Showing papers in "Science in 1966"
TL;DR: When subjects judge whether a test symbol is contained in a short memorized sequence of symbols, their mean reaction-time increases linearly with the length of the sequence, implying the existence of an internal serial-comparison process.
Abstract: When subjects judge whether a test symbol is contained in a short memorized sequence of symbols, their mean reaction-time increases linearly with the length of the sequence. The linearity and slope of the function imply the existence of an internal serial-comparison process whose average rate is between 25 and 30 symbols per second.
TL;DR: A procedure is described that gives almost quantitative separation of clean nuclei from a homogenate of rat liver and permits further quantitative fractionation of cytoplasmic components.
Abstract: A procedure is described that gives almost quantitative separation of clean nuclei from a homogenate of rat liver. It is a modification of methods that use concentrated sucrose solutions rather than citric acid or detergents and, therefore, permits further quantitative fractionation of cytoplasmic components.
TL;DR: The cell type responsible for inhibition by antigen of migration in vitro of peritoneal exudate cells obtained from tuberculin-hypersensitive guinea pigs was studied and elaborated into the medium a soluble material capable of inhibiting migration of normal exudates.
Abstract: The cell type responsible for inhibition by antigen of migration in vitro of peritoneal exudate cells obtained from tuberculin-hypersensitive guinea pigs was studied. Exudate populations were separated into component cell types, the lymphocyte and the macrophage. Peritoneal lymphocytes from sensitive donors were the immunologically active cells in this system, the macrophages, being merely indicator cells which migrate. Sensitized peritoneal lymphocyte populations, upon interaction with specific antigen in vitro, elaborated into the medium a soluble material capable of inhibiting migration of normal exudate cells.
TL;DR: The findings indicate that the long-lasting trace of an experience is not completely fixed, consolidated, or coded at the time of the experience, and that any search for the engram or the basis of memory is not going to be successful.
Abstract: These observations indicate that the long-lasting trace of an experience is not completely fixed, consolidated, or coded at the time of the experience. Consolidation requires time, and under at least some circumstances the processes of consolidation appear to be susceptible to a variety of influences- both facilitating and impairing- several hours after the experience. There must be, it seems, more than one kind of memory trace process (31). If permanent memory traces consolidate slowly over time, then other processes must provide a temporary basis for memory while consolidation is occurring. The evidence clearly indicates that trial-to-trial improvement, or learning, in animals cannot be based completely on permanent memory storage. Amnesia can be produced by electroshock and drugs even if the animals are given the treatment long after they have demonstrated "learning" of the task. Of particular interest is the finding that retention of the inhibitory avoidance response increases with time. In a sense this should be expected, for it has long been known (and ignored) that, within limits, learning is facilitated by increasing the interval between repeated trials (7, 30). Our result may be the simplest case of such an effect. Since the improvement in retention with time seemed not to be due solely to consolidation (as indicated by electroshock effects), it would seem that the "distribution of practice" effect, as it is typically designated, may be due in part to a time-dependent temporary memory storage process. In our work with animals we have found no analog of human immediate memory such as that required for repeating digits (or finishing sentences). Animals tested immediately on the task described above after a trial typically showed no evidence of memory. It could be that the poor performance is due to excessive fright, but the "distribution of practice effect" is also typically observed in learning experiments in which food reward is used rather than shock avoidance. Since the retention tasks require the animals to change their behavior in some way, it could well be that the growth of retention over the first few minutes after a trial is due to time dependent processes involved in the organization of processes necessary for changing behavior, in addition to those involved in temporary storage and retrieval. It is worth pointing out that there is evidence of an analogous process in human memory (32). A complex picture of memory storage is emerging. There may be three memory trace systems: one for immediate memory (and not studied in our laboratory); one for short-term memory which develops within a few seconds or minutes and lasts for several hours; and one which consolidates slowly and is relatively permanent. The nature of the durability of the longterm memory trace (that is, the nature and basis of forgetting) is a separate but important issue. There is increasing evidence and speculation (20, 21, 33) that memory storage requires a "tritrace" system, and our findings are at least consistent with such a view. If there are, as seems possible, at least three kinds of traces involved in memory storage, how are they related? Is permanent memory produced by activity of temporary traces (31), or are the trace systems relatively independent? Although available findings do not provide an answer to this