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Showing papers in "Sedimentology in 1978"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The South Saskatchewan River has a long term average discharge of 275 m3/sec, with flood peaks in the range of 1500 to 3800 m 3/sec as discussed by the authors, and the dominant channel bedforms are dunes, which deposit trough cross bedding.
Abstract: The South Saskatchewan River has a long term average discharge of 275 m3/sec, with flood peaks in the range of 1500 to 3800 m3/sec. South of Saskatoon, the four major types of geomorphological elements recognised are channels, slipface-bounded bars, sand flats and vegetated islands and floodplains. Major channels are 3-5 m deep, up to 200 m wide, and flow around sand flats which are 50-2000 m long, and around vegetated islands up to 1 km long. At areas of flow expansion, long straight-crested cross-channel bars form. During falling stage, a small part of the crest of the cross-channel bar may become emergent, and act as a nucleus for downstream and lateral growth of a new sand flat. The dominant channel bedforms are dunes, which deposit trough cross bedding. Cross-channel bars deposit large sets of planar tabular cross bedding. Sand flats that grow from a nucleus on a cross-channel bar are mostly composed of smaller planar tabular sets, with some parallel lamination, trough cross-bedding, and ripple cross-lamination. A typical facies sequence related to sand flat growth would consist of in-channel trough cross-bedding, overlain by a large (1-2 m) planar tabular set (cross-channel bar), overlain in turn by a complex association mostly of small planar tabular cross-beds, trough cross-beds and ripple cross-lamination. By contrast, a second stratigraphic sequence can be proposed, related only to channel aggradation. It would consist dominantly of trough cross-beds, decreasing in scale upward, and possible interrupted by isolated sets of planar tabular cross-bedding if a cross-channel bar formed, but failed to grow into a sand flat. During final filling of the channel, ripple cross-lamination and thin clay layers may be deposited. In the S. Saskatchewan, these sequences are a minimum of 5 m thick, and are overlain by 0.5-1 m of silty and muddy vertical accretion deposits.

535 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used textural and boulder shape characteristics to distinguish different types of till, and found that large boulders embedded in lodgement till tend to be streamlined with striae parallel to glacier flow and with an abruptly truncated distal extremity, rather like a roche moutonnee.
Abstract: Debris transported by glacier is derived either supraglacially from nunataks and valley sides or from erosion of the subglacial bed. Debris produced above the glacier by fracturing of rock walls has a dominant coarse fraction with angular boulders. Subsequent englacial or supraglacial transport is relatively passive and little comminution occurs. Debris eroded from subglacial bedrock is initially transported in a basal zone of traction, where particles frequently come into contact with the glacier bed and are retarded by it so that large forces may be generated between particles and the bed and at interparticle contacts. The material introduced into this tractional zone may be subglacial bedrock which has undergone a crushing-plucking event and which has a dominant coarse fraction, or supraglacially derived material which finds its way to the glacier bed. These parent debris assemblages are further comminuted by failure in response to locally concentrated compressive stresses, and attrition at shearing interfaces. Boulders transported through the tractional zone will tend to be rounded and bear several directions of striation. Large boulders embedded in lodgement till will tend to be streamlined with striae parallel to glacier flow and with an abruptly truncated distal extremity, rather like a roche moutonnee. Textural and boulder shape characteristics can be used to help distinguish different types of till.

479 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the Leg 19 Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) as mentioned in this paper, a regional acoustic reflector (called the bottom-simulating reflector, or BSR) occurs near 600 m depth in the sections.
Abstract: Diatom ooze and diatomaceous mudstone overlie terrigenous mudstone beds at Leg 19 Deep Sea Drilling Project sites. The diatomaceous units are 300-725 m thick but most commonly are about 600 m. Diagenesis of diatom frustules follows a predictable series of physical and chemical changes that are related primarily to temperature (depth of burial and local geothermal gradient). During the first 300-400 m of burial frustules are fragmented and undergo mild dissolution. By 600 m dissolution of opal-A (biogenic silica) is widespread. Silica reprecipitates abundantly as inorganic opal-A between 600 and 700 m sub-bottom depth. Inorganic opal-A is rapidly transformed by crystal growth to opal-CT. The result is formation of silica cemented mudstone and porcelanite beds. A regional acoustic reflector (called the bottom-simulating reflector, or BSR) occurs near 600 m depth in the sections. This acoustic event marks the upper surface where silicification (cementation) is active. In Bering Sea deposits, opal-A is transformed to opal-CT at temperatures between 35° and 50°C. This temperature range corresponds to a sub-bottom depth of about 600 m and is the area where silicification is most active. Thus, the BSR represents an isothermal surface; the temperature it records is that required to transform opal-A to opal-CT. Deposition of at least 500 m of diatomaceous sediment was required before the temperature at the base of the diatomaceous section was appropriate (35°-50°C) for silica diagenesis to occur. Accordingly, silica diagenesis did not begin until Pleistocene time. Once silicification began, in response to sediment accumulation during the Quaternary, the diagenetic front (the BSR) moved upsection in pace with the upward migrating thermal boundary. X-ray diffractograms and SEM photographs show three silica phases, biogenic opal-A, inorganic opal-A’, and opal-CT. These have crystallite sizes of 11-16 A, 20-27 A, and 40-81 A, respectively, normal to 101. The d(101) reflection of opal-CT decreases with depth of burial at DSDP Site 192. This occurs by solid-state ordering and requires at least 700 m of burial. Most clinoptilolite in Leg 19 cores forms from the diagenesis of siliceous debris rather than from the alteration of volcanic debris as is commonly reported.

