Showing papers in "Sensors in 2019"
TL;DR: This work proposes a novel framework of modified blockchain models suitable for IoT devices that rely on their distributed nature and other additional privacy and security properties of the network that make IoT application data and transactions more secure and anonymous over a blockchain-based network.
Abstract: Medical care has become one of the most indispensable parts of human lives, leading to a dramatic increase in medical big data. To streamline the diagnosis and treatment process, healthcare professionals are now adopting Internet of Things (IoT)-based wearable technology. Recent years have witnessed billions of sensors, devices, and vehicles being connected through the Internet. One such technology—remote patient monitoring—is common nowadays for the treatment and care of patients. However, these technologies also pose grave privacy risks and security concerns about the data transfer and the logging of data transactions. These security and privacy problems of medical data could result from a delay in treatment progress, even endangering the patient’s life. We propose the use of a blockchain to provide secure management and analysis of healthcare big data. However, blockchains are computationally expensive, demand high bandwidth and extra computational power, and are therefore not completely suitable for most resource-constrained IoT devices meant for smart cities. In this work, we try to resolve the above-mentioned issues of using blockchain with IoT devices. We propose a novel framework of modified blockchain models suitable for IoT devices that rely on their distributed nature and other additional privacy and security properties of the network. These additional privacy and security properties in our model are based on advanced cryptographic primitives. The solutions given here make IoT application data and transactions more secure and anonymous over a blockchain-based network.
TL;DR: This paper tends to review the current artifact removal of various contaminations in encephalogram recordings and discusses the characteristics of EEG data and the types of different artifacts.
Abstract: Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in identifying brain activity and behavior. However, the recorded electrical activity always be contaminated with artifacts and then affect the analysis of EEG signal. Hence, it is essential to develop methods to effectively detect and extract the clean EEG data during encephalogram recordings. Several methods have been proposed to remove artifacts, but the research on artifact removal continues to be an open problem. This paper tends to review the current artifact removal of various contaminations. We first discuss the characteristics of EEG data and the types of different artifacts. Then, a general overview of the state-of-the-art methods and their detail analysis are presented. Lastly, a comparative analysis is provided for choosing a suitable methods according to particular application.
TL;DR: The adoption and use of new technologies for glucose detection is unavoidable and closer to become a reality, and the future trend of glucose detection by analyzing the usage of the different bands in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Abstract: Current glucose monitoring methods for the ever-increasing number of diabetic people around the world are invasive, painful, time-consuming, and a constant burden for the household budget. The non-invasive glucose monitoring technology overcomes these limitations, for which this topic is significantly being researched and represents an exciting and highly sought after market for many companies. This review aims to offer an up-to-date report on the leading technologies for non-invasive (NI) and minimally-invasive (MI) glucose monitoring sensors, devices currently available in the market, regulatory framework for accuracy assessment, new approaches currently under study by representative groups and developers, and algorithm types for signal enhancement and value prediction. The review also discusses the future trend of glucose detection by analyzing the usage of the different bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. The review concludes that the adoption and use of new technologies for glucose detection is unavoidable and closer to become a reality.
TL;DR: An overview of the recent progress made in a wide range of gas-sensing technology is presented, including the sensing functionalizing materials, the advanced micro-machining fabrication methods, as well as their constraints on the sensor design.
Abstract: Micro- and nano-sensors lie at the heart of critical innovation in fields ranging from medical to environmental sciences. In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in sensor design along with the advances in micro- and nano-fabrication technology and the use of newly designed materials, leading to the development of high-performance gas sensors. Advanced micro- and nano-fabrication technology enables miniaturization of these sensors into micro-sized gas sensor arrays while maintaining the sensing performance. These capabilities facilitate the development of miniaturized integrated gas sensor arrays that enhance both sensor sensitivity and selectivity towards various analytes. In the past, several micro- and nano-gas sensors have been proposed and investigated where each type of sensor exhibits various advantages and limitations in sensing resolution, operating power, response, and recovery time. This paper presents an overview of the recent progress made in a wide range of gas-sensing technology. The sensing functionalizing materials, the advanced micro-machining fabrication methods, as well as their constraints on the sensor design, are discussed. The sensors’ working mechanisms and their structures and configurations are reviewed. Finally, the future development outlook and the potential applications made feasible by each category of the sensors are discussed.