question, there does seem to be increasing evidence that the systems are independent. Acquisition can occur, as we have seen, without permanent consolidation, and both short-term and long-term memory increase with time. All this evidence suggests (but obviously does not prove) that each experience triggers activity in each memory system. Each repeated training trial may, according to this view, potentiate short-term processes underlying acquisition while simultaneously enhancing independent underlying long-term consolidation. Obviously, acceptance of these conclusions will require additional research. If this view is substantially correct, it seems clear that any search for the engram or the basis of memory is not going to be successful. Recognition of the possibility that several independent processes may be involved at different stages of memory may help to organize the search. A careful examination of the time course of retention and memory trace consolidation, as well as examination of the bases of the effects of memory-impairing and memory-facilitating treatments, may help to guide the search. It is clear that a complete theory of memory storage must eventually provide an understanding of time-dependent processes in memory. In 1930 Lashley wrote (2), "The facts of both psychology and neurology show a degree of plasticity, of organization, and of adaptation and behavior which is far beyond any present possibility of explanation." Although this conclusion is still valid, the current surge of interest in memory storage offers hope that this conclusion may soon need to be modified.
TL;DR: REPORTS Stratigraphy of the Wisconsin Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica, and Dechlorination of DDT by Aerobacter aerogenes, Antarctica.
Abstract: REPORTS Stratigraphy of the Wisconsin Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica: V. H. Minshew Strontium-90 Fallout: Comparison of Rates over Ocean and Land: W. S. Broecker, G. G. Rocco, H. L. Volchok ..................... Magnesium Ions: Activity in Seawater: R. M. Pytkowicz, I. W. Duedall, D. N. Connors Recent Emerged Beach in Eastern Mexico: E. W. Behrens ...................... Pressure-Induced Phases of Sulfur: S. Geller ................................ Dechlorination of DDT by Aerobacter aerogenes: G. Wedemeyer ................ Separation of Living and Dead Cells by Dielectrophoresis: H. A. Pohl and I. Hawk . 591
TL;DR: Pupil diameter is a measure of the amount of material which is under active processing at any time and dilates as the material is presented and constricts during report.
Abstract: During a short-term memory task, pupil diameter is a measure of the amount of material which is under active processing at any time. The pupil dilates as the material is presented and constricts during report. The rate of change of these functions is related to task difficulty.
TL;DR: These results show that E. coli is chemotactic toward oxygen and energy sources such as galactose, glucose, aspartic acid, threonine, or serine and that chemotaxis allows bacteria to find that environment which provides them with the greatest supply of energy.
Abstract: Motile Escherichia coli placed at one end of a capillary tube containing an energy source and oxygen migrate out into the tube in one or two bands, which are clearly visible to the naked eye and can also be demonstrated by photography, microscopy, and densitometry and by assaying for bacteria throughout the tube. The formation of two bands is not due to heterogeneity among the bacteria, since the bacteria in each band, when reused, will form two more bands. If an anaerobically utilizable energy source such as galactose is present in excess over the oxygen, the first band consumes all the oxygen and a part of the sugar and the second band uses the residual sugar anaerobically. On the other hand, if oxygen is present in excess over the sugar, the first band oxidizes all the sugar and leaves behind unused oxygen, and the second band uses up the residual oxygen to oxidize an endogenous energy source. The essence of the matter is that the bacteria create a gradient of oxygen or of an energy source, and then they move preferentially in the direction of the higher concentration of the chemical. As a consequence, bands of bacteria (or rings of bacteria in the case of agar plates) form and move out. These results show that E. coli is chemotactic toward oxygen and energy sources such as galactose, glucose, aspartic acid, threonine, or serine. The full repertoire of chemotactic responses by E. coli is no doubt greater than this, and a more complete list remains to be compiled. The studies reported here demonstrate that chemotaxis allows bacteria to find that environment which provides them with the greatest supply of energy. It is clearly an advantage for bacteria to be able to carry out chemotaxis, since by this means they can avoid unfavorable conditions and seek optimum surroundings. Finally, it is necessary to acknowledge the pioneering work of Englemann, Pfeffer, and the other late-19thcentury biologists who discovered chemotaxis in bacteria, and to point out that the studies reported here fully confirm the earlier reports of Beijerinck (4) and Sherris and his collaborators (5,6) on a band of bacteria chemotactic toward oxygen. By using a chemically defined medium instead of a complex broth, it has been possible to study this band more closely and to demonstrate in addition the occurrence of a second band of bacteria chemotactic toward an energy source. Beijerinck (4) did, in fact, sometimes observe a second band, but he did not offer an explanation for it.