234 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the path of sea-floor diagenesis of peri-platform carbonate ooze was found to be the same as that of freshwater diagenisation.
Abstract: Carbonate ooze in the deep troughs between the Bahama Banks is a mixture of pelagic and bank-derived material It consists of aragonite, calcite and magnesium calcite in a ratio of about 3:2:1 Where exposed in erosional cuts at the sea floor, this ooze lithifies within 100,000 years and is transformed into calcite micrite of only 35-5 mol % MgCO3 Where buried, the ooze maintains its original composition for at least 200,000-400,000 years and remains unlithified for tens of millions of years Quite unexpectedly, the path of sea-floor diagenesis of peri-platform ooze was found to be the same as that of freshwater diagenesis Most of the aragonite is leached, pteropod shells often leaving cement-lined moulds behind; magnesian calcite recrystallizes and loses magnesium; polyhedral calcite of 2-4 μm size appears as cement The setting and the carbon-oxygen isotope ratios rule out any freshwater influence Carbon isotope ratios remain heavy, oxygen ratios shift towards equilibrium with the cold bottom water The calcite cement has 35-5 mol % MgCO3 and can be interpreted as the least soluble form of calcite emerging from alteration at the sea floor or, alternatively, as a direct precipitate from cold sea water The change in the composition of calcite cements with water depth supports the second interpretation In the Bahamas and elsewhere in the world ocean, magnesium in calcite cements decreases from the warm surface waters down to 700-1200 m, ie the boundary between intermediate and cold deep-water masses Below this level, calcite prevails and magnesian calcite and aragonite cements are restricted to semi-enclosed seas with exceptionally warm bottom waters

233 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of a petrographic and isotopic study of concretions are discussed, including the original texture of the Oxford Clay sediment, Jurassic palaeotemperatures, the diagenetic history of pore-waters and the palaeo-hydrology of central England.
Abstract: In interpreting the results of a petrographic and isotopic study of concretions, a range of subjects is discussed including the original texture of the Oxford Clay sediment, Jurassic palaeotemperatures, the diagenetic history of pore-waters and the palaeo-hydrology of central England. The concretions are all composed predominantly of calcite. They include precompactional, pyrite-rich concretions that later suffered an eposide of brecciation, and others that only commenced to form after compaction had crushed ammonite shells included in the bituminous clay sediment. Petrographic, chemical, and especially carbon isotope data demonstrate a dominantly organic source for the carbon in the early formed concretions. Oxygen isotopes indicate formation at the same temperatures (13-16°C) at which benthic molluscs were living. Concretion growth in pelleted, anaerobic mud proceeded concurrently with bacterial sulphate reduction and pyrite precipitation. Cracking of the concretions started at this stage: in a few concretions, the cracks were also partially filled with brown calcite. During post-compactional growth, δ13C increased and pyrite content decreased, showing waning organic influence; δ18O decreased. The brecciated concretions were intruded by clay in which baryte crystals grew; finally, most remaining voids were filled with strongly-ferroan calcite of δ18O about—7 PDB and δ13C about O PDB. This must indicate strong depletion of the pore waters in 18O. Mechanisms that might lead to this are reviewed. It is concluded that the sequence of mineralogical and chemical changes is most readily explained if originally marine porewaters, first modified by bacterial activity, were flushed from the compacting clays by water of ultimately meteoric origin. This had its source in palaeo-aquifers beneath the Oxford Clay. Speculative attempts are made to relate this history to the geology of the region.

171 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that ooids of Bahamian type are inorganic precipitates, exhibiting a radial orientation of carbonate crystals, whereas in those formed in agitated conditions, a tangential orientation is prevalent, which is the result of suspension in an environment where the degree of turbulence is sufficient to induce grain to grain contact of sufficient strength and frequency to inhibit any crystal growth other than tangential.
Abstract: Field and laboratory studies suggest that different types of ooids form during quiet and agitated water conditions. Both types have been synthesized in the laboratory. Quiet water types exhibit a radial orientation of carbonate crystals, whereas in those formed in agitated conditions, a tangential orientation is prevalent. Successful laboratory formation of quiet water ooids was accomplished in supersaturated seawater solutions containing humic acids. Negative results were obtained from strictly inorganic solutions, and from those containing simple amino acids, single proteins, mixtures of proteins or mucopolysaccharides, soil and sediment extracts. Partly successful results were obtained using an organic extract from Bahamian ooids. The organic parameters most important in quiet water ooid formation are molecular weight, the presence of carboxyl groups and an ability to participate in hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, all of which are critical to membrane formation. Membranes form concentric shells which act as growth surfaces for carbonate and also induce the periodicity in carbonate precipitation. Ooids exhibiting a tangential orientation of batten-like crystals have been synthesized under conditions of agitation, supersaturation and without the intervention of organic processes during the precipitation. Complete growth may be divided into agitation, resting and sleeping stages In the agitation stage, quartz nuclei induce an inorganic, heterogeneous nucleation from a supersaturated solution, which finally ceases as a result of Mg2+ and possibly H+ poisoning of the carbonate surfaces. No further precipitation occurs until the crystal surfaces are reactivated by removal of Mg2+ and H+ during the resting stage. Following a series of agitation and resting stages, precipitation is inhibited by a degree of poisoning which is not totally removed during the resting stage. For further growth, a new substrate is required and is provided by the development of organic membranes around the grains. This occurs when the grains are buried in the subsurface, the period of organic growth constituting the sleeping stage. Only 2% of an ooid's life is spent growing in the agitated environment, while 95% of its life is spent accreting organic membranes in the subsurface. Our experimental work indicates that ooids of Bahamian type are inorganic precipitates. The tangential arrangement of battens is the result of suspension in an environment where the degree of turbulence is sufficient to induce grain to grain contact of sufficient strength and frequency to inhibit any crystal growth other than tangential. The role of organics is to provide a substrate for further growth after precipitation has slowed to a point when no further accretion is occurring.

