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Showing papers in "Science in 2018"


Journal ArticleDOI
09 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: A large-scale analysis of tweets reveals that false rumors spread further and faster than the truth, and false news was more novel than true news, which suggests that people were more likely to share novel information.
Abstract: We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on Twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information. We found that false news was more novel than true news, which suggests that people were more likely to share novel information. Whereas false stories inspired fear, disgust, and surprise in replies, true stories inspired anticipation, sadness, joy, and trust. Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it.

4,241 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: New-generation combinatorial therapies may overcome resistance mechanisms to immune checkpoint therapy, and evidence points to alterations that converge on the antigen presentation and interferon-γ signaling pathways.
Abstract: The release of negative regulators of immune activation (immune checkpoints) that limit antitumor responses has resulted in unprecedented rates of long-lasting tumor responses in patients with a variety of cancers. This can be achieved by antibodies blocking the cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) or the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway, either alone or in combination. The main premise for inducing an immune response is the preexistence of antitumor T cells that were limited by specific immune checkpoints. Most patients who have tumor responses maintain long-lasting disease control, yet one-third of patients relapse. Mechanisms of acquired resistance are currently poorly understood, but evidence points to alterations that converge on the antigen presentation and interferon-γ signaling pathways. New-generation combinatorial therapies may overcome resistance mechanisms to immune checkpoint therapy.

3,736 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: It is found that primary resistance to ICIs can be attributed to abnormal gut microbiome composition, and Antibiotics inhibited the clinical benefit of ICIs in patients with advanced cancer.
Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce sustained clinical responses in a sizable minority of cancer patients. We found that primary resistance to ICIs can be attributed to abnormal gut microbiome composition. Antibiotics inhibited the clinical benefit of ICIs in patients with advanced cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from cancer patients who responded to ICIs into germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice ameliorated the antitumor effects of PD-1 blockade, whereas FMT from nonresponding patients failed to do so. Metagenomics of patient stool samples at diagnosis revealed correlations between clinical responses to ICIs and the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila Oral supplementation with A. muciniphila after FMT with nonresponder feces restored the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in an interleukin-12-dependent manner by increasing the recruitment of CCR9+CXCR3+CD4+ T lymphocytes into mouse tumor beds.

3,258 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: Examination of the oral and gut microbiome of melanoma patients undergoing anti-programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) immunotherapy suggested enhanced systemic and antitumor immunity in responding patients with a favorable gut microbiome as well as in germ-free mice receiving fecal transplants from responding patients.
Abstract: Preclinical mouse models suggest that the gut microbiome modulates tumor response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy; however, this has not been well-characterized in human cancer patients. Here we examined the oral and gut microbiome of melanoma patients undergoing anti-programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) immunotherapy (n = 112). Significant differences were observed in the diversity and composition of the patient gut microbiome of responders versus nonresponders. Analysis of patient fecal microbiome samples (n = 43, 30 responders, 13 nonresponders) showed significantly higher alpha diversity (P < 0.01) and relative abundance of bacteria of the Ruminococcaceae family (P < 0.01) in responding patients. Metagenomic studies revealed functional differences in gut bacteria in responders, including enrichment of anabolic pathways. Immune profiling suggested enhanced systemic and antitumor immunity in responding patients with a favorable gut microbiome as well as in germ-free mice receiving fecal transplants from responding patients. Together, these data have important implications for the treatment of melanoma patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

2,791 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Dec 2018-Science
TL;DR: This paper generalizes the AlphaZero approach into a single AlphaZero algorithm that can achieve superhuman performance in many challenging games, and convincingly defeated a world champion program in the games of chess and shogi (Japanese chess), as well as Go.
Abstract: The game of chess is the longest-studied domain in the history of artificial intelligence. The strongest programs are based on a combination of sophisticated search techniques, domain-specific adaptations, and handcrafted evaluation functions that have been refined by human experts over several decades. By contrast, the AlphaGo Zero program recently achieved superhuman performance in the game of Go by reinforcement learning from self-play. In this paper, we generalize this approach into a single AlphaZero algorithm that can achieve superhuman performance in many challenging games. Starting from random play and given no domain knowledge except the game rules, AlphaZero convincingly defeated a world champion program in the games of chess and shogi (Japanese chess), as well as Go.

