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Showing papers in "Science & Engineering Faculty in 2016"


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, the authors detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness.
Abstract: How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology1. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns2, 3. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models4, 5, 6, 7. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis8, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

453 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The Ph-CN nanoparticles exhibit bright, tunable fluorescence, with a high quantum yield and the large Stokes shift are related to the structural surface organization of the phenyl groups, which affects the π-electron delocalization in the conjugated carbon nitride networks and induces colloidal stability.
Abstract: A novel type of quantum dot (Ph-CN) is manufactured from graphitic carbon nitride by “lining” the carbon nitride structure with phenyl groups through supramolecular preorganization. This approach requires no chemical etching or hydrothermal treatments like other competing nanoparticle syntheses and is easy and safe to use. The Ph-CN nanoparticles exhibit bright, tunable fluorescence, with a high quantum yield of 48.4 % in aqueous colloidal suspensions. Interestingly, the observed Stokes shift of approximately 200 nm is higher than the maximum values reported for carbon nitride based fluorophores. The high quantum yield and the large Stokes shift are related to the structural surface organization of the phenyl groups, which affects the π-electron delocalization in the conjugated carbon nitride networks and induces colloidal stability. The remarkable performance of the Ph-CN nanoparticles in imaging is demonstrated by a simple incubation study with HeLa cells.

190 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate a systematic control of the electronic properties of 2D-TMDs by creating mixed alloys of the intrinsically p-type WSe2 and intrinsically n-type WS2 with variable alloy compositions and show that a series of WS2xSe2-2x alloy nanosheets can be synthesized with fully tunable chemical compositions and optical properties.
Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have recently emerged as a new class of atomically thin semiconductors for diverse electronic, optoelectronic, and valleytronic applications. To explore the full potential of these 2D semiconductors requires a precise control of their band gap and electronic properties, which represents a significant challenge in 2D material systems. Here we demonstrate a systematic control of the electronic properties of 2D-TMDs by creating mixed alloys of the intrinsically p-type WSe2 and intrinsically n-type WS2 with variable alloy compositions. We show that a series of WS2xSe2-2x alloy nanosheets can be synthesized with fully tunable chemical compositions and optical properties. Electrical transport studies using back-gated field effect transistors demonstrate that charge carrier types and threshold voltages of the alloy nanosheet transistors can be systematically tuned by adjusting the alloy composition. A highly p-type behavior is observed in selenium-rich alloy, which gradually shifts to lightly p-type, and then switches to lightly n-type characteristics with the increasing sulfur atomic ratio, and eventually evolves into highly n-doped semiconductors in sulfur-rich alloys. The synthesis of WS2xSe2-2x nanosheets with tunable optical and electronic properties represents a critical step toward rational design of 2D electronics with tailored spectral responses and device characteristics. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

184 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This work investigates single atoms of palladium and platinum supported on graphitic carbon nitride acting as photocatalysts for CO2 reduction by density functional theory calculations, finding that deposition of atom catalysts on g-C3N4 significantly enhances the visible-light absorption, rendering them ideal for visible- light reduction of CO2.
Abstract: Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbon fuel with solar energy is significant for high-density solar energy storage and carbon balance. In this work, single palladium/platinum (Pd/Pt) atoms supported on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), i.e. Pd/g-C3N4 and Pt/g-C3N4, acting as photocatalysts for CO2 reduction were investigated by density function theory (DFT) calcu-lations for the first time. During CO2 reduction, the individual metal atoms function as the active sites, while g-C3N4 provides the source of hydrogen (H*) from hydrogen evolution reaction. The complete, as-designed photocatalysts exhibit excellent activity in CO2 reduction. HCOOH is the preferred product of CO2 reduction on the Pd/g-C3N4 catalyst with a rate-determining barrier of 0.66 eV, while the Pt/g-C3N4 catalyst prefers to reduce CO2 to CH4 with a rate-determining barrier of 1.16 eV. In addition, depositing atom catalysts on g-C3N4 significantly enhances the visible light absorption, rendering them ideal for visible light reduction of CO2. Our findings open a new avenue of CO2 reduction for renewable energy supply.