168 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the Oligocene of New Zealand, calcarenites and calcilutites are mutually exclusive, both in time and space as mentioned in this paper, and the two lithologies are not mutually exclusive.
Abstract: Shelf limestones are widely distributed in New Zealand Cenozoic sequences and are especially well developed in the Oligocene. Detailed field and laboratory work on several Oligocene occurrences, and reconnaissance field-work at most other sections have elucidated the major characteristics of the environment, texture, composition and diagenesis of these sediments. Several generalizations emerge which contrast with the commonly accepted characteristics of shallow marine carbonate sedimentation established from studies of tropical and subtropical deposits. The limestones are either calcarenites or, less commonly, calcilutites and, in general, these two lithologies are mutually exclusive, both in time and space. The allochems and interparticle carbonate mud (where developed) in calcarenitic limestones consist almost exclusively of fragmented skeletal material derived primarily from bryozoan, echinodermal, benthic foraminiferal, barnacle, brachiopod, bivalve and coralline red algal tests. The calcilutitic limestones consist mainly of whole and disintegrated tests of pelagic foraminifers and coccolithophorids. Non-skeletal carbonate components such as ooids, pellets and aggregates are conspicuously absent from both lithologies. Reefal structures are also absent or rare and are mainly oyster reefs. The limestones commonly contain a significant content of terrigenous material and/or glauconite and at the stratigraphic level the limestones are intimately associated with terrigenous formations. The distribution of the carbonate sediments has been governed mainly by rate of supply of river-derived terrigenous material, by subsequent dispersal patterns of this material over the shelf, and by current sorting. As a consequence of selective grain transport, bedding in the limestones is often defined by the cyclic alternation on a wide range of scales of carbonate units that are relatively enriched and relatively impoverished in terrigenous material. The primary (carbonate) mineralogy of the carbonate sediments was completely dominated by magnesium calcite and/or calcite with only small amounts of aragonite and no dolomite or associated evaporite minerals. The metastable magnesium calcite and aragonite grains were probably altered on, or close below, the shallow sea-floor. Among other factors, transformation was encouraged by the absorption of magnesium in pore waters by montmorillonitic clays and by the complete oxidation of all organic matter in the bottom sediments. Magnesium calcite grains were stabilized by texturally non-destructive incongruent dissolution, but aragonite was often dissolved without trace from the sediment, especially in grainstones. Thus submarine diagenesis has been characterized by selective dissolution phenomena. Cementation by granular and syntaxial rim orthosparite of calcite and/or ferroan calcite composition occurred mainly during shallow subsurface burial and was associated with the intergranular solution of calcitic skeletal fragments, especially at those levels in the sediment relatively enriched in terrigenous material. This lithification process has worked to accentuate and modify original litho-logic differences and sedimentary structures in the primary sediments and has produced a kind of rhythmic vertical alternation of less well cemented, microstylolitized, impure limestone beds (‘cement-donor’ beds) and well cemented, more open textured, purer limestone beds (‘cement-receptor’ beds). The New Zealand limestones formed between latitudes 60° S and 35° S under generally cool temperate to warm temperate climate conditions. Oxygen isotopes suggest that surface waters were mainly significantly cooler than 20°C, so that shelf waters may have experienced extended periods of undersaturation with respect to calcium carbonate. Generally open circulation patterns maintained near normal salinity values over the entire shelf platform. Calculated sedimentation rates for the New Zealand carbonate sediments are generally very low (< 5 cm/1000 years). Periods of more active deposition commonly alternated with longer periods of non-deposition and by-passing or erosion. It is concluded that many characteristics of the New Zealand shelf limestone occurrences are explained best by a temperate latitude model of shallow marine carbonate sedimentation.

165 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The discovery of Microcodium in Recent soils extends its stratigraphic range into the Holocene as discussed by the authors. But this is not the origin of the calcite structures of microcodium.
Abstract: Petrographic studies of Tertiary and Pleistocene caliche from the western Mediterranean show some unusual calcite structures. These structures were designated Microcodium elegans Gluck 1912. New data are presented which question earlier interpretations with regard to the origin of this structure. The new discovery of Microcodium in Recent soils extends its stratigraphic range into the Holocene. Retention of fine detail in Recent samples, revealed by light microscopy and SEM, has suggested an origin hitherto unconsidered, calcification of mycorrhizal associations. Ancient and Recent Microcodium fabrics are compared; sufficient preservation of ultrastructure in the Ancient indicates a homologous origin. Environmental, stratigraphic and palaeoecological significance of Microcodium is discussed: correct recognition indicates existence of a palaeosol, and hence is a valuable criterion for recognition of continental conditions, cessation of sedimentation, subaerial exposure, and time-equivalent horizons. In particular. Microcodium is a characteristic component of caliche in the western Mediterranean. A review of the literature suggests that its presence may have been overlooked or misinterpreted in other parts of the world and, thus, may be more widespread than hitherto suspected. This study, in its embryonic stage of development. illumines the potential importance of biolithogenesis within terrestial carbonates.

159 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors modeled erosion and deposition over a barchan dune near the Salton Sea, California, by book-keeping the quantity of sand in saltation following streamlines of transport.
Abstract: Erosion and deposition over a barchan dune near the Salton Sea, California, is modelled by book-keeping the quantity of sand in saltation following streamlines of transport. Field observations of near-surface wind velocity and direction plus supplemental measurements of the velocity distribution over a scale model of the dune are combined as input to Bagnold-type sand-transport formulae corrected for slope effects. A unidirectional wind is assumed. The resulting patterns of erosion and deposition compare closely with those observed in the field and those predicted by the assumption of equilibrium (downwind translation of the dune without change in size or geometry). Discrepancies between the simulated results and the observed or predicted erosional patterns appear to be largely due to natural fluctuation in the wind direction. Although the model includes a provision for a lag in response of the transport rate to downwind changes in applied shear stress, the best results are obtained when no delay is assumed. The shape of barchan dunes is a function of grain size, velocity, degree of saturation of the oncoming flow, and the variability in the direction of the oncoming wind. Smaller grain size or higher wind speed produce a steeper and more blunt stoss-side. Low saturation of the inter-dune sandflow produces open crescent-moon-shaped dunes, whereas high saturation produces a whaleback form with a small slip face. Dunes subject to winds of variable direction are blunter than those under unidirectional winds. The size of barchans could be proportional to natural atmospheric scales, to the age of the dune, or to the upwind roughness. The upwind roughness can be controlled by fixed elements or by the sand is saltation. In the latter case, dune scale may be proportional to wind velocity and inversely proportional to grain size. However, because the effective velocity for transport increases with grain size, dune scale may increase with grain size as observed by Wilson (1972).