TL;DR: Accompanying morphological changes in the islets of Langerhans suggest neogenesis to compensate for insulin depletion, which is characterized by a metabolic disturbance resembling diabetes mellitus in man.
Abstract: Diabetes (db), which occurred in an inbred strain of mouse, is inherited as a unit autosomal recessive and is characterized by a metabolic disturbance resembling diabetes mellitus in man. Abnormal deposition of fat at 3 to 4 weeks of age is followed shortly by hyperglycemia, polyuria, and glycosuria. Accompanying morphological changes in the islets of Langerhans suggest neogenesis to compensate for insulin depletion.
TL;DR: The present exploration has revealed that death during embryogenesis serves utilitarian goals in some instances, at least, that its occurrence is subject to control by factors of the immediate cellular and humoral environment.
Abstract: The principal conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing discussion is that the death of cells and the destruction of tissues, organs, and organ systems are programmed as normal morphogenetic events in the development of multicellular organisms. Death in embryonic systems may thus be explored within the same conceptual framework as growth and differentiation. The present exploration has revealed that death during embryogenesis serves utilitarian goals in some instances, at least, that its occurrence is subject to control by factors of the immediate cellular and humoral environment, and that aberrations in its normal pattern of expression provide the mechanism for realization of many mutant phenotypes. Hopefully, it has also pointed toward the appropriate formulation of some of the problems that confront us in understanding the control of death at the level of genetic transcription, the biochemical events which determine and accompany its occurrence, and the pathways of disposition and the developmental significance of disassembled cellular building blocks.
TL;DR: Stick-slip often accompanies frictional sliding in laboratory experi ments with geologic materials and may represent stick slip during sliding along old or newly formed faults in the earth.
Abstract: Stick-slip often accompanies frictional sliding in laboratory experi ments with geologic materials. Shallow focus earthquakes may represent stick slip during sliding along old or newly formed faults in the earth In such a situation, observed stress drops repre sent release of a small fraction of the stress supported by the rock surround ing the earthquake focus.
TL;DR: A crystalline germination stimulant for the rootparasite, witchweed (Striga lutea Lour.), has been isolated from cotton rootexudates and characterized as a C19H22O6 compound, although apparently different from known plant hormones.
Abstract: A crystalline germination stimulant (trivial name strigol) for the rootparasite, witchweed (Striga lutea Lour.), has been isolated from cotton rootexudates and characterized as a C(19)H(22)O(6) compound. Although apparently different from known plant hormones, the stimulant is active at hormonal levels, causing germination at concentrations less than 1O(-5) part per million.
TL;DR: It seems likely that the rudiments of primate society preceded the growth ofPrimate intelligence, made it possible, and determined its nature.
Abstract: Our human intellect has resulted from an enormous leap in capacity above the level of monkeys and apes. Earlier, though, Old and New World monkeys' intelligence outdistanced that of other mammals, including the prosimian primates. This first great advance in intelligence probably was selected through interspecific competition on the large continents. However, even at this early stage, primate social life provided the evolutionary context of primate intelligence. Two arguments support this conclusion. One is ontogenetic: modern monkeys learn so much of their social behavior, and learn their behavior toward food and toward other species through social example. The second is phylogenetic: some prosimians, the social lemurs, have evolved the usual primate type of society and social learning without the capacity to manipulate objects as monkeys do. It thus seems likely that the rudiments of primate society preceded the growth of primate intelligence, made it possible, and determined its nature.