175 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of 2D nanomaterials and their composites for energy storage devices, especially rechargeable batteries, offers opportunities to timely tackle the challenges of ever growing clean and sustainable energy demands.
Abstract: Integration of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and their composites into energy storage devices, especially rechargeable batteries, offers opportunities to timely tackle the challenges of ever growing clean and sustainable energy demands. Therefore, it is crucial to design hybrid 2D electrode materials for high performance rechargeable batteries and to fundamentally understand their storage mechanisms at the atomic or nanoscopic levels. This review firstly describes some of the exciting progress achieved in the economic production of graphenes, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), and their composites. Then we survey the recent developments in their electrochemical energy storage pathways and present the associated three kinds of storage mechanisms. In addition, we highlight the uncovered structure-performance relationships while utilizing advanced microscopic techniques, such as in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spherical aberration-corrected scanning TEM (STEM), both leading to deep unveiling and understanding of the atomic-scale ion storage/release mechanisms and hence providing clear guidance for designing optimized 2D nanostructured electrode materials. Finally, the major challenges and opportunities that researchers have to face in this field are outlined. We hope that this review can deepen the Chemical and Material Science Communities' understanding of this field and thus effectively contribute to the smart design of future-generation 2D nanostructured electrodes and exploitation of their microscopic mechanisms toward novel high-performance rechargeable batteries.

155 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the types of support that teachers are accessing through the Social Network Site (SNS) 'Facebook' are described and six ways in which teachers support one another within online groups.
Abstract: This paper describes the types of support that teachers are accessing through the Social Network Site (SNS) 'Facebook'. It describes six ways in which teachers support one another within online groups. It presents evidence from a study of a large, open group of teachers online over a twelve week period, repeated with multiple groups a year later over a one week period. The findings suggest that large open groups in SNSs can be a useful source of pragmatic advice for teachers but that these groups are rarely a place for reflection on or feedback about teaching practice.

131 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the rapid and direct electrochemical formation of amorphous nanostructured Co(OH)2 on gold electrodes under room temperture conditions which is a highly active precursor for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER).
Abstract: The oxides of cobalt have recently been shown to be highly effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under alkaline conditions. In general species such as Co3O4 and CoOOH have been investigated that often require an elevated temperature step during their synthesis to create crystalline materials. In this work we investigate the rapid and direct electrochemical formation of amorphous nanostructured Co(OH)2 on gold electrodes under room temperture conditions which is a highly active precursor for the OER. During the OER some conversion to crystalline Co3O4 occurs at the surface, but the bulk of the material remains amorphous. It is found that the underlying gold electrode is crucial to the materials enhanced performance and provides higher current density than can be achieved using carbon, palladium or copper support electrodes. This catalyst exhibits excellent activity with a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 360 mV with a high turnover frequency of 2.1 s-1 in 1 M NaOH. A Tafel slope of 56 mV dec-1 at low overpotentials and a slope of 122 mV dec-1 at high overpotentials is consistent with the dual barrier model for the electrocatalytic evolution of oxygen. Significantly, the catalyst maintains excellent activity for up to 24 hr of continuous operation and this approach offers a facile way to create a highly effective and stable material.

121 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of the Zn/Sn ratio on the charge carrier concentration and depletion region width of CZTSSe solar cells and showed that the charge carriers are sensitive to Zn ratio of CTSSe layer.
Abstract: High performance Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells are fabricated by selenization of the precursor films of Mo/Sn/Cu/ZnS/Sn/ZnS/Cu deposited by magnetron sputtering. The investigation of the solar cells with different Zn/Sn ratio in CZTSSe film discloses that the charge carrier concentration and depletion region width of the device is very sensitive to Zn/Sn ratio of CZTSSe layer. The CZTSSe film with Zn/Sn=1.05 has lower carrier density (5.0×1015 cm−3), which is half of the cell with Zn/Sn=1.12, whereas the depletion region at the CdS/CZTSSe hetero-junction interface of the former (200–250 nm) is 100 nm longer than the latter. As a result, better collection of photo-generated charge carrier is found with the cell with longer Wd in the longer wavelength region above 800 nm. Therefore, the average power conversion efficiency is increased from 6.53% to 9.16% with enlarged depletion region width, and the best performance with 10.2% efficiency is achieved.