152 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, vertical sequence analysis within 1500-2500 m thick coarse-grained coalfield successions allows six sedimentary associations to be distinguished, interpreted in terms of depositional environments on, or related to alluvial fans which fringed a fault bounded source region.
Abstract: Vertical sequence analysis within 1500-2500 m thick coarse-grained coalfield successions allows six sedimentary associations to be distinguished. These are interpreted in terms of depositional environments on, or related to alluvial fans which fringed a fault bounded source region. (i) Topographic valley and fanhead canyon fills: occurring at the bases of the coalfield successions and comprising sporadically reddened, scree, conglomeratic thinning and fining upward sequences, and fine-grained coal-bearing sediments. (ii) Alluvial fan channels: conglomerate and sandstone filled. (iii) Mid-fan conglomeratic and sandstone lobes: laterally extensive, thickly bedded (1-25 m) and varying from structureless coarse conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, to stratified fine conglomerates and cross-bedded sandstones. (iv) Interlobe and interchannel: siltstones, fine-grained sheet sandstones, abundant floras, thin coals and upright trees. (v) Distal fan: 10 cm-1.5 m thick sheet sandstones which preserve numerous upright trees, separated by silt-stones and mudstones with abundant floras, and coal seams. The sheet sandstones and normally arranged in sequences of beds which become thicker and coarser or thinner and finer upwards. These trends also occur in combination. (vi) Lacustrine: coals, limestones, and fine-grained, low-energy, regressive, coarsening upward sequences. Proximal fan sediments are only preserved in certain basal deposits of these coalfields. The majority of the successions comprise mid and distal alluvial fan and lacustrine sediments. Mid-fan depositional processes consisted of debris flows and turbulent streamflows, whilst sheetfloods dominated active distal areas. A tropical and seasonal climate allowed vegetation to colonize abandoned fan surfaces and perhaps resulted in localized diagenetic reddening. Worked coals, from 10s cm-20 m thick, occur in the distal fan and lacustrine environments. These alluvial fan deposits infill‘California-like’basins developed and preserved along major structural zones. In many of their characteristics, in particular the occurrence of thinning and fining, and thickening and coarsening upward sequences and megasequences, these sediments have similarities to documented ancient submarine fan deposits.

