scispace - formally typeset

Showing papers in "Science in 2000"


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Dec 2000-Science
TL;DR: Locally linear embedding (LLE) is introduced, an unsupervised learning algorithm that computes low-dimensional, neighborhood-preserving embeddings of high-dimensional inputs that learns the global structure of nonlinear manifolds.
Abstract: Many areas of science depend on exploratory data analysis and visualization. The need to analyze large amounts of multivariate data raises the fundamental problem of dimensionality reduction: how to discover compact representations of high-dimensional data. Here, we introduce locally linear embedding (LLE), an unsupervised learning algorithm that computes low-dimensional, neighborhood-preserving embeddings of high-dimensional inputs. Unlike clustering methods for local dimensionality reduction, LLE maps its inputs into a single global coordinate system of lower dimensionality, and its optimizations do not involve local minima. By exploiting the local symmetries of linear reconstructions, LLE is able to learn the global structure of nonlinear manifolds, such as those generated by images of faces or documents of text.

13,822 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Dec 2000-Science
TL;DR: An approach to solving dimensionality reduction problems that uses easily measured local metric information to learn the underlying global geometry of a data set and efficiently computes a globally optimal solution, and is guaranteed to converge asymptotically to the true structure.
Abstract: Scientists working with large volumes of high-dimensional data, such as global climate patterns, stellar spectra, or human gene distributions, regularly confront the problem of dimensionality reduction: finding meaningful low-dimensional structures hidden in their high-dimensional observations. The human brain confronts the same problem in everyday perception, extracting from its high-dimensional sensory inputs-30,000 auditory nerve fibers or 10(6) optic nerve fibers-a manageably small number of perceptually relevant features. Here we describe an approach to solving dimensionality reduction problems that uses easily measured local metric information to learn the underlying global geometry of a data set. Unlike classical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS), our approach is capable of discovering the nonlinear degrees of freedom that underlie complex natural observations, such as human handwriting or images of a face under different viewing conditions. In contrast to previous algorithms for nonlinear dimensionality reduction, ours efficiently computes a globally optimal solution, and, for an important class of data manifolds, is guaranteed to converge asymptotically to the true structure.

12,462 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
10 Mar 2000-Science
TL;DR: This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, aranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
Abstract: Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.

7,686 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
11 Feb 2000-Science
TL;DR: Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1)-Mn (x)Te and is used to predict materials with T (C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.
Abstract: Ferromagnetism in manganese compound semiconductors not only opens prospects for tailoring magnetic and spin-related phenomena in semiconductors with a precision specific to III-V compounds but also addresses a question about the origin of the magnetic interactions that lead to a Curie temperature (T(C)) as high as 110 K for a manganese concentration of just 5%. Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1-)(x)Mn(x)Te and is used to predict materials with T(C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.

6,798 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Mar 2000-Science
TL;DR: The nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome is determined using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map.
Abstract: The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes approximately 13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity.

5,958 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: The nanotubes sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.
Abstract: Chemical sensors based on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are demonstrated. Upon exposure to gaseous molecules such as NO 2 or NH 3 , the electrical resistance of a semiconducting SWNT is found to dramatically increase or decrease. This serves as the basis for nanotube molecular sensors. The nanotube sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature. Sensor reversibility is achieved by slow recovery under ambient conditions or by heating to high temperatures. The interactions between molecular species and SWNTs and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.

5,702 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Shouheng Sun1, Christopher B. Murray1, Dieter Weller1, Liesl Folks1, Andreas Moser1 
17 Mar 2000-Science
TL;DR: Thermal annealing converts the internal particle structure from a chemically disordered face- centered cubic phase to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal phase and transforms the nanoparticle superlattices into ferromagnetic nanocrystal assemblies that can support high-density magnetization reversal transitions.
Abstract: Synthesis of monodisperse iron-platinum (FePt) nanoparticles by reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in the presence of oleic acid and oleyl amine stabilizers is reported. The FePt particle composition is readily controlled, and the size is tunable from 3- to 10-nanometer diameter with a standard deviation of less than 5%. These nanoparticles self-assemble into three-dimensional superlattices. Thermal annealing converts the internal particle structure from a chemically disordered face-centered cubic phase to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal phase and transforms the nanoparticle superlattices into ferromagnetic nanocrystal assemblies. These assemblies are chemically and mechanically robust and can support high-density magnetization reversal transitions.