117 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The considerations behind constructing an experimentally-calibrated population of models are outlined, the methodology is described and compared with alternative approaches for studying variability in cardiac electrophysiology, including cell-specific modelling approaches, sensitivity-analysis based methods, and populations-of-models frameworks that do not consider the experimental calibration step.
Abstract: Physiological variability manifests itself via differences in physiological function between individuals of the same species, and has crucial implications in disease progression and treatment. Despite its importance, physiological variability has traditionally been ignored in experimental and computational investigations due to averaging over samples from multiple individuals. Recently, modelling frameworks have been devised for studying mechanisms underlying physiological variability in cardiac electrophysiology and pro-arrhythmic risk under a variety of conditions and for several animal species as well as human. One such methodology exploits populations of cardiac cell models constrained with experimental data, or experimentally-calibrated populations of models. In this review, we outline the considerations behind constructing an experimentally-calibrated population of models and review the studies that have employed this approach to investigate variability in cardiac electrophysiology in physiological and pathological conditions, as well as under drug action. We also describe the methodology and compare it with alternative approaches for studying variability in cardiac electrophysiology, including cell-specific modelling approaches, sensitivity-analysis based methods, and populations-of-models frameworks that do not consider the experimental calibration step. We conclude with an outlook for the future, predicting the potential of new methodologies for patient-specific modelling extending beyond the single virtual physiological human paradigm.

115 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a fuzzy-logic based frequency controller (FFC) for wind farms augmented with energy storage systems (wind-storage system) is proposed to improve the primary frequency response in future low-inertia hybrid power system.
Abstract: Displacement of conventional synchronous generators by non-inertial units such as wind or solar generators will result in reduced-system inertia affecting under-frequency response. Frequency control is important to avoid equipment damage, load shedding, and possible blackouts. Wind generators along with energy storage systems can be used to improve the frequency response of low-inertia power system. This paper proposes a fuzzy-logic based frequency controller (FFC) for wind farms augmented with energy storage systems (wind-storage system) to improve the primary frequency response in future low-inertia hybrid power system. The proposed controller provides bidirectional real power injection using system frequency deviations and rate of change of frequency (RoCoF). Moreover, FFC ensures optimal use of energy from wind farms and storage units by eliminating the inflexible de-loading of wind energy and minimizing the required storage capacity. The efficacy of the proposed FFC is verified on the low-inertia hybrid power system.

113 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that borophene can be stabilized by full surface hydrogenation (borophane), from first-principles calculations, and most interestingly, borophane has direction-dependent Dirac cones, which are mainly caused by the in-plane px and py orbitals of boron atoms.
Abstract: The recent synthesis of monolayer borophene (triangular boron monolayer) on a substrate has opened the era of boron nanosheets (Science, 2015, 350, 1513), but the structural instability and a need to explore the novel physical properties are still open issues. Here we demonstrated that borophene can be stabilized by full surface hydrogenation (borophane), from first-principles calculations. Most interestingly, our calculations show that borophane has direction-dependent Dirac cones, which are mainly caused by the in-plane px and py orbitals of boron atoms. The Dirac fermions possess an ultrahigh Fermi velocity of up to 3.5 × 106 m s−1 under the HSE06 level, which is 4 times higher than that of graphene. The Young's moduli are calculated to be 190 and 120 GPa nm along two different directions, which are comparable to those of steel. The ultrahigh Fermi velocity and good mechanical features render borophane ideal for nanoelectronic applications.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The most commonly used methods to measure and account for both random and non-random measurement error are reviewed, providing a worked example using a real dataset.
Abstract: Geometric morphometrics—a set of methods for the statistical analysis of shape once saluted as a revolutionary advancement in the analysis of morphology —is now mature and routinely used in ecology and evolution. However, a factor often disregarded in empirical studies is the presence and the extent of measurement error. This is potentially a very serious issue because random measurement error can inflate the amount of variance and, since many statistical analyses are based on the amount of “explained” relative to “residual” variance, can result in loss of statistical power. On the other hand, systematic bias can affect statistical analyses by biasing the results (i.e. variation due to bias is incorporated in the analysis and treated as biologically-meaningful variation). Here, I briefly review common sources of error in geometric morphometrics. I then review the most commonly used methods to measure and account for both random and non-random measurement error, providing a worked example using a real dataset.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a facile and rational hydrothermal treatment of P25 is proposed to selectively convert the amorphous component into crystalline TiO2, which is deposited between the original anatase and rutile particles to increase the particle interfaces and thus enhance charge separation.