137 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the mixing-zone cements by their similarity in morphology, luminescence and substrate selectivity to the inclusion-free calcite cements, but contain microdolomite inclusions indicative of former high-Mg calcites.
Abstract: Calcite cements in Mississippian skeletal packstones and grainstones of southwestern New Mexico are dominated by echinoderm-syntaxial, inclusion-free calcites that can be divided into four major compositional zones (from oldest to youngest: zone 1, 2, 3, 5) based mainly on varying Fe11 and MnII contents. These compositional zones are interpreted as‘time stratigraphic’ units as indicated by petrographic evidence for age gaps between zones, and by consistency of their ages on a regional scale. As such, these cement zones can be correlated over most or all of the approximately 30,000 km2 of study area, based on similarity of age, number and sequence of major zones. The inclusion-free calcite cements comprise approximately 95% of the total cements, of which the pre-Pennsylvanian zones (zones 1, 2, 3) make up about 60%, and the post-Mississippian zone 5 makes up about 40% of the total cements. These cements are interpreted as meteoric phreatic on the basis of MnII and FeII content, crystal clarity, cement morphology, substrate selectivity, low Mg content, and absence of marine and vadose characteristics. In the southern part of the study area zone 2 contains significant amounts of meteoric-marine mixing-zone phreatic cements. These mixing-zone cements are identified by their similarity in morphology, luminescence and substrate selectivity to the inclusion-free meteoric phreatic cements, but contain microdolomite inclusions indicative of former high-Mg calcites. Their restriction to the south is interpreted to have resulted from relatively long residence time of the mixing zone in the south during zone 2 precipitation. Strictly marine subtidal and beachrock cements make up less than 1% of the total cements, and meteoric vadose cements are virtually absent. Regional distribution of the pre-Pennsylvanian cement zones suggests a model of cementation during a world-wide late Mississippian eustatic regression identified by Vail & Mitchum (1976). Specifically, pre-zone 1 and zone 1 meteoric phreatic cements formed during regression within a shallow oxygenated (?) groundwater system; zone 2 formed during the later part of the regression and during stillstand in a deep-seated, more extensive flow system; zone 3 formed during subsequent transgression in a shallow groundwater system. The post-Chester, pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity resulted mainly in microkarsting and weathering. The main difference, other. than scale, between this model and those derived from diagenetic studies of Quaternary limestones is that it implies that major cementation occurred during sea-level changes in cpeiric settings, rather than only during stillstands.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a vertical rod sand trap has been constructed to acquire a volumetric measure of wind-blown sand, which can be used effectively for short-term monitoring of aeolian transport.
Abstract: A vertical rod sand trap has been constructed to acquire a volumetric measure of wind-blown sand. The design is simple, construction cost is minimal, and collection efficiency is quite high. This device can be used effectively for short-term monitoring of aeolian transport.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Karlskaret Fan as mentioned in this paper is one of numerous alluvial fans built out from the fault margins of Hornelen Basin (Devonian, Norway) with a radius of less than 11/2 km and dominated by debris-flow conglomerates.
Abstract: Karlskaret fan, with a radius of less than 11/2 km and dominated by debris-flow conglomerates, is one of numerous alluvial fans built out from the fault margins of Hornelen Basin (Devonian, Norway). The fan body is more than 170 m thick proximally, consists of four main coarsening-upwards segments and thins distally by a rising of its base and by a vigorous interfingering with very fine-grained sediments originating from an adjacent, impinging floodbasin system. Within the entire fan body, and within individual lobes, is a proximal-distal (and vertical) facies change from sheet-like, polymodal debris-flow conglomerates through matrix-rich conglomerates that are commonly distorted by loading, slumping and faulting, to remarkably sheet-like, matrix-rich granule sandstone of subaqueous debris-flow origin. Because the alluvial fan prograded into an actively aggrading floodbasin the primary fanglomerates, themselves having been subject to some sorting on the fan surface, incorporated large quantitites of very fine sediments. This inclusion of fines, effectively a textural inversion on the lower fan reaches, frequently led to remobilization and resedimentation of material beyond the fan toe. Anomalous maximum particle size/bed thickness relationships and a variety of graded textures within these resedimented beds suggest deposition in lacustrine areas of the adjacent floodbasin.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the Ndolanya Beds, montmorillonite was altered to a kaolinite-type mineral and to dioctahedral chlorite by replacing pelletoid clay coatings around sand grains.
Abstract: Pedogenic calcretes are closely associated with Pliocene to Holocene wind-worked deposits of volcanic ash in the Olduvai and Ndolanya Beds of northern Tanzania. The typical profile with calcrete consists of an unconsolidated sediment layer, an underlying laminar calcrete, and a lowermost massive calcrete. The laminar calcrete is a relatively pure limestone, whereas massive calcrete is aeolian tuff cemented and replaced by calcite. An Olduvai calcrete profile can develop to a mature stage in only a few thousand years. Carbonatite ash was the dominant source for most of the calcite in the calcretes. Replacement was a major process in formation of the massive calcretes, and oolitic textures have resulted from micrite replacing pelletoid clay coatings around sand grains. Phillipsite and possible other zeolites were extensively replaced in the massive calcretes. Replacement of clay by micrite in the Olduvai calcretes is accompanied by dissolution or leaching of phengitic illite and the formation of clay approaching the composition of halloysite or kaolinite. In the upper calcrete of the Ndolanya Beds, montmorillonite was altered to a kaolinite-type mineral and to dioctahedral chlorite. Authigenic dolomite, zeolite, and dawsonite in the Olduvai calcretes probably received at least some of their components from replaced materials.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a 10 m long laboratory flume was used to investigate the bedforms which develop from fine, cohesionless sediment beds, and two grades of near uniformly sized silica grains and six grades of micaceous flakes (ranging in median nominal diameter from 15.5 to 76 μm) were used.
Abstract: Experiments have been conducted in a 10 m long laboratory flume to investigate the bedforms which develop from fine, cohesionless sediment beds. Two grades of near uniformly sized silica grains (of median nominal diameters 15 and 66 μm) and six grades of micaceous flakes (ranging in median nominal diameter from 15.5 to 76 μm) were used. A steady subcritical water discharge, which was increased in steps after several hours, was applied to a flat bed of each grade. The developing bedform sequence for fine granular beds was identified as many small-sized primary ripples, isolated primary, transverse primary, secondary ripples and then possibly dunes; this development was almost the same as that observed for coarser grains. The sequence for fine flake beds differed from grains. Only the single bedform type of parting lineations was observed; with increased discharge, the lineations began to oscillate and eventually enter into fluid suspension. The low discharge parallel lineations were thought to be generated by ‘streaks’ or lanes of transversely alternate high and low velocity fluid which have been reported to exist in the viscous sub-layer of a turbulent-smooth boundary, whilst the higher discharge wandering lineations were attributed to low velocity streak ‘bursts’.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the complex pattern of biological accretion, internal sedimentation, early lithification, and biological destruction that characterizes modern reefs and many fossil reefs has been recognized in archaeocyathid-rich patch reefs of Lower Cambrian age in the Forteau Formation, southern Labrador.
Abstract: The complex pattern of biological accretion, internal sedimentation, early lithification, and biological destruction, that characterizes modern reefs and many fossil reefs has been recognized in archaeocyathid-rich patch reefs of Lower Cambrian age in the Forteau Formation, southern Labrador. Patch reefs occur as isolated masses or complex associations of many discrete masses of archaeocyathid-rich limestone and skeletal lime sands, surrounded by well-bedded skeletal limestones and shales. Each reef is composed of many loafshaped mounds stacked on top of one another. The limestone of each mound comprises archaeocyathids and Renalcis or Renalcis-like structures in a matrix of argillaceous lime mud rich in sponge spicules, trilobite and salterellid skeletons. Numerous growth cavities roofed by pendant Renalcis-like organisms and Renalcis are partially to completely filled with geopetal sediment indicating that much of the matrix was deposited as internal sediment. Two stages of diagenetic alteration are recognized: (1) syn-depositional, which affected only the reefs, and (2) post-depositional, which affected both reefs and inter-reef sediments. On the sea floor reef sediments were pervasively cemented and fibrous carbonate was precipitated in intraskeletal and growth cavities. These limestones and cements as well as archaeocyathid skeletons, were subsequently bored by endolithic organisms. Later post-depositional subaerial diagenesis resulted first in dissolution of certain skeletons and precipitation of calcite cement above the water table, followed by extensive precipitation of pore-filling calcite below the water table. These carbonate reefs are similar in structure to the basal pioneer accumulations of much younger lower and middle Palaeozoic reefs. They did not develop into massive ‘ecologic’ reefs because archaeocyathids never developed the necessary large, massive, hemispherical skeletons. This occurrence indicates that reefs developed more or less coincident with, and not long after, the appearance of skeletal metazoans in the Lower Cambrian.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a significant change in mineralogy where the fluvial Cutler beds grade into the littoral marine Cedar Mesa Sandstone deposits can be directly related to active reworking of detritus in the shallow marine environment.
Abstract: A greater than 50% decrease in the percentage of labile light minerals occurs between the non-marine Cutler Formation (Permian) and its facies equivalent, the marine Cedar Mesa Sandstone, in the vicinity of Moab, Utah. Both the Cutler and Cedar Mesa Formations were derived from crystalline rocks of the Uncom-pahgre Mountains under semi-arid to arid climatic conditions. Furthermore, diagenesis had little effect on the light-mineral fraction. Therefore, the significant change in mineralogy where the fluvial Cutler beds grade into the littoral marine Cedar Mesa deposits can be directly related to active reworking of detritus in the shallow marine environment. Less coarse perthitic alkali feldspar, twinned plagioclase, undulose mono-crystalline quartz, and polycrystalline quartz in the Cedar Mesa with respect to the Cutler suggest that compositional maturation was produced by breakage of mechanically weaker grains during grain-to-grain collisions. Furthermore, the end products of compositional modification by shallow marine processes may be sufficiently different from those produced by weathering and dilution from sedimentary source rocks to allow evaluation of the relative effects of these processes on the origin of compositionally mature ancient sandstones.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an original low-magnesian calcite composition was inferred for Tentaculites and some ostracods and foraminifera, whereas a previous highmagnesiansian calcitic composition was also inferred for trilobites, oligostegina and certain ooids, as shown by belemnites, brachiopods, and pelecypods.
Abstract: The replacement by ferroan calcite with preservation of the original structures can be used as a new criterion for identifying skeletons originally composed of high-magnesian calcite. This applies to bryozoa, rugose corals, echinoderms, many foraminifera, most ostracods, red algae, and serpulids. On the other hand, skeletons originally composed of low-magnesian calcite were never replaced by ferroan calcite, as shown by belemnites, brachiopods, and most of the pelecypods. Using this criterion, an original low-magnesian calcite composition is inferred for Tentaculites and some ostracods and foraminifera, whereas a previous high-magnesian calcite composition is inferred for trilobites, oligostegina and certain ooids. Chemical instability of high-magnesian calcite is suggested to be the driving force of the replacement by ferroan calcite. In most of the thirty-seven samples investigated, of Oligocene to Devonian age, the ferrous iron concentration of the interstitial fluid increased during diagenesis, as shown by well established sequences of cement A and B and fissure fill. This offers a relative time scale for diagenetic processes. Ferroan calcites contain up to 6 mol % FeCO3 and up to 5 mol % MgCO3. In this range of concentration, the distribution coefficients for Fe and Mg between calcite and solution at about 25°C are about 1 to 0-03, respectively, according to experiments. Possible sources of iron are iron oxides and hydroxides as well as clay minerals including glauconite. Though a submarine origin below the sediment surface is conceivable for ferroan calcite, there are serious limiting conditions such as low Eh and, at the same time, lack in sulphate-reducing bacteria. On the other hand, ferroan ‘dedolomite’, compositional zonality in individual ferroan calcite overgrowths, low δ18C and δ18O values, and low Mg concentrations point more to a meteoric-phreatic origin of many ferroan calcite occurrences.