5,410 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
04 Aug 2000-Science
Abstract: Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a variety of different external stimuli and activate G proteins. GPCRs share many structural features, including a bundle of seven transmembrane alpha helices connected by six loops of varying lengths. We determined the structure of rhodopsin from diffraction data extending to 2.8 angstroms resolution. The highly organized structure in the extracellular region, including a conserved disulfide bridge, forms a basis for the arrangement of the seven-helix transmembrane motif. The ground-state chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, holds the transmembrane region of the protein in the inactive conformation. Interactions of the chromophore with a cluster of key residues determine the wavelength of the maximum absorption. Changes in these interactions among rhodopsins facilitate color discrimination. Identification of a set of residues that mediate interactions between the transmembrane helices and the cytoplasmic surface, where G-protein activation occurs, also suggests a possible structural change upon photoactivation.

5,226 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: The tensile strengths of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured with a "nanostressing stage" located within a scanning electron microscope and a variety of structures were revealed, such as a nanotube ribbon, a wave pattern, and partial radial collapse.
Abstract: The tensile strengths of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured with a “nanostressing stage” located within a scanning electron microscope. The tensile-loading experiment was prepared and observed entirely within the microscope and was recorded on video. The MWCNTs broke in the outermost layer (“sword-in-sheath” failure), and the tensile strength of this layer ranged from 11 to 63 gigapascals for the set of 19 MWCNTs that were loaded. Analysis of the stress-strain curves for individual MWCNTs indicated that the Young's modulus E of the outermost layer varied from 270 to 950 gigapascals. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the broken nanotube fragments revealed a variety of structures, such as a nanotube ribbon, a wave pattern, and partial radial collapse.

4,691 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 2000-Science
TL;DR: Before the full potential of neural stem cells can be realized, the authors need to learn what controls their proliferation, as well as the various pathways of differentiation available to their daughter cells.
Abstract: Neural stem cells exist not only in the developing mammalian nervous system but also in the adult nervous system of all mammalian organisms, including humans. Neural stem cells can also be derived from more primitive embryonic stem cells. The location of the adult stem cells and the brain regions to which their progeny migrate in order to differentiate remain unresolved, although the number of viable locations is limited in the adult. The mechanisms that regulate endogenous stem cells are poorly understood. Potential uses of stem cells in repair include transplantation to repair missing cells and the activation of endogenous cells to provide "self-repair. " Before the full potential of neural stem cells can be realized, we need to learn what controls their proliferation, as well as the various pathways of differentiation available to their daughter cells.

4,486 citations


PatentDOI
04 Oct 2000-Science
TL;DR: Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) should provide a broadly applicable means for the quantitative cataloging and comparison of expressed genes in a variety of normal, developmental, and disease states.
Abstract: PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for preparing a short nucleotide sequence (tag) which is useful to identify a cDNA oligonucleotide and is derived from a restricted position in a mRNA or a cDNA. SOLUTION: This is the method of preparing a tag for identifying the cDNA oligonucleotide. The above method comprises preparing the cDNA oligonucleotide bearing 5' and 3' terminals, collecting cDNA fragments by cutting the cDNA oligonucleotide with a restriction enzyme at the first restriction endonuclease site, separating a cDNA oligonucleotide bearing 5' or 3' terminal and connecting an oligonucleotide linker to the isolated cDNA fragment bearing the cDNA oligonucleotide 5' or 3' terminal. Here, the oligonucleotide linker contains the recognition site of the second restriction endonuclease enzyme and the isolated cDNA fragment is cut with the second restriction endonuclease enzyme which cuts the cDNA fragment in a section separated from the recognition site to obtain the tag for identifying the cDNA oligonucleotide.