Abstract: Although tremendous effort has been directed to synthesizing advanced TiO2 , it remains difficult to obtain TiO2 exhibiting a photocatalytic efficiency higher than that of P25, a benchmark photocatalyst. P25 is composed of anatase, rutile, and amorphous TiO2 particles, and photoexcited electron transfer and subsequent charge separation at the anatase-rutile particle interfaces explain its high photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we report on a facile and rational hydrothermal treatment of P25 to selectively convert the amorphous component into crystalline TiO2 , which is deposited between the original anatase and rutile particles to increase the particle interfaces and thus enhance charge separation. This process produces a new TiO2 exhibiting a considerably enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. This method of synthesizing this TiO2 , inspired by a recently burgeoning zeolite design, promises to make TiO2 applications more feasible and effective.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This study unveils that borophane is auxetic with a surprising negative Poisson's ratio stemming from its unique puckered triangle hinge structure and the associated hinge dihedral angle variation under a tensile strain in the armchair direction.
Abstract: Recently synthesized atomically thin boron sheets (that is, borophene) provide a fascinating template for new material property discovery. Here, we report findings of an extraordinary combination of unusual mechanical and electronic properties in hydrogenated borophene, known as borophane, from first-principles calculations. This novel 2D material has been shown to exhibit robust Dirac transport physics. Our study unveils that borophane is auxetic with a surprising negative Poisson’s ratio stemming from its unique puckered triangle hinge structure and the associated hinge dihedral angle variation under a tensile strain in the armchair direction. Our results also identify borophane to be ferroelastic with a stress-driven 90° lattice rotation in the boron layer, accompanied by a remarkable orientation switch of the anisotropic Dirac transport channels. These outstanding strain-engineered properties make borophane a highly versatile and promising 2D material for innovative applications in microelectromechanical and nanoelectronic devices.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A theoretical model proposes a theoretical model that explains key factors and measures of EAM success and found the construct ‘EAM organizational anchoring’ to be a core focal concept that mediated the effect of success factors such as ’EAM infrastructure quality’ and ‘ EAM service quality�’ on the success measures.
Abstract: Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) is discussed in academia and industry as a vehicle to guide IT implementations, alignment, compliance assessment, or technology management. Still, a lack of knowledge prevails about how EAM can be successfully used, and how positive impact can be realized from EAM. To determine these factors, we identify EAM success factors and measures through literature reviews and exploratory interviews and propose a theoretical model that explains key factors and measures of EAM success. We test our model with data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 133 EAM practitioners. The results confirm the existence of an impact of four distinct EAM success factors, ‘EAM product quality’, ‘EAM infrastructure quality’, ‘EAM service delivery quality’, and ‘EAM organizational anchoring’, and two important EAM success measures, ‘intentions to use EAM’ and ‘Organizational and Project Benefits’ in a confirmatory analysis of the model. We found the construct ‘EAM organizational anchoring’ to be a core focal concept that mediated the effect of success factors such as ‘EAM infrastructure quality’ and ‘EAM service quality’ on the success measures. We also found that ‘EAM satisfaction’ was irrelevant to determining or measuring success. We discuss implications for theory and EAM practice.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate the potential applications of MoS2/VGNS hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage and may open up a new avenue for the development of vertically aligned, multifunctional nanoarchitectures.