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TL;DR: A sedimentological study of Quaternary sediments from the northwestern part of the Barents Sea shows that their composition is controlled by the underlying Mesozoic bedrock and that very little sediment has been supplied from outside sources as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A sedimentological study of Quaternary sediments from the northwestern part of the Barents Sea shows that their composition is controlled by the underlying Mesozoic bedrock and that very little sediment has been supplied from outside sources. The Quaternary sediments consist of Pleistocene glacial clays (moraines) and Holocene gravel, sand and mud, derived by erosion of the clay-rich moraines, which again have been derived from underlying Mesozoic rocks. On the shallow Spitsbergen Bank (30-100 m depth) we find a high energy facies of bioclastic carbonate sand and gravel and lag deposits of Mesozoic rock fragments from the underlying moraine. 14C-datings of the bioclastic carbonates (Molluscs and Barnacles) suggest that soft bottom conditions with Mya truncata prevailed in early Holocene time, succeeded by a hard bottom high energy environment with Barnacles in the last 2000-3000 years. This may be due to a southward movement of the oceanic polar front into the Spitsbergen Bank due to colder climate in Late Holocene (subatlantic) time, which at present day produces strong bottom currents down to 100 m depth. On the Spitsbergen Bank carbonate sedimentation has succeeded glacial sedimentation as a result of withdrawal of clastic sediment supply in Holocene time and high organic productivity because of upwelling. A similar mechanism may have been operating during earlier glaciations, i.e. in Late Precambrian time to produce an association of glacial and carbonate sediments although the biological precipitation was different at that time. In Late Precambrian time precipitation or carbonate by algaes may have occurred in colder water on the shelves due to higher saturation of carbonate in the sea water.

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TL;DR: The Nueces River has a sinuosity index of 1.3 and an average stream surface slope of 2.7-4.8 m/km in the study area as mentioned in this paper, and the mean clast b-axis length for the ten largest clasts at thirteen sample sites ranged from 2.5 to 10.8 cm.
Abstract: All major streams draining the southwestern flank of the Edwards Plateau in south-central Texas transport large volumes of gravel and sandy muddy gravel and are developing meander lobe sequences consisting predominantly of coarse gravel. The largest of these streams, the Nueces River, has a sinuosity index of 1.3 and an average stream surface slope of 1.8 m/km in the study area. Stream discharge is variable and has ranged from no flow to more than 17,000 m3/s. Mean clast b-axis length for the ten largest clasts at thirteen sample sites ranged from 2.5 to 10.8 cm. Velocities of 2.7-4.4 m/s 1 m above the stream bed are required to transport these clasts. Stream velocities of these magnitudes occur about once in 8 years when discharge of the Nueces River exceeds 3300 m3/s. Mean grain size of Nueces River alluvium ranges from 1.2 to 3.4 cm. At a flow depth of 1 m, sediment of this size has a critical erosion velocity of 1.8-3 m/s. Velocities of this magnitude occur about once in two years when discharge exceeds 340 m3/s. Under these conditions flow is subcritical, with critical shear stresses on depositional surfaces ranging from 6.4 to 12.7 kg/m2. Gravel clasts are imbricated and channel bed forms are predominantly transverse gravel bars with slip faces ranging up to 2 m high and wavelengths in excess of 100 m. Stratification includes graded planar crossbeds and horizontal beds. Lower lateral accretion face sediments are also predominantly transverse bars; upper lateral accretion face deposits occur as longitudinal gravel ridges deposited in the lee of vegetation and, less commonly, as chute bars. Near the upper limit of meander lobes where vegetation is heavy, mud and muddy sand occur as overbank deposits; in these deposits sedimentary structures other than desiccation cracks are rare. Sedimentary sequences in gravel meander lobe systems deposited by low sinuosity streams are graded or non-graded horizontal beds and planar cross-beds overlain by mud and muddy sand interbedded with horizontally bedded gravels. Sequences may be several metres thick, but probably do not exceed 8-10 m in thickness. These deposits in turn are overlain by overbank deposits of mud and muddy sand. Similar sedimentary sequences occur in the extensive Quaternary terraces that parallel the Nueces River.

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TL;DR: The average 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the carbonate phases of these rocks appear to be unaffected by dolomitization and by the presence of non-carbonate minerals as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and strontium concentrations for thirty-three samples of marine carbonate rocks of Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic age have been determined. The samples were collected from four measured sections in the areas of Val Camonica in northern Italy. The strontium concentrations vary from 40 to 7000 ppm. Most of the samples are calcitic limestones containing less than 10% of non-carbonate residues. Dolomitic samples and those containing appreciable non-carbonate residues have significantly diminished strontium concentrations. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the carbonate phases of these rocks appear to be unaffected by dolomitization and by the presence of non-carbonate minerals. The average 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the formations vary systematically in a stratigraphic sense. The ratio increased from Early Anisian to Early-Middle Ladinian, declined during Late Ladinian and Carnian, rose again during the Norian and then declined throughout the Late Norian (Rhaetian), Hettangian, Sinemurian and Pliens-bachian ages. The average 87Sr/86Sr ratios, relative to 0.7080 for the Eimer and Amend standard, are: Anisian: 0.70805 ± 00019; Early Ladinian: 0.7085 ± 0.00038; Late Ladinian: 0.70791 ± 0.00013; Carnian: 0.70776 ± 0.00015; Norian and Rhaetian: 0.70791 ± 0.00014; Hettangian: 0.70762 ± 0.00021; Sinemurian: 0.7070 ± 0.00038; Pliensbachian: 0.7070 ± 0.00015. These variations reflect changes in the isotopic composition of Sr entering the oceans in early Mesozoic time due to varying rates of weathering and erosion of young volcanic rocks (low 87Sr/86Sr) and old granitic rocks (high 87Sr/86Sr). The data presented in this report contribute to a growing body of information regarding the changes that have occurred in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the oceans in Phanerozoic time.