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Apr 2000-Science
TL;DR: An extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayersoft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials is described, to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer.
Abstract: Soft lithography is an alternative to silicon-based micromachining that uses replica molding of nontraditional elastomeric materials to fabricate stamps and microfluidic channels. We describe here an extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayer soft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials. We used this technique to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer. The softness of these materials allows the device areas to be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared with silicon-based devices. The other advantages of soft lithography, such as rapid prototyping, ease of fabrication, and biocompatibility, are retained.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Sep 2000-Science
TL;DR: Results of observational studies suggest that in many areas that have been analyzed, changes in total precipitation are amplified at the tails, and changes in some temperature extremes have been observed.
Abstract: One of the major concerns with a potential change in climate is that an increase in extreme events will occur. Results of observational studies suggest that in many areas that have been analyzed, changes in total precipitation are amplified at the tails, and changes in some temperature extremes have been observed. Model output has been analyzed that shows changes in extreme events for future climates, such as increases in extreme high temperatures, decreases in extreme low temperatures, and increases in intense precipitation events. In addition, the societal infrastructure is becoming more sensitive to weather and climate extremes, which would be exacerbated by climate change. In wild plants and animals, climate-induced extinctions, distributional and phenological changes, and species' range shifts are being documented at an increasing rate. Several apparently gradual biological changes are linked to responses to extreme weather and climate events.

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jul 2000-Science
TL;DR: Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025.
Abstract: The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Nov 2000-Science
TL;DR: Although duplicate genes may only rarely evolve new functions, the stochastic silencing of such genes may play a significant role in the passive origin of new species.
Abstract: Gene duplication has generally been viewed as a necessary source of material for the origin of evolutionary novelties, but it is unclear how often gene duplicates arise and how frequently they evolve new functions. Observations from the genomic databases for several eukaryotic species suggest that duplicate genes arise at a very high rate, on average 0.01 per gene per million years. Most duplicated genes experience a brief period of relaxed selection early in their history, with a moderate fraction of them evolving in an effectively neutral manner during this period. However, the vast majority of gene duplicates are silenced within a few million years, with the few survivors subsequently experiencing strong purifying selection. Although duplicate genes may only rarely evolve new functions, the stochastic silencing of such genes may play a significant role in the passive origin of new species.

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: This review examines the progress made over the century in understanding the time-dependent processes that create the authors' lasting memories.
Abstract: The memory consolidation hypothesis proposed 100 years ago by Muller and Pilzecker continues to guide memory research. The hypothesis that new memories consolidate slowly over time has stimulated studies revealing the hormonal and neural influences regulating memory consolidation, as well as molecular and cellular mechanisms. This review examines the progress made over the century in understanding the time-dependent processes that create our lasting memories.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: These phenomena have two major biological implications: many wildlife species are reservoirs of pathogens that threaten domestic animal and human health; second, wildlife EIDs pose a substantial threat to the conservation of global biodiversity.
Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with “spill-over” from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These phenomena have two major biological implications: first, many wildlife species are reservoirs of pathogens that threaten domestic animal and human health; second, wildlife EIDs pose a substantial threat to the conservation of global biodiversity.

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jun 2000-Science
TL;DR: Here, a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain is developed, identifying distinct forms of Plasticity, which are term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity.
Abstract: We describe those sensations that are unpleasant, intense, or distressing as painful. Pain is not homogeneous, however, and comprises three categories: physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Multiple mechanisms contribute, each of which is subject to or an expression of neural plasticity-the capacity of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, or structure. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain, identifying distinct forms of plasticity, which we term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity.