Abstract: Hybrid nanostructures composed of vertical graphene nanosheet (VGNS) and MoS2 nano-leaves are synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition method followed by a solvothermal process. The unique three-dimensional nanostructures of MoS2/VGNS arranged in a vertically aligned manner can be easily constructed on various substrates, including Ni foam and graphite paper. Compared with MoS2/carbon black, MoS2/VGNS nanocomposites grown on Ni foam exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries, delivering a specific capacity of 1277[thinsp]mAh[thinsp]g-1 at a current density of 100[thinsp]mA[thinsp]g-1 and a high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 76.6%. Moreover, the MoS2/VGNS nanostructures also retain a capacity of 1109[thinsp]mAh[thinsp]g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 200[thinsp]mA[thinsp]g-1, suggesting excellent cycling stability. In addition, when the MoS2/VGNS nanocomposites grown on graphite paper are applied in the hydrogen evolution reaction, a small Tafel slope of 41.3[thinsp]mV dec-1 and a large double-layer capacitance of 7.96[thinsp]mF[thinsp]cm-2 are obtained, which are among the best values achievable by MoS2-based hybrid structures. These results demonstrate the potential applications of MoS2/VGNS hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage and may open up a new avenue for the development of vertically aligned, multifunctional nanoarchitectures.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-step longitudinal design, including cross-lagged correlation analyses and longitudinal path analyses, is applied to examine the overall and decomposed links within the context of large construction companies in China.
Abstract: Although business and society are thought in a vicious relationship for diminishing trust among stakeholders, a few studies indicate the existence of a reciprocal nexus between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance, known as the “virtuous cycle”. Despite of some empirical studies in developed countries, little research has been conducted concerning the assumption in emerging markets, where large companies have more responsibilities to create positive and sustainable-shared values. This paper aims to explore the nexus between social performance and financial performance of Chinese companies for their global influential social and environmental impacts together with increasing awareness of corporate social responsibility (CSR). A two-step longitudinal design, including cross-lagged correlation analyses and longitudinal path analyses, is applied to examine the overall and decomposed links. It is found the virtuous cycle does exist in the overall and in most decomposed links within the context of large construction companies in China. These findings are beneficial for interested policy-makers, corporate managers, and the public to create shared value on CSR and therefore contribute to CSR improvements. Analysis results indicate a one-year time lag to be appropriate for examining the lead-lag relationship between corporate social performance and financial performance. The research also inspires a potential generalisation of the virtuous cycle by similarly examining it in other industries or other countries with diverse CSR contexts.

Journal Article
TL;DR: From TEM analysis, the enhancement of the thermal transport properties of nanocomposite materials containing hexagonal boron nitride in poly(vinyl alcohol) through room-temperature atmospheric pressure direct-current microplasma processing is reported, with much less aggregation of the nanosheets after plasma processing.
Abstract: This Research Article reports on the enhancement of the thermal transport properties of nanocomposite materials containing hexagonal boron nitride in poly(vinyl alcohol) through room-temperature atmospheric pressure direct-current microplasma processing. Results show that the microplasma treatment leads to exfoliation of the hexagonal boron nitride in isopropyl alcohol, reducing the number of stacks from >30 to a few or single layers. The thermal diffusivity of the resulting nanocomposites reaches 8.5 mm 2 s –1 , 50 times greater than blank poly(vinyl alcohol) and twice that of nanocomposites containing nonplasma treated boron nitride nanosheets. From TEM analysis, we observe much less aggregation of the nanosheets after plasma processing along with indications of an amorphous carbon interfacial layer, which may contribute to stable dispersion of boron nitride nanosheets in the resulting plasma treated colloids.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed and a synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis, providing the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings.
Abstract: Globally, falls from height (FFH) are substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles were reviewed that contribute to the topic of fall incidents. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An assessment of satellite-induced code bias variations in BDS triple-frequency signals and the ambiguity resolutions procedures involving both geometry-free and geometry-based models suggests that although the effect of code bias changes on the extra-wide-laneinteger solution is almost ignorable due to its long wavelength, the wide-lane integer solutions are rather sensitive to the code bias variation.