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TL;DR: In this article, hurricane washover fans from the Texas Gulf Coast exhibit large-scale rhomboid bed forms developed on washover deposits of fine sand with varying shell content, which are the product of storm surge flooding or high wind shear stress.
Abstract: Hurricane washover fans from the Texas Gulf Coast exhibit large-scale rhomboid bed forms developed on washover deposits of fine sand with varying shell content. Washover processes inferred from aerial photographs, storm characteristics, and physical settings suggest that these bed forms are the product of (1) storm surge flooding or (2) high wind shear stress. Multiple bed forms, including large-scale rhombs, are responsible for sedimentary structures preserved in washover deposits. Proximal channels exhibit scour and fill sequences capped by mud drapes. Mid-channel fan deposits also have scour bases marked by shell lags which are overlain by horizontal laminations and foreset and backset laminae. Distal fan sediments are relatively shell free and are interbedded with tidal flat deposits characterized by bioturbated, alternating sand and mud laminae. Rhomboidal patterns can form on the free surface of water in response to five processes: (1) wave interference from two externally independent sources, (2) wave interference from refraction of a single set of wave fronts, (3) standing oblique waves caused by bed roughness elements, (4) standing oblique waves formed at channel boundaries and channel transitions, and (5) wind stress. Geologically, standing oblique waves from unidirectional nearly supercritical flow is probably the most important process in rhomboid bed form development.

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TL;DR: The Pleistocene and Holocene oolitic sediments of southern Kuwait appear as parallel ridges and are underlain by Tertiary clastic deposits and interfingered with sabkhas as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Pleistocene and Holocene oolitic sediments of southern Kuwait appear as parallel ridges—ancient and recent barrier beaches and coastal dunes. They are underlain by Tertiary clastic deposits and interfingered with sabkhas. Considering the superposition, primary composition and diagenetic alterations five lithostratigraphic units were distinguished within the oolitic complex. Their formation and preservation were related principally to eustatic oscillations of sea level during Quaternary times, although post-Pliocene tectonics also played an important role both in physiographic and sedimentary developments of the region. The large accumulation of oolites in southern Kuwait might be related, at least partly, to the existence of two tidal channels, khors, discharging waters over-saturated with respect to calcium carbonate over broad tidal flats. The formation of oolites culminated in late Pleistocene probably due to an extreme aridity of the climate. The subaerial diagenesis of the oolitic ridges led to gradual cementation and recrystallization of oolites. The four stages of progressive diagenesis distinguished in the area are compared with schemes suggested by Land, Mackenzie & Gould (1967) for Quaternary sediments in Bermuda and by Gavish & Friedman (1969) for aeolianite ridges in Israel. On the sea floor the cementation has produced widespread beach rocks and hard layers. Aragonite encrustations and dripstones occur within the intertidal zone of channels and lagoons. The shallow, occasionally flooded depresssions in sabkhas are occupied by algal mats. The amount of dolomite in sabkha sediments is rather low in comparison with similar environments of the southern Persian Gulf. This might be at least partly explained by the absence of dolomitic rocks in the Tertiary substratum in Kuwait. The complex of Quaternary sediments in southern Kuwait represents a petroleum setting in which the organic rich source sediments of lagoons and sabkhas are closely associated with highly porous reservoir rocks of the oolitic coastal ridges.

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TL;DR: The Upper Silurian Keyser Limestone is a relatively thin unit of lagoonal, barrier, and shallow offshore sediments that crops out in the central Appalachians as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Upper Silurian Keyser Limestone is a relatively thin (< 85 m) unit of lagoonal, barrier, and shallow offshore sediments that crops out in the central Appalachians. Lithologies include massive micritic limestones to calcarenites, calcisiltites, and calcareous quartz arenites. The barrier lithofacies is preserved predominantly as tidal inlet channel-fill. Its presence is supported by two lines of evidence: (1) the sequence of sedimentary textures and structures resembles that observed in modern inlets, and (2) the sequence occupies a position immediately above a disconformity, and is accompanied by an abrupt vertical change in faunal diversity, which is interpreted as representing the transgression of open marine over back-barrier environments The inlet channel sequence comprises fine- to medium-grained, well-sorted quartz arenites that disconformably overlie sediments deposited on carbonate tidal flats (laminated, mudcracked pelmicrites). The sandstone displays a fining-upward texture, and contains a broken and abraded mixed fauna. Cross-bedding is bipolar, with major modes oriented obliquely to depositional strike. Decimetre-scale sets of planar and trough cross-beds grade upward to centimetre-scale sets of ripple cross-lamination, washed-out ripples, and plane beds. This sequence represents the change from deep to shallow channel environments, and is attributed to lateral inlet migration. The inlet sequence was preferentially preserved during marine transgression because of its relative thickness and lower stratigraphic position with respect to overlying and adjacent barrier-beach sediments. The vertical relationships of this inlet-lagoon complex emphasize that care must be taken in interpreting shallow-water transgressive sequences. Vertical ‘jumps’ in faunal diversity accompanied by scour surfaces could be misconstrued as major unconformities. Instead, such sequences may represent the shoreface erosion normally associated with the transgressive migration of barrier islands. Whether or not the faunal jump is accompanied by a barrier lithosome is greatly dependent on the geometry, frequency, and migration rate of tidal inlets.