TL;DR: Investigation of organic fluid respiration may lead to development of a safe method to support the respiration of man by liquids equilibrated with gases at atmospheric pressure.
Abstract: Because oxygen and carbon dioxide are very soluble in certain silicone oils and fluorocarbon liquids, these liquids will support respiration of mammals. Mice and cats respiring silicone oil die shortly after return to air breathing, while those breathing fluorocarbon survive for weeks. The respiration of mice is optimally supported by these organic liquids at about 20 degrees C. In cats, arterial oxygenation is excellent, but there is some impairment of carbon dioxide elimination. All animals have suffered some pulmonary damage from breathing fluorocarbon liquids. Continued investigation of organic fluid respiration may lead to development of a safe method to support the respiration of man by liquids equilibrated with gases at atmospheric pressure.
TL;DR: It is found that visually guided behavior is mediated at both cortical and midbrain levels, and that there is a marked interaction between these sites.
Abstract: Total contralateral hemianopia follows unilateral removal of the entire occipito-temporal neocortex in the cat. This deficit is classically ascribed to interruption of visual radiations serving cortical function ("cortical blindness") and is considered permanent. Return of vision to the hemianopic field after subsequent removal of the superior colliculus contralateral to the cortical lesion demonstrates that neither assumption is correct. The initial hemianopia is apparently due to depression of function of the colliculus ipsilateral to the cortical lesion, a de- pression maintained by influx of inhibition from the crossed colliculus. Thus, removal of the contralateral tectum, or splitting of the collicular commissure, abolishes this inhibition and allows the return of function in the ipsilateral colliculus, and with it the recovery fronm hemianopia. These findings emphasize that visually guided behavior is mediated at both cortical and midbrain levels, and that there is a marked interaction between these sites.
TL;DR: The vitamin D3-enhanced duodenal absorption of Ca47 in rachitic chicks occurred almost simultaneously with the appearance of the vitamin D 3-induced factor, and there was good correlation between the concentration of binding factor and the rate of absorption ofCa47.
Abstract: The administration of vita-min D3 to rachitic chicks induces in intestinal mucosal tissue the formation or elaboration of a calcium-binding factor which is found in the supernatant of the mucosal homogenate. The enhanced binding of Ca by the "vitanmin D" supernatant (in contrast to "rachitic" supernatant) was indicated by a slower rate of diffusion of Ca45 across a cellophane dialyzing membrane and by a lesser amount of Ca45 being bound to an ion-exchange resin (Chelex-100) in the presence of vitamiiin D3 supernatant. The binding activity was only associated with the protein fraction from a Sephadex G-25 column and was destroyed by trypsin digestion. This and other evidence suggest that the soluble factor is a protein. The vitamin D3-enhanced duodenal absorption of Ca47 in rachitic chicks occurred almost simultaneously with the appearance of the vitamin D3-induced factor, and there was good correlation between the concentration of binding factor and the rate of absorption of Ca47.
TL;DR: The hypothesis that magnetic anomalies may indicate the nature of oceanic fracture zones and distinguish the parts of the ridge system that are actively spreading is suggested and data derived during the past year lend remarkable support to the hypothesis.