2,603 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2018-Science
TL;DR: Cumulatively, the findings support an approach where producers monitor their own impacts, flexibly meet environmental targets by choosing from multiple practices, and communicate their impacts to consumers.
Abstract: Food’s environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities. However, mitigation is complicated by trade-offs, multiple ways for producers to achieve low impacts, and interactions throughout the supply chain. Producers have limits on how far they can reduce impacts. Most strikingly, impacts of the lowest-impact animal products typically exceed those of vegetable substitutes, providing new evidence for the importance of dietary change. Cumulatively, our findings support an approach where producers monitor their own impacts, flexibly meet environmental targets by choosing from multiple practices, and communicate their impacts to consumers.

2,353 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Sep 2018-Science
TL;DR: In this article, a semi-empirical model analysis and using the tandem cell strategy to overcome the low charge mobility of organic materials, leading to a limit on the active-layer thickness and efficient light absorption was performed.
Abstract: Although organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have many advantages, their performance still lags far behind that of other photovoltaic platforms. A fundamental reason for their low performance is the low charge mobility of organic materials, leading to a limit on the active-layer thickness and efficient light absorption. In this work, guided by a semi-empirical model analysis and using the tandem cell strategy to overcome such issues, and taking advantage of the high diversity and easily tunable band structure of organic materials, a record and certified 17.29% power conversion efficiency for a two-terminal monolithic solution-processed tandem OPV is achieved.

2,165 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Rudi Appels1, Rudi Appels2, Kellye Eversole, Nils Stein3  +204 moreInstitutions (45)
17 Aug 2018-Science
TL;DR: This annotated reference sequence of wheat is a resource that can now drive disruptive innovation in wheat improvement, as this community resource establishes the foundation for accelerating wheat research and application through improved understanding of wheat biology and genomics-assisted breeding.
Abstract: An annotated reference sequence representing the hexaploid bread wheat genome in 21 pseudomolecules has been analyzed to identify the distribution and genomic context of coding and noncoding elements across the A, B, and D subgenomes. With an estimated coverage of 94% of the genome and containing 107,891 high-confidence gene models, this assembly enabled the discovery of tissue- and developmental stage-related coexpression networks by providing a transcriptome atlas representing major stages of wheat development. Dynamics of complex gene families involved in environmental adaptation and end-use quality were revealed at subgenome resolution and contextualized to known agronomic single-gene or quantitative trait loci. This community resource establishes the foundation for accelerating wheat research and application through improved understanding of wheat biology and genomics-assisted breeding.

2,118 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
09 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: The rise of fake news highlights the erosion of long-standing institutional bulwarks against misinformation in the internet age as discussed by the authors. But much remains unknown regarding the vulnerabilities of individuals, institutions, and society to manipulations by malicious actors.
Abstract: The rise of fake news highlights the erosion of long-standing institutional bulwarks against misinformation in the internet age. Concern over the problem is global. However, much remains unknown regarding the vulnerabilities of individuals, institutions, and society to manipulations by malicious actors. A new system of safeguards is needed. Below, we discuss extant social and computer science research regarding belief in fake news and the mechanisms by which it spreads. Fake news has a long history, but we focus on unanswered scientific questions raised by the proliferation of its most recent, politically oriented incarnation. Beyond selected references in the text, suggested further reading can be found in the supplementary materials.

2,106 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
27 Apr 2018-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that RNA-guided DNA binding unleashes indiscriminate single-stranded DNA cleavage activity by Cas12a that completely degrades ssDNA molecules, which is also a property of other type V CRISPR-Cas12 enzymes.
Abstract: CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1) proteins are RNA-guided enzymes that bind and cut DNA as components of bacterial adaptive immune systems Like CRISPR-Cas9, Cas12a has been harnessed for genome editing on the basis of its ability to generate targeted, double-stranded DNA breaks Here we show that RNA-guided DNA binding unleashes indiscriminate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) cleavage activity by Cas12a that completely degrades ssDNA molecules We find that target-activated, nonspecific single-stranded deoxyribonuclease (ssDNase) cleavage is also a property of other type V CRISPR-Cas12 enzymes By combining Cas12a ssDNase activation with isothermal amplification, we create a method termed DNA endonuclease-targeted CRISPR trans reporter (DETECTR), which achieves attomolar sensitivity for DNA detection DETECTR enables rapid and specific detection of human papillomavirus in patient samples, thereby providing a simple platform for molecular diagnostics