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TL;DR: In this paper, about 4100 samples of suspended matter were collected by filtration of surface ocean waters in three large regions on the western sides of oceans and two on the eastern sides.
Abstract: About 4100 samples of suspended matter were collected by filtration of surface ocean waters in three large regions on the western sides of oceans and two on the eastern sides. Comparison of results shows that the non-combustible fraction (chiefly detrital clays and silts with some siliceous and calcareous skeletal debris) generally dominates along the western sides of oceans, where large contributions of solid detrital sediment are made by rivers that drain much of the adjacent continents. The combustible fraction also is important off these rivers, but it is more important (both relative to the non-combustible fraction and in absolute terms) along the eastern sides of oceans, where upwelling is intense.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used detailed detrital petrography for a large number of specimens, and delineated variations with a sequence of Late Palaeozoic age in eastern Australia.
Abstract: The subdivision of thick sequences of turbidite sediments has been problematical because of the monotonous nature of the units. One method, of using detailed detrital petrography for a large number of specimens, has delineated variations with a sequence of Late Palaeozoic age in eastern Australia. The rocks occur within a single structural block and are all members of one sedimentary petrographic province. They have been subdivided into three stratigraphic units (Moombil Beds, Brooklana Beds and Coramba Beds) and greywackes from these units are quartz-poor to quartz-intermediate, feldspathic or volcanolithic types. Dacitic volcanism has provided most of the detritus and the contribution from non-volcanic sources is small. The Coramba Beds are further subdivided into four petrographic units which are parallel to the stratigraphic boundaries. These lithostratigraphic units are based on the presence or absence of detrital hornblende, and the relative ratio of volcanic lithic fragments to feldspar. Vertical petrographic variations within the entire sequence indicate that although the acid volcanic source was predominant throughout the time of deposition, there is a noticeable increase in the contribution from intermediate-volcanic, acid-plutonic, low-grade metamorphic and sedimentary sources towards the top of the sequence. Detrital hornblende is also present in the upper parts of the sequence.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a model integrating the isotopic data with regional petrographic and sedimentological data was proposed to explain the greater consistency and generally greater δ18Os values of the calcites compared to those of the cherts.
Abstract: Oxygen isotopic compositions of chert and calcite cements in the Lake Valley Formation indicate that these diagenetic features cannot be equilibrium co-precipitates in spite of their coexistence in the same interstices. Petrography of megaquartz and non-ferroan calcite cements indicates that both are original precipitates that formed during pre-Pennsylvanian time at shallow burial depths (< 215m) implying precipitation temperatures less than 30°C. Under these constraints the δ18Os of megaquartz (mean =+27.00/00 SMOW; range =+ 24.8 to + 28.90/00) and calcite (mean =+ 28.00/00 SMOW; range =+ 27.3 to + 28.40/00) are best interpreted as unaltered since precipitation; thus, they must reflect the oxygen isotopic composition of pre-Pennsylvanian pore waters. Microquartz and chalcedony are interpreted to have formed from recrystallization of pre-Pennsylvanian opal-CT precursors, and therefore probably re-equilibrated during recrystallization in late or post-Mississippian time. We propose a model integrating the isotopic data with regional petrographic and sedimentological data that explains the greater consistency and generally greater δ18Os values of the calcites compared to those of the cherts. This model is one of chertification and calcite cementation in a regional meteoric phreatic ground-water system, the seaward terminus of which moved southward during lowering of pre-Pennsylvanian sea level. The calcite cements and some of the opal-CT precursor to microquartz and chalcedony are interpreted to have formed in the more seaward portions of the groundwater system. The megaquartz precipitated in the more inland parts of the phreatic groundwater system where rainfall was isotopically lighter and more variable. As such, the δ18Os of the megaquartz reflect the isotopic composition of groundwaters in areas undersaturated with respect to calcite.

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TL;DR: Bands within the Chalk of Kansas made up of masses of Uintacrinus socialis show an unusual preservation of crinoid ossicles: in contrast to their normal preservation in full relief as single large calcite crystals the ossicle are compressed and transformed to micrite as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Bands within the Chalk of Kansas made up of masses of Uintacrinus socialis show an unusual preservation of crinoid ossicles: in contrast to their normal preservation in full relief as single large calcite crystals the ossicles are compressed and transformed to micrite. The micrite originated by a process different from the well-known micritization by algal and fungal borings and subsequent cementation of the borings: it is the outcome of partial dissolution. Dissolution proceeded inside the sediment and preferentially attacked the echinoderms as the most soluble calcareous component of the chalk sediment. Later, the remains of the Uintacrinus crystals preferentially attracted syntaxial cement so that the layer changed to a hard band of limestone within the soft chalk. In addition to a second process of micritization the preservation of Uintacrinus demonstrates (1) that the magnesium content of magnesian calcites survives the earliest stages of diagenesis within chalk, and (2) that a diagenetic comminution of large crystals (in an optical sense) to smaller ones is possible. Provided the ossicles of echinoderms are true single crystals (the knowledge in this field is summarized), this is an example of the often discussed ‘crystal diminution’.

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TL;DR: Large-scale circular and rectilinear depressions form regular honeycomb patterns on pavements exhumed from below basalt flows in Carpentarian sandstone of northern Australia.
Abstract: Large-scale circular (up to 250 m diameter) and rectilinear (up to 50 m across) depressions form regular ‘honeycomb’ patterns on pavements exhumed from below basalt flows in Carpentarian (1800-1400 m.y.) sandstone of northern Australia. They are likened to soft-sediment deformation structures produced experimentally in systems with reverse density gradients. The structures represent an intermediate scale between soft-sediment deformation (small-scale) and orogenic deformation (large-scale).

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TL;DR: In this article, radio-isotope sand tracer system was used to measure the extent of dispersal of tagged, fine sand at 3 week intervals in two 70 day experiments.
Abstract: Both spring-summer and fall-winter sand transport have been observed on the Long Island, New York, inner shelf at water depths of 20-22 m using a radio-isotope sand tracer system. The extent of dispersal of the tagged, fine sand was measured at 3 week intervals in two 70 day experiments. In the late spring and early summer, movement was primarily diffusive in nature, extending 100 m around the line of tracer injection, while late fall-winter patterns had strong advective features, including an ellipsoidal outline extending approximately 1500 m westward of the injection points after the passage of several storms with strong northeasterly winds. Near-bottom current observations made with Savonius rotor sensors identify the event responsible for the bulk of the transport over the 135 day observation period as a storm flow of 2 days duration. Tracer and current observations together suggest that westward winter storm flow along the Long Island shelf is the major mechanism of sand transport at these depths on a yearly time scale. A least-squares fit of several of the observed winter patterns with a plume model yields average sediment mass flux lower bounds of 3.2 × 10−3 gm/cm/sec and 1.7 × 10−1 gm/cm/sec for ‘typical’ and extreme winter storm activity.