TL;DR: This survey paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent approaches in human action recognition research, including progress in hand-designed action features in RGB and depth data, current deep learning-based action feature representation methods, advances in human–object interaction recognition methods, and the current prominent research topic of action detection methods.
Abstract: Although widely used in many applications, accurate and efficient human action recognition remains a challenging area of research in the field of computer vision. Most recent surveys have focused on narrow problems such as human action recognition methods using depth data, 3D-skeleton data, still image data, spatiotemporal interest point-based methods, and human walking motion recognition. However, there has been no systematic survey of human action recognition. To this end, we present a thorough review of human action recognition methods and provide a comprehensive overview of recent approaches in human action recognition research, including progress in hand-designed action features in RGB and depth data, current deep learning-based action feature representation methods, advances in human⁻object interaction recognition methods, and the current prominent research topic of action detection methods. Finally, we present several analysis recommendations for researchers. This survey paper provides an essential reference for those interested in further research on human action recognition.
TL;DR: In this article, state-of-the-art signal processing techniques for MI EEG-based BCIs, with a particular focus on the feature extraction, feature selection and classification techniques used.
Abstract: Electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), particularly those using motor-imagery (MI) data, have the potential to become groundbreaking technologies in both clinical and entertainment settings. MI data is generated when a subject imagines the movement of a limb. This paper reviews state-of-the-art signal processing techniques for MI EEG-based BCIs, with a particular focus on the feature extraction, feature selection and classification techniques used. It also summarizes the main applications of EEG-based BCIs, particularly those based on MI data, and finally presents a detailed discussion of the most prevalent challenges impeding the development and commercialization of EEG-based BCIs.
TL;DR: The physical fundamentals, principle functioning, and electromagnetic spectrum used to operate the most common sensors used in perception systems (ultrasonic, RADAR, LiDAR, cameras, IMU, GNSS, RTK, etc.) are presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a systematic review of the perception systems and simulators for autonomous vehicles (AV). This work has been divided into three parts. In the first part, perception systems are categorized as environment perception systems and positioning estimation systems. The paper presents the physical fundamentals, principle functioning, and electromagnetic spectrum used to operate the most common sensors used in perception systems (ultrasonic, RADAR, LiDAR, cameras, IMU, GNSS, RTK, etc.). Furthermore, their strengths and weaknesses are shown, and the quantification of their features using spider charts will allow proper selection of different sensors depending on 11 features. In the second part, the main elements to be taken into account in the simulation of a perception system of an AV are presented. For this purpose, the paper describes simulators for model-based development, the main game engines that can be used for simulation, simulators from the robotics field, and lastly simulators used specifically for AV. Finally, the current state of regulations that are being applied in different countries around the world on issues concerning the implementation of autonomous vehicles is presented.
TL;DR: A review of near and remote sensor networks in the agriculture domain is presented along with several considerations and challenges and an IoT-based smart solution for crop health monitoring is proposed, which is comprised of two modules.
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT)-based automation of agricultural events can change the agriculture sector from being static and manual to dynamic and smart, leading to enhanced production with reduced human efforts. Precision Agriculture (PA) along with Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are the main drivers of automation in the agriculture domain. PA uses specific sensors and software to ensure that the crops receive exactly what they need to optimize productivity and sustainability. PA includes retrieving real data about the conditions of soil, crops and weather from the sensors deployed in the fields. High-resolution images of crops are obtained from satellite or air-borne platforms (manned or unmanned), which are further processed to extract information used to provide future decisions. In this paper, a review of near and remote sensor networks in the agriculture domain is presented along with several considerations and challenges. This survey includes wireless communication technologies, sensors, and wireless nodes used to assess the environmental behaviour, the platforms used to obtain spectral images of crops, the common vegetation indices used to analyse spectral images and applications of WSN in agriculture. As a proof of concept, we present a case study showing how WSN-based PA system can be implemented. We propose an IoT-based smart solution for crop health monitoring, which is comprised of two modules. The first module is a wireless sensor network-based system to monitor real-time crop health status. The second module uses a low altitude remote sensing platform to obtain multi-spectral imagery, which is further processed to classify healthy and unhealthy crops. We also highlight the results obtained using a case study and list the challenges and future directions based on our work.