1,989 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: The results suggest that the commensal microbiome may have a mechanistic impact on antitumor immunity in human cancer patients and could lead to improved tumor control, augmented T cell responses, and greater efficacy of anti–PD-L1 therapy.
Abstract: Anti–PD-1–based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only benefited a subset of patients. Among the variables that could contribute to interpatient heterogeneity is differential composition of the patients’ microbiome, which has been shown to affect antitumor immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in preclinical mouse models. We analyzed baseline stool samples from metastatic melanoma patients before immunotherapy treatment, through an integration of 16 S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for selected bacteria. A significant association was observed between commensal microbial composition and clinical response. Bacterial species more abundant in responders included Bifidobacterium longum , Collinsella aerofaciens , and Enterococcus faecium. Reconstitution of germ-free mice with fecal material from responding patients could lead to improved tumor control, augmented T cell responses, and greater efficacy of anti–PD-L1 therapy. Our results suggest that the commensal microbiome may have a mechanistic impact on antitumor immunity in human cancer patients.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Feb 2018-Science
TL;DR: A blood test that combines protein and DNA markers may allow earlier detection of eight common cancer types through assessment of the levels of circulating proteins and mutations in cell-free DNA.
Abstract: Earlier detection is key to reducing cancer deaths. Here, we describe a blood test that can detect eight common cancer types through assessment of the levels of circulating proteins and mutations in cell-free DNA. We applied this test, called CancerSEEK, to 1005 patients with nonmetastatic, clinically detected cancers of the ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, esophagus, colorectum, lung, or breast. CancerSEEK tests were positive in a median of 70% of the eight cancer types. The sensitivities ranged from 69 to 98% for the detection of five cancer types (ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, and esophagus) for which there are no screening tests available for average-risk individuals. The specificity of CancerSEEK was greater than 99%: only 7 of 812 healthy controls scored positive. In addition, CancerSEEK localized the cancer to a small number of anatomic sites in a median of 83% of the patients.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: Opportunities and challenges for entering mainstream oncology that presently face the CAR T field are described, with a focus on the challenges that have emerged over the past several years.
Abstract: Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) is a new area of transfusion medicine involving the infusion of lymphocytes to mediate antitumor, antiviral, or anti-inflammatory effects. The field has rapidly advanced from a promising form of immuno-oncology in preclinical models to the recent commercial approvals of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to treat leukemia and lymphoma. This Review describes opportunities and challenges for entering mainstream oncology that presently face the CAR T field, with a focus on the challenges that have emerged over the past several years.

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Jul 2018-Science
TL;DR: It is postulated that super-enhancers are phase-separated multimolecular assemblies, also known as biomolecular condensates, which provide a means to compartmentalize and concentrate biochemical reactions within cells.
Abstract: Super-enhancers (SEs) are clusters of enhancers that cooperatively assemble a high density of transcriptional apparatus to drive robust expression of genes with prominent roles in cell identity. Here, we demonstrate that the SE-enriched transcriptional coactivators BRD4 and MED1 form nuclear puncta at SEs that exhibit properties of liquid-like condensates and are disrupted by chemicals that perturb condensates. The intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of BRD4 and MED1 can form phase-separated droplets and MED1-IDR droplets can compartmentalize and concentrate transcription apparatus from nuclear extracts. These results support the idea that coactivators form phase-separated condensates at SEs that compartmentalize and concentrate the transcription apparatus, suggest a role for coactivator IDRs in this process, and offer insights into mechanisms involved in control of key cell identity genes.

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: The notion of nature's contributions to people (NCP) was introduced by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) as mentioned in this paper, a joint global effort by governments, academia, and civil society to assess and promote knowledge of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystems and their contribution to human societies.
Abstract: A major challenge today and into the future is to maintain or enhance beneficial contributions of nature to a good quality of life for all people. This is among the key motivations of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), a joint global effort by governments, academia, and civil society to assess and promote knowledge of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystems and their contribution to human societies in order to inform policy formulation. One of the more recent key elements of the IPBES conceptual framework ( 1 ) is the notion of nature's contributions to people (NCP), which builds on the ecosystem service concept popularized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) ( 2 ). But as we detail below, NCP as defined and put into practice in IPBES differs from earlier work in several important ways. First, the NCP approach recognizes the central and pervasive role that culture plays in defining all links between people and nature. Second, use of NCP elevates, emphasizes, and operationalizes the role of indigenous and local knowledge in understanding nature's contribution to people.