Abstract: It is suggested that the entire history of the ocean basins, in terms of oceanfloor spreading,is contained frozen in the oceanic crust. Variations in the intensity and polarity of Earth's magnetic field are considered to be recorded in the remanent magnetism of the igneous rocks as they solidified and cooled through the Curie temperature at the crest of an oceanic ridge, and subsequently spread away from it at a steady rate. The hypothesis is supported by the extreme linearity and continuity of oceanic magnetic anomalies and their symmetry about the axes of ridges. If the proposed reversal time scale for the last 4 million years is combined with the model, computed anomaly profiles show remarkably good agreement with those observed, and one can deduce rates of spreading for all active parts of the midoceanic ridge system for which magnetic profilesor surveys are available. The rates obtained are in exact agreement with those needed to account for continental drift. An exceptionally high rate of spreading (approximately 4.5 cm/year) in the South Pacific enables one to deduce by extrapolation considerable details of the reversal time scale back to 11.5 million years ago. Again, this scale can be applied to other parts of the ridge system. Thus one isled to the suggestion that the crest of the East Pacific Rise in the northeast Pacific has been overridden and modified by the westward drift of North America, with the production of the anomalous width and unique features of the American cordillera in the western United States. The oceanicmagnetic anomalies also indicate that there was a change in derection of crustal spreading in this region during Pliocene time from eastwest to southeast-northwest. A profile from the crest to the boundary of the East Pacific Rise, and the difference between axial-zone and flank anomalies over ridges, suggest increase in the frequency of reversal of Earth's magnetic field, together, possibly, with decrease in its intensity, approximately 25 million years ago. Within the framework of ocean-floor spreading, it is suggested that magnetic anomaliesmay indicate the nature of oceanic fracture zones and distinguish the parts of the ridge system that are actively spreading. Thus data derived during the past year lend remarkable support to thehypothesis that magnetic anomalies may reveal the history of the ocean basins.
TL;DR: It seems likely that, while all three early cereals were domesticated within an are flanking the fertile crescent, each was domesticated in a different subregion of the zone.
Abstract: If we accept the evidence at face value, we are led to conclude that emmer was probably domesticated in the upper Jordan watershed and that einkorn was domesticated in southeast Turkey. Barley could have been domesticated almost anywhere within the arc bordering the fertile crescent. All three cereals may well have been harvested in the wild state throughout their regions of adaptation long before actual farming began. The primary habitats for barley, however, are not the same as those for the wheats. Wild barley is more xerophytic and extends farther downslope and into the steppes and deserts along the wadis. It seems likely that, while all three early cereals were domesticated within an are flanking the fertile crescent, each was domesticated in a different subregion of the zone. Lest anyone should be led to think the problem is solved, we wish to close with a caveat. Domestication may not have taken place where the wild cereals were most abundant. Why should anyone cultivate a cereal where natural stands are as dense as a cultivated field? If wild cereal grasses can be harvested in unlimited quantities, why should anyone bother to till the soil and plant the seed? We suspect that we shall find, when the full story is unfolded, that here and there harvesting of wild cereals lingered on long after some people had learned to farm, and that farming itself may have orig inated in areas adjacent to, rather than in, the regions of greatest abundance of wild cereals. We need far more specific information on the climate during incipient domestication and many more carefully conducted excavations of sites in the appropriate time range. The problem is far from solved, but some knowledge of the present distribution of the wild forms should be helpful.
TL;DR: Electrodes constructed from single-crystal sections of rare earth fluorides respond to fluoride ion activity over more than five orders of magnitude and show a high selectivity for fluoride over other common anions.
Abstract: Electrodes constructed from single-crystal sections of rare earth fluorides respond to fluoride ion activity over more than five orders of magnitude and show a high selectivity for fluoride over other common anions. These electrodes can be used for either direct measuremnent of fluoride ion activity or detection of the end point in titration.
TL;DR: A rather simple thermal model of the Martian surface, in combination with current observations of the atmospheric composition, points strongly toward the conclusion that the polar caps of Mars consist almost entirely of frozen CO2.
