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JournalISSN: 1869-1900

Science China-technological Sciences 

About: Science China-technological Sciences is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Heat transfer & Microstructure. It has an ISSN identifier of 1869-1900. Over the lifetime, 5233 publication(s) have been published receiving 55570 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Qiang Li1, Yimin Xuan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: An experimental system is built to investigate convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of the nanofluid in a tube. Both the convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of Cu-water nanofluid for the laminar and turbulent flow are measured. The effects of such factors as the volume fraction of suspended nanoparticles and the Reynolds number on the heat transfer and flow characteristics are discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the suspended nanoparticles remarkably increase the convective heat transfer coefficient of the base fluid and show that the friction factor of the sample nanofluid with the low volume fraction of nanoparticles is almost not changed. Compared with the base fluid, for example, the convective heat transfer coefficient is increased about 60% for the nanofluid with 2.0 vol% Cu nanoparticles at the same Reynolds number. Considering the factors affecting the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid, a new convective heat transfer correlation for nanofluid under single-phase flows in tubes is established. Comparison between the experimental data and the calculated results indicate that the correlation describes correctly the energy transport of the nanofluid.

344 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Xipeng Qiu1, Tianxiang Sun1, Yige Xu1, Yunfan Shao1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Recently, the emergence of pre-trained models (PTMs) has brought natural language processing (NLP) to a new era. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of PTMs for NLP. We first briefly introduce language representation learning and its research progress. Then we systematically categorize existing PTMs based on a taxonomy from four different perspectives. Next, we describe how to adapt the knowledge of PTMs to downstream tasks. Finally, we outline some potential directions of PTMs for future research. This survey is purposed to be a hands-on guide for understanding, using, and developing PTMs for various NLP tasks.

221 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lingen Chen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The emergence and development of constructal theory, which has been a new discipline branch to research sorts of structures in nature and engineering, are reviewed. The core of the constructal theory is that various shapes and structures of the matters in nature are generated from the tendency to obtain optimal performance. Constructal theory and its application are summarized, from disciplines such as heat, mechanism, fluid flow, electricity, magnetism and chemistry, to life and non-life systems in nature.

188 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: How the vacancies in excess of equilibrium concentration are created and destroyed in solids is crucial for understanding many of their physical characteristics and processes. Grain boundaries are known as sources and sinks for bulk vacancies, but what exchange will occur between the grain boundary and the bulk under a stress is still obscure. In the present paper, we show that grain boundaries will work as sources to emit vacancies when a compressive stress is exerted on them and as sinks to absorb vacancies when a tensile stress is exerted. This is the sixth method of introducing and annihilating vacancies in solids in addition to the five methods mentioned in literature. At the same time, this physical process will produce solute nonequilibrium grain-boundary segregation/dilution. A set of kinetic equations is established to describe such a physical process. Additionally an attempt has been made to simulate Misra’s experimental data with the kinetic equations to justify the physical process.

174 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ma Jun1, Tang Jun2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: In this review, the dynamics for neuron, neuronal network is introduced, for example, the mode transition in electrical activity, functional role of autapse connection, bifurcation verification in biological experiments, interaction between neuron and astrocyte, noise effect, coherence resonance, pattern formation and selection in network of neurons.
Abstract: The nervous system is composed of a large number of neurons, and the electrical activities of neurons can present multiple modes during the signal transmission between neurons by changing intrinsic bifurcation parameters or under appropriate external forcing. In this review, the dynamics for neuron, neuronal network is introduced, for example, the mode transition in electrical activity, functional role of autapse connection, bifurcation verification in biological experiments, interaction between neuron and astrocyte, noise effect, coherence resonance, pattern formation and selection in network of neurons. Finally, some open problems in this field such as electromagnetic radiation on electrical activities of neuron, energy consumption in neurons are presented.

170 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2021281
2020240
2019234
2018191
2017193
2016214