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: Improved numerical models of oceanographic processes that control oxygen depletion and the large-scale influence of altered biogeochemical cycles are needed to better predict the magnitude and spatial patterns of deoxygenation in the open ocean, as well as feedbacks to climate.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Oxygen concentrations in both the open ocean and coastal waters have been declining since at least the middle of the 20th century. This oxygen loss, or deoxygenation, is one of the most important changes occurring in an ocean increasingly modified by human activities that have raised temperatures, CO 2 levels, and nutrient inputs and have altered the abundances and distributions of marine species. Oxygen is fundamental to biological and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Its decline can cause major changes in ocean productivity, biodiversity, and biogeochemical cycles. Analyses of direct measurements at sites around the world indicate that oxygen-minimum zones in the open ocean have expanded by several million square kilometers and that hundreds of coastal sites now have oxygen concentrations low enough to limit the distribution and abundance of animal populations and alter the cycling of important nutrients. ADVANCES In the open ocean, global warming, which is primarily caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions, is considered the primary cause of ongoing deoxygenation. Numerical models project further oxygen declines during the 21st century, even with ambitious emission reductions. Rising global temperatures decrease oxygen solubility in water, increase the rate of oxygen consumption via respiration, and are predicted to reduce the introduction of oxygen from the atmosphere and surface waters into the ocean interior by increasing stratification and weakening ocean overturning circulation. In estuaries and other coastal systems strongly influenced by their watershed, oxygen declines have been caused by increased loadings of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and organic matter, primarily from agriculture; sewage; and the combustion of fossil fuels. In many regions, further increases in nitrogen discharges to coastal waters are projected as human populations and agricultural production rise. Climate change exacerbates oxygen decline in coastal systems through similar mechanisms as those in the open ocean, as well as by increasing nutrient delivery from watersheds that will experience increased precipitation. Expansion of low-oxygen zones can increase production of N 2 O, a potent greenhouse gas; reduce eukaryote biodiversity; alter the structure of food webs; and negatively affect food security and livelihoods. Both acidification and increasing temperature are mechanistically linked with the process of deoxygenation and combine with low-oxygen conditions to affect biogeochemical, physiological, and ecological processes. However, an important paradox to consider in predicting large-scale effects of future deoxygenation is that high levels of productivity in nutrient-enriched coastal systems and upwelling areas associated with oxygen-minimum zones also support some of the world’s most prolific fisheries. OUTLOOK Major advances have been made toward understanding patterns, drivers, and consequences of ocean deoxygenation, but there is a need to improve predictions at large spatial and temporal scales important to ecosystem services provided by the ocean. Improved numerical models of oceanographic processes that control oxygen depletion and the large-scale influence of altered biogeochemical cycles are needed to better predict the magnitude and spatial patterns of deoxygenation in the open ocean, as well as feedbacks to climate. Developing and verifying the next generation of these models will require increased in situ observations and improved mechanistic understanding on a variety of scales. Models useful for managing nutrient loads can simulate oxygen loss in coastal waters with some skill, but their ability to project future oxygen loss is often hampered by insufficient data and climate model projections on drivers at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Predicting deoxygenation-induced changes in ecosystem services and human welfare requires scaling effects that are measured on individual organisms to populations, food webs, and fisheries stocks; considering combined effects of deoxygenation and other ocean stressors; and placing an increased research emphasis on developing nations. Reducing the impacts of other stressors may provide some protection to species negatively affected by low-oxygen conditions. Ultimately, though, limiting deoxygenation and its negative effects will necessitate a substantial global decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as reductions in nutrient discharges to coastal waters.

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Oct 2018-Science
TL;DR: What it will take to achieve this so-called quantum internet is reviewed and different stages of development that each correspond to increasingly powerful applications are defined, including a full-blown quantum internet with functional quantum computers as nodes connected through quantum communication channels.
Abstract: The internet-a vast network that enables simultaneous long-range classical communication-has had a revolutionary impact on our world. The vision of a quantum internet is to fundamentally enhance internet technology by enabling quantum communication between any two points on Earth. Such a quantum internet may operate in parallel to the internet that we have today and connect quantum processors in order to achieve capabilities that are provably impossible by using only classical means. Here, we propose stages of development toward a full-blown quantum internet and highlight experimental and theoretical progress needed to attain them.