Abstract: Carrier phase ambiguity resolution over long baselines is challenging in BDS data processing. This is partially due to the variations of the hardware biases in BDS code signals and its dependence on elevation angles. We present an assessment of satellite-induced code bias variations in BDS triple-frequency signals and the ambiguity resolutions procedures involving both geometry-free and geometry-based models. First, since the elevation of a GEO satellite remains unchanged, we propose to model the single-differenced fractional cycle bias with widespread ground stations. Second, the effects of code bias variations induced by GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites on ambiguity resolution of extra-wide-lane, wide-lane and narrow-lane combinations are analyzed. Third, together with the IGSO and MEO code bias variations models, the effects of code bias variations on ambiguity resolution are examined using 30-day data collected over the baselines ranging from 500 to 2600 km in 2014. The results suggest that although the effect of code bias variations on the extra-wide-lane integer solution is almost ignorable due to its long wavelength, the wide-lane integer solutions are rather sensitive to the code bias variations. Wide-lane ambiguity resolution success rates are evidently improved when code bias variations are corrected. However, the improvement of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution is not obvious since it is based on geometry-based model and there is only an indirect impact on the narrow-lane ambiguity solutions.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Forouzanfar et al. as discussed by the authors provide a review of the new air pollution sensing methods to determine indoor air quality and discuss how real-time sensing could bring a paradigm shift in controlling the concentration of key air pollutants in billions of urban houses worldwide.
Abstract: Household air pollution is ranked the 9th largest Global Burden of Disease risk (Forouzanfar et al., The Lancet 2015). People, particularly urban dwellers, typically spend over 90% of their daily time indoors, where levels of air pollution often surpass those of outdoor environments. Indoor air quality (IAQ) standards and approaches for assessment and control of indoor air require measurements of pollutant concentrations and thermal comfort using conventional instruments. However, the outcomes of such measurements are usually averages over long integrated time periods, which become available after the exposure has already occurred. Moreover, conventional monitoring is generally incapable of addressing temporal and spatial heterogeneity of indoor air pollution, or providing information on peak exposures that occur when specific indoor sources are in operation. This article provides a review of the new air pollution sensing methods to determine IAQ and discusses how real-time sensing could bring a paradigm shift in controlling the concentration of key air pollutants in billions of urban houses worldwide. However, we also show that besides the opportunities, challenges still remain in terms of maturing technologies, or data mining and their interpretation. Moreover, we discuss further research and essential development needed to close gaps between what is available today and needed tomorrow. In particular, we demonstrate that awareness of IAQ risks and availability of appropriate regulation are lagging behind the technologies.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a large amount of the recent literature on graphene production by various techniques and summarizes the results in a tabular form to provide a simple and convenient comparison of several available techniques.
Abstract: Graphene, a newly discovered and extensively investigated material, has many unique and extraordinary properties which promise major technological advances in fields ranging from electronics to mechanical engineering and food production. Unfortunately, complex techniques and high production costs hinder commonplace applications. Scaling of existing graphene production techniques to the industrial level without compromising its properties is a current challenge. This article focuses on the perspectives and challenges of scalability, equipment, and technological perspectives of the plasma-based techniques which offer many unique possibilities for the synthesis of graphene and graphene-containing products. The plasma-based processes are amenable for scaling and could also be useful to enhance the controllability of the conventional chemical vapour deposition method and some other techniques, and to ensure a good quality of the produced graphene. We examine the unique features of the plasma-enhanced graphene production approaches, including the techniques based on inductively-coupled and arc discharges, in the context of their potential scaling to mass production following the generic scaling approaches applicable to the existing processes and systems. This work analyses a large amount of the recent literature on graphene production by various techniques and summarizes the results in a tabular form to provide a simple and convenient comparison of several available techniques. Our analysis reveals a significant potential of scalability for plasma-based technologies, based on the scaling-related process characteristics. Among other processes, a greater yield of 1 g × h −1 m −2 was reached for the arc discharge technology, whereas the other plasma-based techniques show process yields comparable to the neutral-gas based methods. Selected plasma-based techniques show lower energy consumption than in thermal CVD processes, and the ability to produce graphene flakes of various sizes reaching hundreds of square millimetres, and the thickness varying from a monolayer to 10–20 layers. Additional factors such as electrical voltage and current, not available in thermal CVD processes could potentially lead to better scalability, flexibility and control of the plasma-based processes. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are also considered.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors contribute to the debate on the identity and progress of the BPM conference research community through an analysis of BPM Conference proceedings and develop a set of recommendations to further develop the conference community in terms of research maturity, methodological advance, quality, impact, and progression.