Abstract: We have found that a rather simple thermal model of the Martian surface, in combination with current observations of the atmospheric composition, points strongly toward the conclusion that the polar caps of Mars consist almost entirely of frozen CO_2. This study was based upon the following principal assumptions. 1) Carbon dioxide is a major constituent of the Martian atmosphere. 2) The blanketing effect of the atmosphere is small, and due principally to the absorption band of CO_2 near 15 microns. 3) Lateral and convective heat transfer by the atmosphere is negligible. 4) The far-infrared emissivity of the Martian soil and of solid CO_2 are near unity. 5) The reflectivities of the soil and of solid CO_2 in the visible part of the spectrum are about 0.15 and 0.65, respectively. 6) Values for soil conductivity, density, and specific heat are those characteristic of powdered minerals at low gas pressure. 7) Water is a minor constituent of the Martian atmosphere, the maximum total amount in the atmosphere being 10 to 30 X 10^(-4) g cm^(-2). In addition, several simplifications were made, which might have significant effects but should not alter our principal conclusions. Among these are the following. 1) Local blanketing or snowfall effects due to clouds or polar haze were ignored. 2) Dark and light areas were not differentiated in this study, although Sinton and Strong (6) have observed temperature differences between such areas. 3) The effects of local topography and microrelief were neglected. We believe that these must have quite significant effects at the higher latitudes, especially in connection with the evaporation of the remanent south polar cap. 4) Variation of reflectivity with angle of incidence of the sunlight was neglected. 5) Temperature dependence of soil conductivity and specific heat was ignored. 6) Effects of saturation of the soil by ice upon the thermal properties of the soil were neglected. Although in our main investigation we used certain specific values for the various relevant parameters, we also tested the effects of moderate changes in these quantities. Specifically, the soil conductivity was varied by a factor of 3, the albedo and emissivity of the surface were changed by 15 to 20 percent, and the effects of a gross amount of atmospheric blanketing were studied, as described. Only the last of these variations had any significant effect on the model, and other results of the atmospheric blanketing were in disagreement with other physical observations of the planet. Consequently, we find it difficult to avoid the conclusion that CO_2 must condense in large amounts relative to H_20. The main conclusions indicated by this study are the following. 1) The atmosphere and frost caps of Mars represent a single system with CO_2 as the only active phase. 2) The appearance and disappearance of the polar caps are adequately explained on the presumption that they are composed almost entirely of solid CO_2 with perhaps an occasional thin coating of water ice. 3) If the currently reported water-vapor observations are correct, water-ice permafrost probably exists under large regions of the planet at polar and temperate latitudes. 4) The geochemically anomalous enrichment of CO_2 relative to N_2 in the present Martian atmosphere may be a result of selective trapping of CO_2 in the solid phase at and under the surface. 5) If the basic evaporation and condensation mechanisms for CO_2 and H_2O discussed in this article are correct, the possible migration of volatile organic compounds away from the warm temperate regions of the planet and their possible accumulation in the polar regions need to be carefully considered.
TL;DR: An electrophorogram of radioactive type-2 adenovirus proteins so fractionated gave a pattern in excellent agreement with the pattern obtained by laborious manual sectioning and in agreement withThe pattern obtained on a replicate gel stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R250.
Abstract: A mechanical fractionator was developed to produce electrophorograms by extrusion of polyacrylamide gels through a narrow orifice in a continuous, sequential stream. The system permits separation of uniform fractions free of zone distortion. An electrophorogram of radioactive type-2 adenovirus proteins so fractionated gave a pattern in excellent agreement with the pattern obtained by laborious manual sectioning and in agreement with the pattern obtained on a replicate gel stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R250. The adenovirus particle yielded about ten resolvable protein components in unequal amounts. Like picornaviruses, these icosahedral animal viruses have multiple protein components in the viral coat.
TL;DR: The mere fact that behavior is adaptive does not indicate whether phylogenic or ontogenic processes have been responsible for it, and a more specific analysis is needed if to deal effectively with the two kinds of contingencies and their products.
Abstract: Responses are strengthened by consequences having to do with the survival of individuals and species. With respect to the provenance of behavior, we know more about ontogenic than phylogenic contingencies. The contingencies responsible for unlearned behavior acted long ago. This remoteness affects our scientific methods, both experimental and conceptual. Until we have identified he variables responsible for an event, we tend to invent causes. Explanatory entities such as “instincts,” “drives,” and “traits” still survive. Unable to show how organisms can behave effectively under complex circumstances, we endow them with special abilities permitting them to do so.Behavior exhibited by most members of a species is often accepted as inherited if all members were not likely to have been exposed to relevant ontogenic contingencies. When contingencies are not obvious, it is perhaps unwise to call any behavior either inherited or acquired, as the examples of churring in honey guides and following in imprinted ducklings show. Nor can the relative importance of phylogenic and ontogenic contingencies be argued from instances in which unlearned or learned behavior intrudes or dominates. Intrusions occur in both directions.Behavior influenced by its consequences seems directed toward the future, but only past effects are relevant. The mere fact that behavior is adaptive does not indicate whether phylogenic or ontogenic processes have been responsible for it. Examples include the several possible provenances of imitation, aggression, and communication. The generality of such concepts limits their usefulness. A more specific analysis is needed if we are to deal effectively with the two kinds of contingencies and their products.
