare inpainting results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, various experimental, analytical and numerical investigations carried out to address the issues of entrainment/carryover are carefully analyzed and a critical review has been presented for bringing out a coherent theme and a current status of the subject under reference.
Abstract: The gas–liquid separation equipments are aimed to be designed for maximum efficiency of phase separation. In order to maximize their capacity the flow rates are required to be optimized for the capital cost of equipment. This leads to the situation where the gas phase leaves the separation interface with high velocities and carry liquid phase along with it in the form of droplets reducing the equipment efficiency. This is known as entrainment or carryover. Depending on the nature of the separation interface i.e., turbulence intensity, bubble dynamics, the size and velocity distribution of liquid fragments, droplets at the separation interface varies. This is the main source of empiricism involved in the analysis of such equipments. The mechanics of motion of the dispersed liquid phase in bulk of gas is relatively well studied. In the present paper the various experimental, analytical and numerical investigations carried out to address the issues of entrainment/carryover are carefully analyzed. Further, a critical review has been presented for bringing out a coherent theme and a current status of the subject under reference.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed single pass kernel k-means clustering method needs to scan the data set only once and it is much faster than the conventional kernel k.means method, which is suitable for large data sets, like those in data mining applications.
Abstract: In unsupervised classification, kernel k-means clustering method has been shown to perform better than conventional k-means clustering method in iden- tifying non-isotropic clusters in a data set. The space and time requirements of this method are O(n 2 ) ,w heren is the data set size. Because of this quadratic time com- plexity, the kernel k-means method is not applicable to work with large data sets. The paper proposes a simple and faster version of the kernel k-means clustering method, called single pass kernel k-means clustering method. The proposed method works as follows. First, a random sample S is selected from the data set D. A partitionS is obtained by applying the conventional kernel k-means method on the random sample S. The novelty of the paper is, for each cluster inS , the exact cluster center in the input space is obtained using the gradient descent approach. Finally, each unsampled pattern is assigned to its closest exact cluster center to get a partition of the entire data set. The proposed method needs to scan the data set only once and it is much faster than the conventional kernel k-means method. The time complexity of this method is O(s 2 + t + nk) where s is the size of the random sample S, k is the number of clusters required, and t is the time taken by the gradient descent method (to find exact cluster centers). The space complexity of the method is O(s 2 ). The proposed method can be easily implemented and is suitable for large data sets, like those in data mining appli- cations. Experimental results show that, with a small loss of quality, the proposed method can significantly reduce the time taken than the conventional kernel k-means cluster- ing method. The proposed method is also compared with other recent similar methods.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors have identified a set of safety features which are needed to be incorporated in advanced nuclear power plants to achieve the goal of elimination of emergency planning in public domain.
Abstract: Following the Fukushima accident, the safety features of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are being re-examined worldwide including India to demonstrate capabilities to cope with severe accidents. In order to restore public confidence and support for nuclear power, it is felt necessary to design future NPPs with near zero impact outside the plant boundary and thus enabling elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Authors have identified a set of safety features which are needed to be incorporated in advanced reactors to achieve this goal. These features enabling prevention, termination, mitigation and containment of radioactivity for beyond design basis accidents arising from extreme natural events are essential for achieving the goal of elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Inherent safety characteristics, passive and engineered safety features to achieve these functions are discussed in this paper. Present trends and future developments in this direction are also described briefly.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A brief overview of the materials research activities currently being pursued at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is presented in this article, where the focus is to provide materials, processes and processing solutions to the emerging needs of evolving indigenous nuclear energy systems by proactive research and development on a continuing basis.