TL;DR: Results show that it is able to provide adequate performance for the SWAMP pilots, but requires specially designed configurations and the re-engineering of some components to provide higher scalability using less computational resources.
Abstract: The smart management of freshwater for precision irrigation in agriculture is essential for increasing crop yield and decreasing costs, while contributing to environmental sustainability. The intense use of technologies offers a means for providing the exact amount of water needed by plants. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the natural choice for smart water management applications, even though the integration of different technologies required for making it work seamlessly in practice is still not fully accomplished. The SWAMP project develops an IoT-based smart water management platform for precision irrigation in agriculture with a hands-on approach based on four pilots in Brazil and Europe. This paper presents the SWAMP architecture, platform, and system deployments that highlight the replicability of the platform, and, as scalability is a major concern for IoT applications, it includes a performance analysis of FIWARE components used in the Platform. Results show that it is able to provide adequate performance for the SWAMP pilots, but requires specially designed configurations and the re-engineering of some components to provide higher scalability using less computational resources.
TL;DR: This paper provides a near complete and up-to-date view of the IoT authentication field and provides a summary of a large range of authentication protocols proposed in the literature, using a multi-criteria classification previously introduced in this work.
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is the ability to provide everyday devices with a way of identification and another way for communication with each other. The spectrum of IoT application domains is very large including smart homes, smart cities, wearables, e-health, etc. Consequently, tens and even hundreds of billions of devices will be connected. Such devices will have smart capabilities to collect, analyze and even make decisions without any human interaction. Security is a supreme requirement in such circumstances, and in particular authentication is of high interest given the damage that could happen from a malicious unauthenticated device in an IoT system. This paper gives a near complete and up-to-date view of the IoT authentication field. It provides a summary of a large range of authentication protocols proposed in the literature. Using a multi-criteria classification previously introduced in our work, it compares and evaluates the proposed authentication protocols, showing their strengths and weaknesses, which constitutes a fundamental first step for researchers and developers addressing this domain.
TL;DR: The requirements for practical implementation and use of structural health monitoring systems in aircraft application, state-of-the-art techniques for solving some practical issues, such as sensor network integration, scalability to large structures, reliability and effect of environmental conditions, robust damage detection and quantification are discussed.
Abstract: Structural health monitoring (SHM) is being widely evaluated by the aerospace industry as a method to improve the safety and reliability of aircraft structures and also reduce operational cost. Built-in sensor networks on an aircraft structure can provide crucial information regarding the condition, damage state and/or service environment of the structure. Among the various types of transducers used for SHM, piezoelectric materials are widely used because they can be employed as either actuators or sensors due to their piezoelectric effect and vice versa. This paper provides a brief overview of piezoelectric transducer-based SHM system technology developed for aircraft applications in the past two decades. The requirements for practical implementation and use of structural health monitoring systems in aircraft application are then introduced. State-of-the-art techniques for solving some practical issues, such as sensor network integration, scalability to large structures, reliability and effect of environmental conditions, robust damage detection and quantification are discussed. Development trend of SHM technology is also discussed.
TL;DR: The CropDeep species classification and detection dataset, consisting of 31,147 images with over 49,000 annotated instances from 31 different classes, is presented and it is suggested that the YOLOv3 network has good potential application in agricultural detection tasks.