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jun 2000-Science
TL;DR: Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a task-switching version of the Stroop task were used to examine whether these components of cognitive control have distinct neural bases in the human brain and a double dissociation was found.
Abstract: Theories of the regulation of cognition suggest a system with two necessary components: one to implement control and another to monitor performance and signal when adjustments in control are needed. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a task-switching version of the Stroop task were used to examine whether these components of cognitive control have distinct neural bases in the human brain. A double dissociation was found. During task preparation, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 9) was more active for color naming than for word reading, consistent with a role in the implementation of control. In contrast, the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's areas 24 and 32) was more active when responding to incongruent stimuli, consistent with a role in performance monitoring.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2000-Science
TL;DR: Osteopetrotic mutants have provided a wealth of information about the genes that regulate the differentiation of osteoclasts and their capacity to resorb bone.
Abstract: Osteoporosis, a disease endemic in Western society, typically reflects an imbalance in skeletal turnover so that bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone resorption is the unique function of the osteoclast, and anti-osteoporosis therapy to date has targeted this cell. The osteoclast is a specialized macrophage polykaryon whose differentiation is principally regulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. Reflecting integrin-mediated signals, the osteoclast develops a specialized cytoskeleton that permits it to establish an isolated microenvironment between itself and bone, wherein matrix degradation occurs by a process involving proton transport. Osteopetrotic mutants have provided a wealth of information about the genes that regulate the differentiation of osteoclasts and their capacity to resorb bone.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2000-Science
TL;DR: The core protein machinery that is necessary to drive formation and consumption of intermediates in the macroautophagy pathway includes a ubiquitin-like protein conjugation system and a protein complex that directs membrane docking and fusion at the lysosome or vacuole.
Abstract: Macroautophagy is a dynamic process involving the rearrangement of subcellular membranes to sequester cytoplasm and organelles for delivery to the lysosome or vacuole where the sequestered cargo is degraded and recycled. This process takes place in all eukaryotic cells. It is highly regulated through the action of various kinases, phosphatases, and guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). The core protein machinery that is necessary to drive formation and consumption of intermediates in the macroautophagy pathway includes a ubiquitin-like protein conjugation system and a protein complex that directs membrane docking and fusion at the lysosome or vacuole. Macroautophagy plays an important role in developmental processes, human disease, and cellular response to nutrient deprivation.

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Aug 2000-Science
TL;DR: The crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui is determined at 2.4 angstrom resolution, and it includes 2833 of the subunit's 3045 nucleotides and 27 of its 31 proteins.
Abstract: The large ribosomal subunit catalyzes peptide bond formation and binds initiation, termination, and elongation factors. We have determined the crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui at 2.4 angstrom resolution, and it includes 2833 of the subunit's 3045 nucleotides and 27 of its 31 proteins. The domains of its RNAs all have irregular shapes and fit together in the ribosome like the pieces of a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle to form a large, monolithic structure. Proteins are abundant everywhere on its surface except in the active site where peptide bond formation occurs and where it contacts the small subunit. Most of the proteins stabilize the structure by interacting with several RNA domains, often using idiosyncratically folded extensions that reach into the subunit's interior.

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Apr 2000-Science
TL;DR: Sensory neurons from mice lacking VR1 are severely deficient in their responses to each of these noxious stimuli and are impaired in the detection of painful heat, and showed little thermal hypersensitivity in the setting of inflammation.
Abstract: The capsaicin (vanilloid) receptor VR1 is a cation channel expressed by primary sensory neurons of the "pain" pathway. Heterologously expressed VR1 can be activated by vanilloid compounds, protons, or heat (>43 degrees C), but whether this channel contributes to chemical or thermal sensitivity in vivo is not known. Here, we demonstrate that sensory neurons from mice lacking VR1 are severely deficient in their responses to each of these noxious stimuli. VR1-/- mice showed normal responses to noxious mechanical stimuli but exhibited no vanilloid-evoked pain behavior, were impaired in the detection of painful heat, and showed little thermal hypersensitivity in the setting of inflammation. Thus, VR1 is essential for selective modalities of pain sensation and for tissue injury-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2000-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that the use of substrate surface energy patterning to direct the flow of water-based conducting polymer inkjet droplets enables high-resolution definition of practical channel lengths of 5 micrometers, and high mobilities were achieved.
Abstract: Direct printing of functional electronic materials may provide a new route to low-cost fabrication of integrated circuits. However, to be useful it must allow continuous manufacturing of all circuit components by successive solution deposition and printing steps in the same environment. We demonstrate direct inkjet printing of complete transistor circuits, including via-hole interconnections based on solution-processed polymer conductors, insulators, and self-organizing semiconductors. We show that the use of substrate surface energy patterning to direct the flow of water-based conducting polymer inkjet droplets enables high-resolution definition of practical channel lengths of 5 micrometers. High mobilities of 0.02 square centimeters per volt second and on-off current switching ratios of 10 5 were achieved.

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Sep 2000-Science
Abstract: We have fabricated sonic crystals, based on the idea of localized resonant structures, that exhibit spectral gaps with a lattice constant two orders of magnitude smaller than the relevant wavelength. Disordered composites made from such localized resonant structures behave as a material with effective negative elastic constants and a total wave reflector within certain tunable sonic frequency ranges. A 2-centimeter slab of this composite material is shown to break the conventional mass-density law of sound transmission by one or more orders of magnitude at 400 hertz.