Abstract: The research field of Business Process Management (BPM) has gradually developed as a discipline situated within the computer, management and information systems sciences. Its evolution has been shaped by its own conference series, the BPM conference. Still, as with any other academic discipline, debates accrue and persist, which target the identity as well as the quality and maturity of the BPM field. In this paper, we contribute to the debate on the identity and progress of the BPM conference research community through an analysis of the BPM conference proceedings. We develop an understanding of signs of progress of research presented at this conference, where, how, and why papers in this conference have had an impact, and the most appropriate formats for disseminating influential research in this conference. Based on our findings from this analysis, we provide conclusions about the state of the conference series and develop a set of recommendations to further develop the conference community in terms of research maturity, methodological advance, quality, impact, and progression.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of Soret and Dufour effects on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields of a fractional MHD viscoelastic fluid in a porous medium with mixed time-space fractional derivatives.
Abstract: This work is concerned with unsteady natural convection heat and mass transfer of a fractional MHD viscoelastic fluid in a porous medium with Soret and Dufour effects. Formulated boundary layer governing equations have coupled mixed time–space fractional derivatives, which are solved by finite difference method combined with L1-algorithm. Results indicate that the Dufour number (Du) , Eckert number (Ec) , Soret number (Sr) and Schmidt number (Sc) have significantly effects on velocity, temperature and concentration fields. With the increase of Du (Sr), the boundary layer thickness of momentum and thermal (concentration) increase remarkably. The average Nusselt number declines with the increase of Du and Ec. The average Sherwood number declines with the increase of Sr, but increases for larger values of Sc. Moreover, the magnetic field slows down the natural convection and reduces the rate of heat and mass transfer. The fractional derivative parameter decelerates the convection flow and enhances the elastic effect of the viscoelastic fluid.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine secondary sources to develop hypotheses for future testing in quantitative research, around the question "How do housing industry contexts in different countries influence the adoption of prefabricated housing construction?" This is a management study of innovation adoption.
Abstract: This exploratory paper examines secondary sources to develop hypotheses for future testing in quantitative research, around the question ‘How do housing industry contexts in different countries influence the adoption of prefabricated housing construction?’ This is a management study of innovation adoption. Prefabricated housing has been routinely promoted as a means to improve the efficiency, quality and environmental performance of house construction, use and demolition. The uptake of prefabrication internationally has not however been consistent, with a clear division between leading and laggard countries. The role of the national housing industry in developing and maintaining a jurisdiction’s prefabrication industry has not been previously explored comprehensively. This gap in knowledge is addressed in the current paper. A focus is given to collecting verifiable data to expose the differences between jurisdictions with both high and low levels of prefabrication adoption. Adoption is measured using data on prefabrication use. Based on content analysis, the main determinants of adoption are revealed to be (1) annual number of housing completions, (2) rates of new building versus renovation, (3) new housing ownership models, and (4) types of housing constructed. Analyses revealed the complexity of interacting factors and their potential influences on the uptake of prefabricated housing. The academic contribution of the paper is in providing a robust basis for more refined investigations of this emerging topic. The practical value of the paper is in providing guidance for policy makers to help them improve adoption of prefabrication, through demonstration projects for example. A limitation of this paper is that the data available is insufficient to facilitate more comprehensive analysis. Future quantitative, theory-driven research is needed to formalise the hypothesised relationships and conduct thorough statistical testing.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers based on density functional theory (DFT) were systematically studied.
Abstract: One of the least known compounds among transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is the layered triclinic technetium dichalcogenides (TcX2, X = S, Se). In this work, we systematically study the structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers based on density functional theory (DFT). We find that TcS2 and TcSe2 can be easily exfoliated in a monolayer form because their formation and cleavage energy are analogous to those of other experimentally realized TMDCs monolayer. By using a hybrid DFT functional, the TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers are calculated to be indirect semiconductors with band gaps of 1.91 and 1.69 eV, respectively. However, bilayer TcS2 exhibits direct-bandgap character, and both TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers can be tuned from semiconductor to metal under effective tensile/compressive strains. Calculations of visible light absorption indicate that 2D TcS2 and TcSe2 generally possess better capability of harvesting sunlight compared to single-layer MoS2 and ReSe2, implying their potential as excellent light-absorbers. Most interestingly, we have discovered that the TcSe2 monolayer is an excellent photocatalyst for splitting water into hydrogen due to the perfect fit of band edge positions with respect to the water reduction and oxidation potentials. Our predictions expand the two-dimensional (2D) family of TMDCs, and the remarkable electronic/optical properties of monolayer TcS2 and TcSe2 will place them among the most promising 2D TMDCs for renewable energy application in the future.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a soft, selective and high-throughput atomic-layer-precision etching of MoS 2 in SF 6 + N 2 plasmas with low-energy was reported.
