SAE International journal of engines
About: SAE International journal of engines is an academic journal published by SAE International. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Combustion & Homogeneous charge compression ignition. It has an ISSN identifier of 1946-3944. Over the lifetime, 2135 publications have been published receiving 43334 citations. The journal is also known as: Journal of engines.
Topics: Combustion, Homogeneous charge compression ignition, Ignition system, Diesel engine, Internal combustion engine
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a turbocharged charge air cooled common rail heavy duty diesel engine was used to test different fuel injection timings in a common rail diesel engine and showed that there is potential for optimizing engine settings together with enhanced fuel composition.
Abstract: Hydrotreating of vegetable oils or animal fats is an alternative process to esterification for producing biobased diesel fuels. Hydrotreated products are also called renewable diesel fuels. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) do not have the detrimental effects of ester-type biodiesel fuels, like increased NO x emission, deposit formation, storage stability problems, more rapid aging of engine oil or poor cold properties. HVOs are straight chain paraffinic hydrocarbons that are free of aromatics, oxygen and sulfur and have high cetane numbers. In this paper, NO x ‐ particulate emission trade-off and NO x ‐ fuel consumption trade-off are studied using different fuel injection timings in a turbocharged charge air cooled common rail heavy duty diesel engine. Tested fuels were sulfur free diesel fuel, neat HVO, and a 30% HVO + 70% diesel fuel blend. The study shows that there is potential for optimizing engine settings together with enhanced fuel composition. HVO could be used in optimized low emission diesel power trains in captive fleet applications like city buses, indoor fork-lift trucks, or mine vehicles.
TL;DR: Johnson et al. as discussed by the authors summarized major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013 and gave a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels, focusing on low-temperature deNOx and integration of components and control.
Abstract: The review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed light-duty (LD) criteria pollutant tightening in the US; and in Europe, the continuing developments towards real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. Significant shifts are occurring in China and India in addressing their severe air quality problems. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels. Projections are that we are in the early stages of oil supply stability, which could stabilize fuel prices. LD and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are or will soon be demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency using common approaches. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) systems and SCR filter developments. Emphasis is on low-temperature deNOx and integration of components and control. Diesel PM (particulate matter) reduction technologies are evolving around the behavior of ash deposits and SCR integration. Filters for direct injection gasoline applications are developing very rapidly, and in some cases the back pressure, light-off characteristics, and emissions reductions are very similar to standard three way catalysts (TWCs). Oxidation catalysts mainly involve developments towards stubborn problems, like low-temperature performance with exhaust with high hydrocarbon and CO, and methane oxidation. Finally, the paper discusses some key developments in gasoline gaseous emission control, focusing on matching engine calibration with emissions system characteristics; and on lean burn gasoline emissions control. CITATION: Johnson, T., "Vehicular Emissions in Review," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(3):2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1491. 2014-01-1491 Published 04/01/2014 Copyright © 2014 SAE International doi:10.4271/2014-01-1491 saeeng.saejournals.org 1207 This paper is posted on this website with permission from SAE International. It may not be shared, downloaded, duplicated, or transmitted in any manner without prior written permission from SAE.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of supercharging on HCCI was investigated and three different fuels were used during the experiments: iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas, and two different compression ratios were used, 17:1 and 19:1.
Abstract: The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the reciprocating engine. Here a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark-ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to autoignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine, HCCI has a homogeneous charge and hence no problems associated with soot and NOdx formation. Earlier research on HCCI showed high efficiency and very low amounts of NOdx, but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP values with HCCI, the limit being 5 bar. Supercharging is one way to dramatically increase IMEP. The influence of supercharging on HCCI was therefore experimentally investigated. Three different fuels were used during the experiments: iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas. Two different compression ratios were used, 17:1 and 19:1. The inlet pressure conditions were set to give 0, 1, or 2 bar of boost pressure. The highest attainable IMEP was 14 bar using natural gas as fuel at the lower compression ratio. The limit in achieving even higher IMEP was set by the high rate of combustion and a high peak pressure. Numerical calculations of the HCCI process have been performed for natural gas as fuel. The calculated ignition timings agreed well with the experimental findings. The numerical solution is, however, very sensitive to the composition of the natural gas. (Less)
TL;DR: In this article, a review of global regulatory and technological advances pertaining to emissions from internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicles and machinery is presented, including improved efficiency, advanced aftertreatment systems, hybridization, low carbon fuels and predictive control strategies.
Abstract: For more than two decades [1,2], Corning has served the community with an annual review of global regulatory and technological advances pertaining to emissions from internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicles and machinery. We continue with a review for the year 2020, which will be remembered by COVID and the significant negative impact it had on the industry. However, it also provided a glimpse of the possible improvement in air quality with reduced anthropogenic emissions. It was a year marked by goals set for climate change mitigation via reduced fossil fuel use by the transportation sector. Governments stepped up plans to accelerate the adoption of zero tailpipe emitting vehicles. However, any transformation of the transportation sector is not going to happen overnight due to the scale of the infrastructure and technology challenges. A case in point is China, which announced a technology roadmap which envisions half of the vehicles to be hybrids in 2035. The ICE is clearly expected to be part of the powertrain mix for a long time and as such, solutions are needed to attain near-zero emissions, even with conventional engines. The industry is naturally responding to all of these changes and several technology solutions are being advanced, including improved efficiency, advanced aftertreatment systems, hybridization, low carbon fuels and predictive control strategies. It was also a year of heightened regulatory activity on what could perhaps be the last major regulations on criteria pollutants in advanced markets. California adopted the Low NOx Omnibus rule requiring a 90% reduction in NOx from heavy-duty vehicles. Elements of light-duty LEV IV regulations were discussed, which could culminate in a fleet averaged NMOG + NOx limit of 20 mg/mi. Proposals were made for Euro 7/VII, and several major changes put forth for consideration, including tightening of limits, inclusion of sub-23 nm particles, an emphasis on urban driving and an overall shift in certification based on real-world driving emission measurements with limited allowed exclusions. Limits may be imposed on previously non-regulated species such as NH3 which will drive additional content. Technologies are advancing, both on engines and aftertreatment systems. Light-duty gasoline engines are approaching 45% BTE. Heavy duty diesel engines are approaching 55% BTE. We cover some of the major technologies being pursued to extend these gains. Gasoline particulate filters are now rapidly becoming a mature technology for light-duty vehicles in Europe and China, although the next round of regulations will require a significant increase in filtration efficiency. Concept studies show pathways to reduce gas emissions well below the next proposed limits. A major thrust on the heavy-duty side is to analyze systems capable of meeting the low NOx requirements while also extending durability. We cover the various leading approaches and latest advances in de-NOx technologies. We also briefly touch upon fuels, which will play a critical role, whether in improving efficiency of advanced combustion such as gasoline compression ignition or in their role with reducing greenhouse gas emissions through renewable or synthetic fuels. Finally, as we approach near-zero tailpipe emission levels, non-tailpipe emissions could become a significant fraction of the overall particulate inventory. © 2021 SAE International. All rights reserved.