Abstract: Intelligence has been considered as the major challenge in promoting economic potential and production efficiency of precision agriculture. In order to apply advanced deep-learning technology to complete various agricultural tasks in online and offline ways, a large number of crop vision datasets with domain-specific annotation are urgently needed. To encourage further progress in challenging realistic agricultural conditions, we present the CropDeep species classification and detection dataset, consisting of 31,147 images with over 49,000 annotated instances from 31 different classes. In contrast to existing vision datasets, images were collected with different cameras and equipment in greenhouses, captured in a wide variety of situations. It features visually similar species and periodic changes with more representative annotations, which have supported a stronger benchmark for deep-learning-based classification and detection. To further verify the application prospect, we provide extensive baseline experiments using state-of-the-art deep-learning classification and detection models. Results show that current deep-learning-based methods achieve well performance in classification accuracy over 99%. While current deep-learning methods achieve only 92% detection accuracy, illustrating the difficulty of the dataset and improvement room of state-of-the-art deep-learning models when applied to crops production and management. Specifically, we suggest that the YOLOv3 network has good potential application in agricultural detection tasks.
TL;DR: An overview of the currently available contact-based methods for measuring respiratory rate is provided, based upon the recording of respiratory airflow, sounds, air temperature, air humidity, air components, chest wall movements, and modulation of the cardiac activity.
Abstract: There is an ever-growing demand for measuring respiratory variables during a variety of applications, including monitoring in clinical and occupational settings, and during sporting activities and exercise. Special attention is devoted to the monitoring of respiratory rate because it is a vital sign, which responds to a variety of stressors. There are different methods for measuring respiratory rate, which can be classed as contact-based or contactless. The present paper provides an overview of the currently available contact-based methods for measuring respiratory rate. For these methods, the sensing element (or part of the instrument containing it) is attached to the subject’s body. Methods based upon the recording of respiratory airflow, sounds, air temperature, air humidity, air components, chest wall movements, and modulation of the cardiac activity are presented. Working principles, metrological characteristics, and applications in the respiratory monitoring field are presented to explore potential development and applicability for each method.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research and developments in smartphone-sensor based healthcare technologies is presented and a discussion on regulatory policies for medical devices and their implications in smartphones-based healthcare systems is presented.
Abstract: Over the past few decades, we have witnessed a dramatic rise in life expectancy owing to significant advances in medical science and technology, medicine as well as increased awareness about nutrition, education, and environmental and personal hygiene. Consequently, the elderly population in many countries are expected to rise rapidly in the coming years. A rapidly rising elderly demographics is expected to adversely affect the socioeconomic systems of many nations in terms of costs associated with their healthcare and wellbeing. In addition, diseases related to the cardiovascular system, eye, respiratory system, skin and mental health are widespread globally. However, most of these diseases can be avoided and/or properly managed through continuous monitoring. In order to enable continuous health monitoring as well as to serve growing healthcare needs; affordable, non-invasive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions are critical. The ever-increasing penetration of smartphones, coupled with embedded sensors and modern communication technologies, make it an attractive technology for enabling continuous and remote monitoring of an individual’s health and wellbeing with negligible additional costs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research and developments in smartphone-sensor based healthcare technologies. A discussion on regulatory policies for medical devices and their implications in smartphone-based healthcare systems is presented. Finally, some future research perspectives and concerns regarding smartphone-based healthcare systems are described.
