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Open accessJournalISSN: 2375-2548

Science Advances

About: Science Advances is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Climate change. It has an ISSN identifier of 2375-2548. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 7641 publication(s) have been published receiving 289037 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Sci. Adv. & ScienceAdvances. more

Topics: Population, Climate change, Photon more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.1700782
01 Jul 2017-Science Advances
Abstract: Plastics have outgrown most man-made materials and have long been under environmental scrutiny. However, robust global information, particularly about their end-of-life fate, is lacking. By identifying and synthesizing dispersed data on production, use, and end-of-life management of polymer resins, synthetic fibers, and additives, we present the first global analysis of all mass-produced plastics ever manufactured. We estimate that 8300 million metric tons (Mt) as of virgin plastics have been produced to date. As of 2015, approximately 6300 Mt of plastic waste had been generated, around 9% of which had been recycled, 12% was incinerated, and 79% was accumulated in landfills or the natural environment. If current production and waste management trends continue, roughly 12,000 Mt of plastic waste will be in landfills or in the natural environment by 2050. more

Topics: Plastic recycling (58%), Plastic pollution (51%)

3,752 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.1400253
01 Jun 2015-Science Advances
Abstract: The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing. more

Topics: Background extinction rate (71%), Extinction (61%), Extinction threshold (58%) more

1,885 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.1500323
01 Feb 2016-Science Advances
Abstract: Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. more

Topics: Water scarcity (69%), Scarcity (62%), Water supply (56%) more

1,827 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.1500052
Nick M. Haddad1, Lars A. Brudvig2, Jean Clobert3, Kendi F. Davies4  +22 moreInstitutions (18)
01 Mar 2015-Science Advances
Abstract: We conducted an analysis of global forest cover to reveal that 70% of remaining forest is within 1 km of the forest’s edge, subject to the degrading effects of fragmentation. A synthesis of fragmentation experiments spanning multiple biomes and scales, five continents, and 35 year sd emonstrates that habitatfragmentation reduces biodiversity by 13 to 75% and impairs key ecosystem functions by decreasing biomass and altering nutrient cycles. Effects are greatest in the smallest and most isolated fragments, and they magnify with the passage of time. These findings indicate an urgent need for conservation and restoration measures to improve landscape connectivity, which will reduce extinction rates and help maintain ecosystem services. more

Topics: Intact forest landscape (64%), Habitat fragmentation (60%), Ecosystem services (55%) more

1,585 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.1501170
Dongqin Bi1, Wolfgang Tress1, M. Ibrahim Dar1, Peng Gao1  +11 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2016-Science Advances
Abstract: We report on a new metal halide perovskite photovoltaic cell that exhibits both very high solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and intense electroluminescence. We produce the perovskite films in a single step from a solution containing a mixture of FAI, PbI2, MABr, and PbBr2 (where FA stands for formamidinium cations and MA stands for methylammonium cations). Using mesoporous TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron- and hole-specific contacts, respectively, we fabricate perovskite solar cells that achieve a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 20.8% for a PbI2/FAI molar ratio of 1.05 in the precursor solution. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data reveals that the excess PbI2 content incorporated into such a film is about 3 weight percent. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements show that the small excess of PbI2 suppresses nonradiative charge carrier recombination. This in turn augments the external electroluminescence quantum efficiency to values of about 0.5%, a record for perovskite photovoltaics approaching that of the best silicon solar cells. Correspondingly, the open-circuit photovoltage reaches 1.18 V under AM 1.5 sunlight. more

Topics: Perovskite (structure) (63%), Formamidinium (57%), Photovoltaics (55%) more

1,511 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Kenji Watanabe

15 papers, 381 citations

John A. Rogers

11 papers, 953 citations

Takashi Taniguchi

9 papers, 188 citations

Yonggang Huang

8 papers, 759 citations

Yoshinori Tokura

8 papers, 583 citations

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