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Oct 2018-Science
TL;DR: The potential for TMB and a T cell–inflamed GEP to jointly predict clinical response to pembrolizumab was assessed in >300 patient samples with advanced solid tumors and melanoma across 22 tumor types from four KEYNOTE clinical trials.
Abstract: Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint blockade immunotherapy elicits durable antitumor effects in multiple cancers, yet not all patients respond. We report the evaluation of >300 patient samples across 22 tumor types from four KEYNOTE clinical trials. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) and a T cell-inflamed gene expression profile (GEP) exhibited joint predictive utility in identifying responders and nonresponders to the PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. TMB and GEP were independently predictive of response and demonstrated low correlation, suggesting that they capture distinct features of neoantigenicity and T cell activation. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database showed TMB and GEP to have a low correlation, and analysis by joint stratification revealed biomarker-defined patterns of targetable-resistance biology. These biomarkers may have utility in clinical trial design by guiding rational selection of anti-PD-1 monotherapy and combination immunotherapy regimens.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jun 2018-Science
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that, in the general population, the personality trait neuroticism is significantly correlated with almost every psychiatric disorder and migraine, and it is shown that both psychiatric and neurological disorders have robust correlations with cognitive and personality measures.
Abstract: Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Apr 2018-Science
TL;DR: ShERLOCK as discussed by the authors is a platform that combines isothermal preamplification with Cas13 to detect single molecules of RNA or DNA, which can detect Dengue or Zika virus single-stranded RNA and mutations in patient liquid biopsy samples via lateral flow.
Abstract: Rapid detection of nucleic acids is integral for clinical diagnostics and biotechnological applications. We recently developed a platform termed SHERLOCK (specific high-sensitivity enzymatic reporter unlocking) that combines isothermal preamplification with Cas13 to detect single molecules of RNA or DNA. Through characterization of CRISPR enzymology and application development, we report here four advances integrated into SHERLOCK version 2 (SHERLOCKv2) (i) four-channel single-reaction multiplexing with orthogonal CRISPR enzymes; (ii) quantitative measurement of input as low as 2 attomolar; (iii) 3.5-fold increase in signal sensitivity by combining Cas13 with Csm6, an auxiliary CRISPR-associated enzyme; and (iv) lateral-flow readout. SHERLOCKv2 can detect Dengue or Zika virus single-stranded RNA as well as mutations in patient liquid biopsy samples via lateral flow, highlighting its potential as a multiplexable, portable, rapid, and quantitative detection platform of nucleic acids.

Journal ArticleDOI
18 May 2018-Science
TL;DR: A copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of −0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE).
Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) electroreduction could provide a useful source of ethylene, but low conversion efficiency, low production rates, and low catalyst stability limit current systems. Here we report that a copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO 2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of −0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Hydroxide ions on or near the copper surface lower the CO 2 reduction and carbon monoxide (CO)–CO coupling activation energy barriers; as a result, onset of ethylene evolution at −0.165 volts versus an RHE in 10 molar potassium hydroxide occurs almost simultaneously with CO production. Operational stability was enhanced via the introduction of a polymer-based gas diffusion layer that sandwiches the reaction interface between separate hydrophobic and conductive supports, providing constant ethylene selectivity for an initial 150 operating hours.

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: Coral reefs in the present day have less time than in earlier periods to recover from bleaching events, and Tropical reef systems are transitioning to a new era in which the interval between recurrent bouts of coral bleaching is too short for a full recovery of mature assemblages.
Abstract: Tropical reef systems are transitioning to a new era in which the interval between recurrent bouts of coral bleaching is too short for a full recovery of mature assemblages. We analyzed bleaching records at 100 globally distributed reef locations from 1980 to 2016. The median return time between pairs of severe bleaching events has diminished steadily since 1980 and is now only 6 years. As global warming has progressed, tropical sea surface temperatures are warmer now during current La Nina conditions than they were during El Nino events three decades ago. Consequently, as we transition to the Anthropocene, coral bleaching is occurring more frequently in all El Nino–Southern Oscillation phases, increasing the likelihood of annual bleaching in the coming decades.

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: It is found that adopting a high-fiber diet promoted the growth of SCFA-producing organisms in diabetic humans and had better improvement in hemoglobin A1c levels, partly via increased glucagon-like peptide-1 production.
Abstract: The gut microbiota benefits humans via short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from carbohydrate fermentation, and deficiency in SCFA production is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized clinical study of specifically designed isoenergetic diets, together with fecal shotgun metagenomics, to show that a select group of SCFA-producing strains was promoted by dietary fibers and that most other potential producers were either diminished or unchanged in patients with T2DM. When the fiber-promoted SCFA producers were present in greater diversity and abundance, participants had better improvement in hemoglobin A1c levels, partly via increased glucagon-like peptide-1 production. Promotion of these positive responders diminished producers of metabolically detrimental compounds such as indole and hydrogen sulfide. Targeted restoration of these SCFA producers may present a novel ecological approach for managing T2DM.