Abstract: The area of materials research has registered a phenomenal growth in the recent years, assiduously accepting and assimilating ideas, concepts and analytical as well as experimental methodologies and techniques form almost all scientific disciplines, thereby demonstrating its remarkably multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character. The focus of the materials programme of this centre is to provide materials, processes and processing solutions to the emerging needs of evolving indigenous nuclear energy systems by proactive research and development on a continuing basis. The initial stage of our activities was formulated around three stage Indian nuclear power programme. In stage I, material issues related to in-core materials with emphasis on development of fabrication routes of zirconium alloys for structural application were addressed. Subsequently the thrust areas were development and characterization of mixed oxide fuel, advanced zirconium alloys, structural steels, superalloys, neutron absorber materials based on boron carbides and borides, and shape memory alloys. The research was useful for in-service performance evaluation, safety assessment, residual life estimation and life extension of nuclear reactors built during stage I i.e., PHWRs and BWRs. It also included developments which would permit rapid expansion of nuclear power initially through fast breeder reactor based on mixed oxide fuel and later based on metallic fuels. For the 3rd stage, multi-layer coatings, graphite coolant tube, BeO, refractory metals and alloys, heat-treated zirconium alloys are being developed for CHTR, ADSS and AHWR. The materials being developed for fusion programme are low Z and high Z material for plasma facing application, Cu-alloys for heat sink, austenitic steels, RAFMS and ODS for structurals and NbTi, Nb3Sn and Nb3Al superconductors, lithium titanate, lithium silicate breeders, and Pb–Bi coolant. A brief overview of the materials research activities currently being pursued at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is presented in this article.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a seismic strengthening technique for non-seismically detailed beam-column joints of existing reinforced concrete buildings is proposed, which is based on mounting pre-fabricated SIFCON composite corner and plate blocks on joints with anchorage rods.
Abstract: This article aims to propose a novel seismic strengthening technique for non-seismically detailed beam–column joints of existing reinforced concrete buildings, typical of the pre-1975 construction practice in Turkey. The technique is based on mounting pre-fabricated SIFCON composite corner and plate blocks on joints with anchorage rods. For the experimental part three 2/3 scale exterior beam–column joint specimens were tested under quasi-static cyclic loading. One of them was a control specimen with non-seismic details, and the remaining two with the same design properties were strengthened with composite blocks with different thickness and anchorage details. Results showed that the control specimen showed brittle shear failure at low drift levels, whereas in the strengthened specimens, plastic hinge formation moved away from column face allowing specimens to fail in flexure. The proposed technique greatly improved lateral strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, and ductility.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of thorium as a potential fuel in the third stage of nuclear energy in India has also been elucidated in this paper, where the authors present some of the research studies on the use of Thorium in thermal reactor systems.
Abstract: Nuclear energy as a sustainable resource in India has been very clearly formulated in the three stage nuclear programme. The role of thorium as a potential fuel in the third stage of this programme has also been elucidated. With this aim there have been pioneering research efforts in all aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. Thorium being fertile and not accompanied by the fissile species requires the use of a fissile topping. There have been several studies in India on the use of thorium in different reactor systems from thermal to intermediate and fast spectrum, molten salt reactors, high temperature reactors, compact nuclear power packs and even Subcritical systems. In this paper, we present some of the research studies on use of thorium in thermal reactor systems. We give an overview of the neutronic properties of thorium and the bred fissile material and then proceed to show the performance potential in different reactor systems. We also present the innovative Indian reactor designs which utilize thorium, namely the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) and the Indian High Temperature Reactors.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known.
Abstract: The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM during overmodulation from a space vector point of view. The average voltage vector produced by TCPWM during overmodulation is studied in the stationary (a–b) reference frame. This is compared and contrasted with the average voltage vector corresponding to the well-known standard two-zone algorithm for space vector modulated inverters. It is shown that the two-zone overmodulation algorithm itself can be derived from the variation of average voltage vector with TCPWM. The average voltage vector is further studied in a synchronously revolving (d-q) reference frame. The RMS value of low-order voltage ripple can be estimated, and can be used to compare harmonic distortion due to different PWM methods during overmodulation. The measured values of the total harmonic distortion (THD) in the line currents are presented at various fundamental frequencies. The relative values of measured current THD pertaining to different PWM methods tally with those of analytically evaluated RMS voltage ripple.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented a new solution of the positioning control algorithm which unifies digital control of variable structure and sliding working mode and inter chamber cross-flow, which provided a satisfactory positioning accuracy and robustness of the system, simultaneously reducing compressed air consumption.
Abstract: The issue of energy saving nowadays is very crucial. Pneumatic systems, constituting an important segment of almost every industry, represent large energy consumers. Also, a significant problem with servo pneumatic actuators is achieving accuracy in positioning. The higher the positioning accuracy, the higher the compressed air consumption is. This paper presents a new solution of the positioning control algorithm which unifies digital control of variable structure and sliding working mode and inter chamber cross-flow. The experiments demonstrated that this control algorithm provides a satisfactory positioning accuracy and robustness of the system, simultaneously reducing compressed air consumption by as much as 29.5%.