Plymouth Marine Laboratory1, University of Lisbon2, European Space Agency3, University of Bedfordshire4, University of New Hampshire5, University of Reading6, Goddard Space Flight Center7, University of California, San Diego8, United States Naval Research Laboratory9, Stockholm University10, University of South Florida11, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution12, University of Miami13
TL;DR: This paper outlines an approach that was adopted for generating an ocean-colour time series for climate studies, using data from the MERIS (MEdium spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor of the European Space Agency; the SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor) and MODIS-Aqua (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer- aqua) sensors from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA); and VIIRS
Abstract: Ocean colour is recognised as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS); and spectrally-resolved water-leaving radiances (or remote-sensing reflectances) in the visible domain, and chlorophyll-a concentration are identified as required ECV products. Time series of the products at the global scale and at high spatial resolution, derived from ocean-colour data, are key to studying the dynamics of phytoplankton at seasonal and inter-annual scales; their role in marine biogeochemistry; the global carbon cycle; the modulation of how phytoplankton distribute solar-induced heat in the upper layers of the ocean; and the response of the marine ecosystem to climate variability and change. However, generating a long time series of these products from ocean-colour data is not a trivial task: algorithms that are best suited for climate studies have to be selected from a number that are available for atmospheric correction of the satellite signal and for retrieval of chlorophyll-a concentration; since satellites have a finite life span, data from multiple sensors have to be merged to create a single time series, and any uncorrected inter-sensor biases could introduce artefacts in the series, e.g., different sensors monitor radiances at different wavebands such that producing a consistent time series of reflectances is not straightforward. Another requirement is that the products have to be validated against in situ observations. Furthermore, the uncertainties in the products have to be quantified, ideally on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to facilitate applications and interpretations that are consistent with the quality of the data. This paper outlines an approach that was adopted for generating an ocean-colour time series for climate studies, using data from the MERIS (MEdium spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor of the European Space Agency; the SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor) and MODIS-Aqua (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Aqua) sensors from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA); and VIIRS (Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA). The time series now covers the period from late 1997 to end of 2018. To ensure that the products meet, as well as possible, the requirements of the user community, marine-ecosystem modellers, and remote-sensing scientists were consulted at the outset on their immediate and longer-term requirements as well as on their expectations of ocean-colour data for use in climate research. Taking the user requirements into account, a series of objective criteria were established, against which available algorithms for processing ocean-colour data were evaluated and ranked. The algorithms that performed best with respect to the climate user requirements were selected to process data from the satellite sensors. Remote-sensing reflectance data from MODIS-Aqua, MERIS, and VIIRS were band-shifted to match the wavebands of SeaWiFS. Overlapping data were used to correct for mean biases between sensors at every pixel. The remote-sensing reflectance data derived from the sensors were merged, and the selected in-water algorithm was applied to the merged data to generate maps of chlorophyll concentration, inherent optical properties at SeaWiFS wavelengths, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm. The merged products were validated against in situ observations. The uncertainties established on the basis of comparisons with in situ data were combined with an optical classification of the remote-sensing reflectance data using a fuzzy-logic approach, and were used to generate uncertainties (root mean square difference and bias) for each product at each pixel.
TL;DR: A new local distortion adjustment (LDA) method is proposed and its distortion correction capabilities are evaluated upon actual layer contours manufactured on a fused filament fabrication (FFF) machine, revealing quasi-systematic deformations of the images which could be minimized by means of distortion correction.
Abstract: Industrial adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) processes demands improvement in the geometrical accuracy of manufactured parts. One key achievement would be to ensure that manufactured layer contours match the correspondent theoretical profiles, which would require integration of on-machine measurement devices capable of digitizing individual layers. Flatbed scanners should be considered as serious candidates, since they can achieve high scanning speeds at low prices. Nevertheless, image deformation phenomena reduce their suitability as two-dimensional verification devices. In this work, the possibilities of using flatbed scanners for AM contour verification are investigated. Image distortion errors are characterized and discussed and special attention is paid to the plication effect caused by contact imaging sensor (CIS) scanners. To compensate this phenomena, a new local distortion adjustment (LDA) method is proposed and its distortion correction capabilities are evaluated upon actual layer contours manufactured on a fused filament fabrication (FFF) machine. This proposed method is also compared to conventional global distortion adjustment (GDA). Results reveal quasi-systematic deformations of the images which could be minimized by means of distortion correction. Nevertheless, the irregular nature of such a distortion and the superposition of different errors penalize the use of GDA, to the point that it should not be used with CIS scanners. Conclusions indicate that LDA-based correction would enable the use of flatbed scanners in AM for on-machine verification tasks.
TL;DR: Experiments conducted on the dataset for emotion analysis using EEG, physiological, and video signals (DEAP) indicate that the proposed method outperforms most of the common models and the capsule network was more suitable for mining and utilizing the three correlation characteristics.