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jan 2018-Science
TL;DR: This study narrows down the immense number of bacterial taxa to a “most wanted” list that will be fruitful targets for genomic and cultivation-based efforts aimed at improving the understanding of soil microbes and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.
Abstract: The immense diversity of soil bacterial communities has stymied efforts to characterize individual taxa and document their global distributions. We analyzed soils from 237 locations across six continents and found that only 2% of bacterial phylotypes (~500 phylotypes) consistently accounted for almost half of the soil bacterial communities worldwide. Despite the overwhelming diversity of bacterial communities, relatively few bacterial taxa are abundant in soils globally. We clustered these dominant taxa into ecological groups to build the first global atlas of soil bacterial taxa. Our study narrows down the immense number of bacterial taxa to a “most wanted” list that will be fruitful targets for genomic and cultivation-based efforts aimed at improving our understanding of soil microbes and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 2018-Science
TL;DR: A dysprosium compound is reported that manifests magnetic hysteresis at temperatures up to 80 kelvin, which overcomes an essential barrier toward the development of nanomagnet devices that function at practical temperatures.
Abstract: Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) containing only one metal center may represent the lower size limit for molecule-based magnetic information storage materials. Their current drawback is that all SMMs require liquid-helium cooling to show magnetic memory effects. We now report a chemical strategy to access the dysprosium metallocene cation [(CpiPr5)Dy(Cp*)]+ (CpiPr5 = penta-iso-propylcyclopentadienyl, Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl), which displays magnetic hysteresis above liquid-nitrogen temperatures. An effective energy barrier to reversal of the magnetization of Ueff = 1,541 cm–1 is also measured. The magnetic blocking temperature of TB = 80 K for this cation overcomes an essential barrier towards the development of nanomagnet devices that function at practical temperatures.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 2018-Science
TL;DR: Recent progress in addressing stability, how to allow mass production, and how to maintain uniformity of large-area films are reviewed, and the remaining challenges along the pathway to their commercialization are discussed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted intensive attention because of their ever-increasing power conversion effi­ciency (PCE), low-cost materials constituents, and simple solution fabrication process. Initi­ated in 2009 with an efficiency of 3.8%, PSCs have now achieved a lab-scale power conversion efficiency of 23.3%, rivaling the performance of commercial multicrystalline silicon solar cells, as well as copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar cells. Thousands of articles re­lated to PSCs have been published each year since 2015, highlighting PSCs as a topic of in­tense interest in photovoltaics (PV) research. With high efficiencies achieved in lab devices, stability and remaining challenges in upscal­ing the manufacture of PSCs are two critical concerns that must be addressed on the path to PSC commercialization. ADVANCES We review recent progress in PSCs and discuss the remaining challenges along the pathway to their commercialization. Device configurations of PSCs (see the figure) include mesoscopic formal (n-i-p) and inverted (p-i-n) structures, planar formal and inverted struc­tures, and the printable triple mesoscopic structures. PCEs of devices that use these structures have advanced rapidly in the case of small-area devices (~0.1 cm 2 ). PSCs are also attracting attention as top cells for the construction of tandem solar cells with existing mature PV technologies to increase efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit of single-junction devices. The stability of PSCs has attracted much well-deserved attention of late, and notable progress has been made in the past few years. PSCs have recently achieved exhibited life­times of 10,000 hours under 1 sun (1 kW/m 2 ) illumina­tion with an ultraviolet filter at a stabilized temperature of 55°C and at short-circuit conditions for a printable triple mesoscopic PSCs. This irradiation is equivalent to the total irradiation of 10 years of outdoor use in most of Europe. However, within the PSC community, standard testing protocols require further development. In addition, transpar­ency in reporting standards on stability tests needs to be improved; this can be achieved by providing both initial photovoltaic performance and normalization parameters. The upscaling of PSCs has also progressed steadily, leading to PSC mini-modules, standard-sized modules, and power systems. PV companies have set out to manufacture large-area PSC modules (see the figure), and a 110-m 2 perovskite PV system with screen-printed triple mesoscopic PSC modules was recently debuted. Studies of these increased-area modules and systems will promote the development of PSCs toward commercializa­tion. PSC research is expanding to cover fundamental topics on materials and lab-sized cells, as well as to address issues of in­dustrial-scale manufacturing and deployment. OUTLOOK The PV market has been continu­ously expanding in recent years, bringing op­portunities for new PV technologies of which PSCs are promising candidates. It is impera­tive to achieve a low cost per watt, which means that both efficiency and lifetime need improve­ment relative to current parameters. The efficiency gap between lab cells and industrial modules has seen impressive reduc­tions in crystalline silicon; PSCs must simi­larly enlarge module areas to the panel level and need to achieve lifetimes comparable to those of legacy PV technologies. Other improvements will need to include industry-scale electronic-grade films, recycling methods to address concerns regarding lead toxicity, and the adoption of standardized testing protocols to predict the operation lifetime of PSCs. Modules will need to endure light-induced degradation, potential-induced degradation, partial-shade stress, and mechanical shock. The field can benefit from lessons learned during the development of mature PV technologies as it strives to de­fine, and overcome, the hurdles to PSC com­mercial impact.