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Sep 2000-Science
TL;DR: Miniaturized assays that accommodate extremely low sample volumes and enable the rapid, simultaneous processing of thousands of proteins are developed to facilitate subsequent studies of protein function.
Abstract: Systematic efforts are currently under way to construct defined sets of cloned genes for high-throughput expression and purification of recombinant proteins To facilitate subsequent studies of protein function, we have developed miniaturized assays that accommodate extremely low sample volumes and enable the rapid, simultaneous processing of thousands of proteins A high-precision robot designed to manufacture complementary DNA microarrays was used to spot proteins onto chemically derivatized glass slides at extremely high spatial densities The proteins attached covalently to the slide surface yet retained their ability to interact specifically with other proteins, or with small molecules, in solution Three applications for protein microarrays were demonstrated: screening for protein-protein interactions, identifying the substrates of protein kinases, and identifying the protein targets of small molecules

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Feb 2000-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that prestraining the film further improves the performance of electrical actuators made from films of dielectric elastomers coated on both sides with compliant electrode material.
Abstract: Electrical actuators were made from films of dielectric elastomers (such as silicones) coated on both sides with compliant electrode material. When voltage was applied, the resulting electrostatic forces compressed the film in thickness and expanded it in area, producing strains up to 30 to 40%. It is now shown that prestraining the film further improves the performance of these devices. Actuated strains up to 117% were demonstrated with silicone elastomers, and up to 215% with acrylic elastomers using biaxially and uniaxially prestrained films. The strain, pressure, and response time of silicone exceeded those of natural muscle; specific energy densities greatly exceeded those of other field-actuated materials. Because the actuation mechanism is faster than in other high-strain electroactive polymers, this technology may be suitable for diverse applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Mar 2000-Science
TL;DR: The results, although demonstrating that nanotubes could find use as sensitive chemical gas sensors, likewise indicate that many supposedly intrinsic properties measured on as-prepared nanotube may be severely compromised by extrinsic air exposure effects.
Abstract: The electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are shown here to be extremely sensitive to the chemical environment. Exposure to air or oxygen dramatically influences the nanotubes' electrical resistance, thermoelectric power, and local density of states, as determined by transport measurements and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. These electronic parameters can be reversibly "tuned" by surprisingly small concentrations of adsorbed gases, and an apparently semiconducting nanotube can be converted into an apparent metal through such exposure. These results, although demonstrating that nanotubes could find use as sensitive chemical gas sensors, likewise indicate that many supposedly intrinsic properties measured on as-prepared nanotubes may be severely compromised by extrinsic air exposure effects.

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Apr 2000-Science
TL;DR: A gene therapy trial for SCID-X1 was initiated, based on the use of complementary DNA containing a defective gammac Moloney retrovirus-derived vector and ex vivo infection of CD34+ cells, which provided full correction of disease phenotype and clinical benefit.
Abstract: Severe combined immunodeficiency-X1 (SCID-X1) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterized by an early block in T and natural killer (NK) lymphocyte differentiation. This block is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the gammac cytokine receptor subunit of interleukin-2, -4, -7, -9, and -15 receptors, which participates in the delivery of growth, survival, and differentiation signals to early lymphoid progenitors. After preclinical studies, a gene therapy trial for SCID-X1 was initiated, based on the use of complementary DNA containing a defective gammac Moloney retrovirus-derived vector and ex vivo infection of CD34+ cells. After a 10-month follow-up period, gammac transgene-expressing T and NK cells were detected in two patients. T, B, and NK cell counts and function, including antigen-specific responses, were comparable to those of age-matched controls. Thus, gene therapy was able to provide full correction of disease phenotype and, hence, clinical benefit.

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs), and Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and I RE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress.
Abstract: Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound TRAF2, an adaptor protein that couples plasma membrane receptors to JNK activation. Dominant-negative TRAF2 inhibited activation of JNK by IRE1. Activation of JNK by endogenous signals initiated in the ER proceeds by a pathway similar to that initiated by cell surface receptors in response to extracellular signals.