Abstract: Emotion recognition based on multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) signals is becoming increasingly attractive. However, the conventional methods ignore the spatial characteristics of EEG signals, which also contain salient information related to emotion states. In this paper, a deep learning framework based on a multiband feature matrix (MFM) and a capsule network (CapsNet) is proposed. In the framework, the frequency domain, spatial characteristics, and frequency band characteristics of the multi-channel EEG signals are combined to construct the MFM. Then, the CapsNet model is introduced to recognize emotion states according to the input MFM. Experiments conducted on the dataset for emotion analysis using EEG, physiological, and video signals (DEAP) indicate that the proposed method outperforms most of the common models. The experimental results demonstrate that the three characteristics contained in the MFM were complementary and the capsule network was more suitable for mining and utilizing the three correlation characteristics.
TL;DR: An artificial intelligence-assisted deep stride convolutional neural network (DSCNN) architecture using the plain nets strategy to learn salient and discriminative features from spectrogram of speech signals that are enhanced in prior steps to perform better.
Abstract: Speech is the most significant mode of communication among human beings and a potential method for human-computer interaction (HCI) by using a microphone sensor. Quantifiable emotion recognition using these sensors from speech signals is an emerging area of research in HCI, which applies to multiple applications such as human-reboot interaction, virtual reality, behavior assessment, healthcare, and emergency call centers to determine the speaker's emotional state from an individual's speech. In this paper, we present major contributions for; (i) increasing the accuracy of speech emotion recognition (SER) compared to state of the art and (ii) reducing the computational complexity of the presented SER model. We propose an artificial intelligence-assisted deep stride convolutional neural network (DSCNN) architecture using the plain nets strategy to learn salient and discriminative features from spectrogram of speech signals that are enhanced in prior steps to perform better. Local hidden patterns are learned in convolutional layers with special strides to down-sample the feature maps rather than pooling layer and global discriminative features are learned in fully connected layers. A SoftMax classifier is used for the classification of emotions in speech. The proposed technique is evaluated on Interactive Emotional Dyadic Motion Capture (IEMOCAP) and Ryerson Audio-Visual Database of Emotional Speech and Song (RAVDESS) datasets to improve accuracy by 7.85% and 4.5%, respectively, with the model size reduced by 34.5 MB. It proves the effectiveness and significance of the proposed SER technique and reveals its applicability in real-world applications.
TL;DR: This study analyzed the MIMIC III database for high-quality PPG and arterial BP waveforms and used the PPG alongside its first and second derivative as inputs into a novel spectro-temporal deep neural network with residual connections, showing that personalization of models is important and substantially improves the results, while deriving a good general predictive model is difficult.
Abstract: Blood pressure (BP) is a direct indicator of hypertension, a dangerous and potentially deadly condition. Regular monitoring of BP is thus important, but many people have aversion towards cuff-based devices, and their limitation is that they can only be used at rest. Using just a photoplethysmogram (PPG) to estimate BP is a potential solution investigated in our study. We analyzed the MIMIC III database for high-quality PPG and arterial BP waveforms, resulting in over 700 h of signals after preprocessing, belonging to 510 subjects. We then used the PPG alongside its first and second derivative as inputs into a novel spectro-temporal deep neural network with residual connections. We have shown in a leave-one-subject-out experiment that the network is able to model the dependency between PPG and BP, achieving mean absolute errors of 9.43 for systolic and 6.88 for diastolic BP. Additionally we have shown that personalization of models is important and substantially improves the results, while deriving a good general predictive model is difficult. We have made crucial parts of our study, especially the list of used subjects and our neural network code, publicly available, in an effort to provide a solid baseline and simplify potential comparison between future studies on an explicit MIMIC III subset.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an in-depth survey on the most recent advances in spectrum sensing, covering its development from its inception to its current state and beyond, highlighting the efficiency and limitations of both narrowband and wideband spectrum sensing techniques as well as the challenges involved in their implementation.