Journal ArticleDOI
25 May 2018-Science
TL;DR: Research prospects for more sustainable routes to nitrogen commodity chemicals are reviewed, considering developments in enzymatic, homogeneous, and heterogeneous catalysis, as well as electrochemical, photochemical, and plasma-based approaches.
Abstract: BACKGROUND The invention of the Haber-Bosch (H-B) process in the early 1900s to produce ammonia industrially from nitrogen and hydrogen revolutionized the manufacture of fertilizer and led to fundamental changes in the way food is produced. Its impact is underscored by the fact that about 50% of the nitrogen atoms in humans today originate from this single industrial process. In the century after the H-B process was invented, the chemistry of carbon moved to center stage, resulting in remarkable discoveries and a vast array of products including plastics and pharmaceuticals. In contrast, little has changed in industrial nitrogen chemistry. This scenario reflects both the inherent efficiency of the H-B process and the particular challenge of breaking the strong dinitrogen bond. Nonetheless, the reliance of the H-B process on fossil fuels and its associated high CO 2 emissions have spurred recent interest in finding more sustainable and environmentally benign alternatives. Nitrogen in its more oxidized forms is also industrially, biologically, and environmentally important, and synergies in new combinations of oxidative and reductive transformations across the nitrogen cycle could lead to improved efficiencies. ADVANCES Major effort has been devoted to developing alternative and environmentally friendly processes that would allow NH 3 production at distributed sources under more benign conditions, rather than through the large-scale centralized H-B process. Hydrocarbons (particularly methane) and water are the only two sources of hydrogen atoms that can sustain long-term, large-scale NH 3 production. The use of water as the hydrogen source for NH 3 production requires substantially more energy than using methane, but it is also more environmentally benign, does not contribute to the accumulation of greenhouse gases, and does not compete for valuable and limited hydrocarbon resources. Microbes living in all major ecosystems are able to reduce N 2 to NH 3 by using the enzyme nitrogenase. A deeper understanding of this enzyme could lead to more efficient catalysts for nitrogen reduction under ambient conditions. Model molecular catalysts have been designed that mimic some of the functions of the active site of nitrogenase. Some modest success has also been achieved in designing electrocatalysts for dinitrogen reduction. Electrochemistry avoids the expense and environmental damage of steam reforming of methane (which accounts for most of the cost of the H-B process), and it may provide a means for distributed production of ammonia. On the oxidative side, nitric acid is the principal commodity chemical containing oxidized nitrogen. Nearly all nitric acid is manufactured by oxidation of NH 3 through the Ostwald process, but a more direct reaction of N 2 with O 2 might be practically feasible through further development of nonthermal plasma technology. Heterogeneous NH 3 oxidation with O 2 is at the heart of the Ostwald process and is practiced in a variety of environmental protection applications as well. Precious metals remain the workhorse catalysts, and opportunities therefore exist to develop lower-cost materials with equivalent or better activity and selectivity. Nitrogen oxides are also environmentally hazardous pollutants generated by industrial and transportation activities, and extensive research has gone into developing and applying reduction catalysts. Three-way catalytic converters are operating on hundreds of millions of vehicles worldwide. However, increasingly stringent emissions regulations, coupled with the low exhaust temperatures of high-efficiency engines, present challenges for future combustion emissions control. Bacterial denitrification is the natural analog of this chemistry and another source of study and inspiration for catalyst design. OUTLOOK Demands for greater energy efficiency, smaller-scale and more flexible processes, and environmental protection provide growing impetus for expanding the scope of nitrogen chemistry. Nitrogenase, as well as nitrifying and denitrifying enzymes, will eventually be understood in sufficient detail that robust molecular catalytic mimics will emerge. Electrochemical and photochemical methods also demand more study. Other intriguing areas of research that have provided tantalizing results include chemical looping and plasma-driven processes. The grand challenge in the field of nitrogen chemistry is the development of catalysts and processes that provide simple, low-energy routes to the manipulation of the redox states of nitrogen.

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Sep 2018-Science
TL;DR: 3D-printed D2NNs are created that implement classification of images of handwritten digits and fashion products, as well as the function of an imaging lens at a terahertz spectrum.
Abstract: Deep learning has been transforming our ability to execute advanced inference tasks using computers. Here we introduce a physical mechanism to perform machine learning by demonstrating an all-optical diffractive deep neural network (D2NN) architecture that can implement various functions following the deep learning-based design of passive diffractive layers that work collectively. We created 3D-printed D2NNs that implement classification of images of handwritten digits and fashion products, as well as the function of an imaging lens at a terahertz spectrum. Our all-optical deep learning framework can perform, at the speed of light, various complex functions that computer-based neural networks can execute; will find applications in all-optical image analysis, feature detection, and object classification; and will also enable new camera designs and optical components that perform distinctive tasks using D2NNs.