Abstract: Transition from multi-layer to monolayer and sub-monolayer thickness leads to the many exotic properties and distinctive applications of two-dimensional (2D) MoS 2 . This transition requires atomic-layer-precision thinning of bulk MoS 2 without damaging the remaining layers, which presently remains elusive. Here we report a soft, selective and high-throughput atomic-layer-precision etching of MoS 2 in SF 6 + N 2 plasmas with low-energy ( 2 layers are removed uniformly across domains with vastly different initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO 2 substrate and the remaining MoS 2 layers. The etching rates can be tuned to achieve complete MoS 2 removal and any desired number of MoS 2 layers including monolayer. Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoS 2 are also demonstrated. This soft plasma etching technique is versatile, scalable, compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, and may be applicable for a broader range of 2D materials and intended device applications.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The interaction between boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) layer and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is evaluated and shows that BNNTs can enhance osteogenesis of MSCs, potentially useful for bone regeneration in orthopedic applications.
Abstract: Free to read The interaction between boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) layer and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is evaluated for the first time in this study. BNNTs layer supports the attachment and growth of MSCs and exhibits good biocompatibility with MSCs. BNNTs show high protein adsorption ability, promote the proliferation of MSCs and increase the secretion of total protein by MSCs. Especially, BNNTs enhance the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an early marker of osteoblasts, ALP/total protein and osteocalcin (OCN) as a late marker of osteogenic differentiation, which shows that BNNTs can enhance osteogenesis of MSCs. The release of trace boron and the stress on cells exerted by BNNTs with a fiber structure may account for the enhanced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. Therefore BNNTs are potentially useful for bone regeneration in orthopedic applications.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the thermal conductivities of diamond nanothread (DNT) were studied based on non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, and strong length dependence in thermal conductivity was observed in DNTs with different lengths of poly-benzene rings.
Abstract: Based on the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the thermal conductivities of a novel ultra-thin one-dimensional carbon nanomaterial - diamond nanothread (DNT). Unlike single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT), the existence of the Stone-Wales transformations in DNT endows it with richer thermal transport characteristics. There is a transition from wave-dominated to particle-dominated transport region, which depends on the length of poly-benzene rings. However, independent of the transport region, strong length dependence in thermal conductivity is observed in DNTs with different lengths of poly-benzene ring. The distinctive SW characteristic in DNT provides more degrees of freedom to tune the thermal conductivity not found in the homogeneous structure of CNT. Therefore, DNT is an ideal platform to investigate various thermal transport mechanisms at the nanoscale. Its high tunability raises the potential to design DNTs for different applications, such as thermal connection and temperature management.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the growth mechanisms of CZTSe films under different Se vapor composition are investigated by DC-sputtering and a postselenization approach, and an optimized two-step selenization process is proposed and highly crystallized CZTsSe film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75) is obtained.
Abstract: It is a challenge to fabricate high quality Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 0.8). In this work, the growth mechanisms of CZTSe films under different Se vapor composition are investigated by DC-sputtering and a postselenization approach. The composition of Se vapor has important influence on the compactability of the films and the diffusion of elements in the CZTSe films. By adjusting the composition of Se vapor during the selenization process, an optimized two step selenization process is proposed and highly crystallized CZTSe film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75) is obtained. Further study of the effect of Cu content on the morphology and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding CZTSe solar cells has shown that the roughness of the CZTSe absorber film increases when Cu content decreases. As a consequence, the reflection loss of CZTSe solar cells reduces dramatically and the short circuit current density of the cells improve from 34.7 mA/cm2 for Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.88 to 38.5 mA/cm2 for Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75. In addition, the CZTSe solar cells with low Cu content show longer minority carrier lifetime and higher open circuit voltage than the high Cu content devices. A champion performance CZTSe solar cell with 10.4% efficiency is fabricated with Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75 in the CZTSe film without antireflection coating.