TL;DR: An improved method for the mixed leukocyte culture test is developed, allowing evaluation of low levels of stimulation in homologous cell mixtures.
Abstract: We have developed an improved method for the mixed leukocyte culture test. Control values, as determined by rates of incorporation of thymidine, are very low, allowing evaluation of low levels of stimulation in homologous cell mixtures. One-way stimulation is assayed by treating the cells of one individual with mitomycin C; treated cells cannot respond (incorporate thymidine) but can still stimulate homologous untreated cells to do so.
TL;DR: Geostrophic contour-following bottom currents involved in the deep thermohaline circulation of the world ocean appear to be the principal agents which control the shape of the continental rise and other sediment bodies.
Abstract: Geostrophic contour-following bottom currents involved in the deep thermohaline circulation of the world ocean appear to be the principal agents which control the shape of the continental rise and other sediment bodies.
TL;DR: In this paper, the Rayleigh fractionation model was used to estimate manganese zoning in almandine garnet, and the results indicated that the assumptions used in the calculations were good.
Abstract: Manganese zoning in almandine garnet is interpreted by the use of calculations based on the Rayleigh fractionation model. A close similarity of a measured manganese zoning profile and a calculated profile indicates that the assumptions used in the calculations are good. These assumptions are: complete removal of garnet from a homogeneous reservoir as the garnet crystallizes, and a nearly constant manganese fractionation factor between garnet and reservoir.
TL;DR: The combined x-ray diffraction and electron microscopic examination of myelin has provided reasonable, but not conclusive, support for its structure as a basically bimolecular leaflet of phospholipid that is partially interspersed with protein, but there is very little basis for extending this concept to biological membranes in general.
Abstract: The combined x-ray diffraction and electron microscopic examination of myelin has provided reasonable, but not conclusive, support for its structure as a basically bimolecular leaflet of phospholipid that is partially interspersed with protein. But there is very little basis for extending this concept to biological membranes in general. There is no adequate experimental support for the specific orientation of phospholipids as proposed in the unit membrane theory or for the proposed polar nature of protein-lipid bonds, even in myelin. Membranes differ widely in chemical composition, metabolism, function, enzymatic composition, and even in their electron microscopic image. The only similarity is their general resemblance in electron micrographs, but, until more is known about the chemistry of electron microscopy, this evidence cannot be interpreted with confidence. One positive conclusion to which I have come is that much more chemical evidence must, and can, be obtained. Techniques for the isolation of membranes are improving and protein and lipid chemistry are now highly refined arts. Quantitative analysis of many different membranes is possible and the data can be related in some instances, notably bacterial plasma membranes, to calculations of surface area. Chemical and physical changes induced in membranes of widely different lipid composition by the preparatory procedures of electron microscopy can be determined directly and correlated with the electron microscopic image. Model systems can be assembled whose compositions closely resemble those of biological membranes. Membranes can be disassociated into subunits whose properties can be studied. In particular, x-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy by negative staining of reaggregates of lipoproteins isolated from membranes would be very informative. Perhaps most important, the problem of membrane structure must be considered in relation to the problems of membrane function and membrane biosynthesis.
TL;DR: It was found that reward delivered contingent upon imitation was necessary for development of imitation and the newly established imitation was shown to have acquired rewarding properties for the children.
Abstract: Two mute schizophrenic children were taught imitative speech within an operant conditioning framework. The training procedure consisted of a series of increasingly fine verbal discriminations; the children were rewarded for closer and closer reproductions of the attending adults' speech. We found that reward delivered contingent upon imitation was necessary for development of imitation. Furthermore, the newly established imitation was shown to have acquired rewarding properties for the children.