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Mar 2018-Science
TL;DR: This work demonstrates an all-dielectric magnet-free topological insulator laser, with desirable properties stemming from the topological transport of light in the laser cavity, and demonstrates higher slope efficiencies compared to those of the topologically trivial counterparts.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Physical systems that exhibit topological invariants are naturally endowed with robustness against perturbations, as was recently demonstrated in many settings in condensed matter, photonics, cold atoms, acoustics, and more. The most prominent manifestations of topological systems are topological insulators, which exhibit scatter-free edge-state transport, immune to perturbations and disorder. Recent years have witnessed intense efforts toward exploiting these physical phenomena in the optical domain, with new ideas ranging from topology-driven unidirectional devices to topological protection of path entanglement. But perhaps more technologically relevant than all topological photonic settings studied thus far is, as proposed by the accompanying theoretical paper by Harari et al ., an all-dielectric magnet-free topological insulator laser, with desirable properties stemming from the topological transport of light in the laser cavity. RATIONALE We demonstrate nonmagnetic topological insulator lasers. The topological properties of the laser system give rise to single-mode lasing, robustness against fabrication defects, and notably higher slope efficiencies compared to those of the topologically trivial counterparts. We further exploit the properties of the active topological platform by assembling topological insulator lasers from S -chiral microresonators that enforce predetermined unidirectional lasing even in the absence of magnetic fields. RESULTS Our topological insulator laser system is an aperiodic array of 10 unit cell–by–10 unit cell coupled ring resonators on an InGaAsP quantum wells platform. The active lattice uses the topological architecture suggested in the accompanying theoretical paper. This two-dimensional setting is composed of a square lattice of ring resonators coupled to each other by means of link rings. The intermediary links are judiciously spatially shifted to introduce a set of hopping phases, establishing a synthetic magnetic field and two topological band gaps. The gain in this laser system is provided by optical pumping. To promote lasing of the topologically protected edge modes, we pump the outer perimeter of the array while leaving the interior lossy. We find that this topological insulator laser operates in single mode even considerably above threshold, whereas the corresponding topologically trivial realizations lase in multiple modes. Moreover, the topological laser displays a slope efficiency that is considerably higher than that in the corresponding trivial realizations. We further demonstrate the topological features of this laser by observing that in the topological array, all sites emit coherently at the same wavelength, whereas in the trivial array, lasing occurs in localized regions, each at a different frequency. Also, by pumping only part of the topological array, we demonstrate that the topological edge mode always travels along the perimeter and emits light through the output coupler. By contrast, when we pump the trivial array far from the output coupler, no light is extracted from the coupler because the lasing occurs at stationary modes. We also observe that, even in the presence of defects, the topological protection always leads to more efficient lasing compared to that of the trivial counterpart. Finally, to show the potential of this active system, we assemble a topological system based on S -chiral resonators, which can provide new avenues to control the topological features. CONCLUSION We have experimentally demonstrated an all-dielectric topological insulator laser and found that the topological features enhance the lasing performance of a two-dimensional array of microresonators, making them lase in unison in an extended topologically protected scatter-free edge mode. The observed single longitudinal-mode operation leads to a considerably higher slope efficiency as compared to that of a corresponding topologically trivial system. Our results pave the way toward a new class of active topological photonic devices, such as laser arrays, that can operate in a coherent fashion with high efficiencies.

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Jun 2018-Science
TL;DR: This approach produces a wider bandgap top layer and a more n-type perovskite film, which mitigates nonradiative recombination, leading to an increase in Voc by up to 100 millivolts, which led to a stabilized power output approaching 21% at the maximum power point.
Abstract: The highest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with inverted planar structures are still inferior to those of PSCs with regular structures, mainly because of lower open-circuit voltages (Voc). Here we report a strategy to reduce nonradiative recombination for the inverted devices, based on a simple solution-processed secondary growth technique. This approach produces a wider bandgap top layer and a more n-type perovskite film, which mitigates nonradiative recombination, leading to an increase in Voc by up to 100 millivolts. We achieved a high Voc of 1.21 volts without sacrificing photocurrent, corresponding to a voltage deficit of 0.41 volts at a bandgap of 1.62 electron volts. This improvement led to a stabilized power output approaching 21% at the maximum power point.