Abstract: Cognitive radio technology has the potential to address the shortage of available radio spectrum by enabling dynamic spectrum access. Since its introduction, researchers have been working on enabling this innovative technology in managing the radio spectrum. As a result, this research field has been progressing at a rapid pace and significant advances have been made. To help researchers stay abreast of these advances, surveys and tutorial papers are strongly needed. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to provide an in-depth survey on the most recent advances in spectrum sensing, covering its development from its inception to its current state and beyond. In addition, we highlight the efficiency and limitations of both narrowband and wideband spectrum sensing techniques as well as the challenges involved in their implementation. TV white spaces are also discussed in this paper as the first real application of cognitive radio. Last but by no means least, we discuss future research directions. This survey paper was designed in a way to help new researchers in the field to become familiar with the concepts of spectrum sensing, compressive sensing, and machine learning, all of which are the enabling technologies of the future networks, yet to help researchers further improve the efficiently of spectrum sensing.
TL;DR: The aim of the UP-Fall Detection Dataset is to help human activity recognition and machine learning research communities to fairly compare their fall detection solutions and it also provides many experimental possibilities for the signal recognition, vision, and machineLearning community.
Abstract: Falls, especially in elderly persons, are an important health problem worldwide. Reliable fall detection systems can mitigate negative consequences of falls. Among the important challenges and issues reported in literature is the difficulty of fair comparison between fall detection systems and machine learning techniques for detection. In this paper, we present UP-Fall Detection Dataset. The dataset comprises raw and feature sets retrieved from 17 healthy young individuals without any impairment that performed 11 activities and falls, with three attempts each. The dataset also summarizes more than 850 GB of information from wearable sensors, ambient sensors and vision devices. Two experimental use cases were shown. The aim of our dataset is to help human activity recognition and machine learning research communities to fairly compare their fall detection solutions. It also provides many experimental possibilities for the signal recognition, vision, and machine learning community.
TL;DR: This paper discusses pipeline leakage detection technologies and summarises the state-of-the-art achievements, and compares performance analysis is performed to provide a guide in determining which leak detection method is appropriate for particular operating settings.
Abstract: Pipelines are widely used for the transportation of hydrocarbon fluids over millions of miles all over the world. The structures of the pipelines are designed to withstand several environmental loading conditions to ensure safe and reliable distribution from point of production to the shore or distribution depot. However, leaks in pipeline networks are one of the major causes of innumerable losses in pipeline operators and nature. Incidents of pipeline failure can result in serious ecological disasters, human casualties and financial loss. In order to avoid such menace and maintain safe and reliable pipeline infrastructure, substantial research efforts have been devoted to implementing pipeline leak detection and localisation using different approaches. This paper discusses pipeline leakage detection technologies and summarises the state-of-the-art achievements. Different leakage detection and localisation in pipeline systems are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. Comparative performance analysis is performed to provide a guide in determining which leak detection method is appropriate for particular operating settings. In addition, research gaps and open issues for development of reliable pipeline leakage detection systems are discussed.
TL;DR: This review provides a comprehensive review of non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with a variety of biomolecules for the development of electrochemical biosensors and finds this method of immobilization is increasingly being used in bioelectrode development using enzymes for biosensor and biofuel cell applications.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied and used for the construction of electrochemical biosensors owing to their small size, cylindrical shape, large surface-to-volume ratio, high conductivity and good biocompatibility. In electrochemical biosensors, CNTs serve a dual purpose: they act as immobilization support for biomolecules as well as provide the necessary electrical conductivity for electrochemical transduction. The ability of a recognition molecule to detect the analyte is highly dependent on the type of immobilization used for the attachment of the biomolecule to the CNT surface, a process also known as biofunctionalization. A variety of biofunctionalization methods have been studied and reported including physical adsorption, covalent cross-linking, polymer encapsulation etc. Each method carries its own advantages and limitations. In this review we provide a comprehensive review of non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with a variety of biomolecules for the development of electrochemical biosensors. This method of immobilization is increasingly being used in bioelectrode development using enzymes for biosensor and biofuel cell applications.
TL;DR: The recent first principle studies on the interaction between gas molecules and novel promising materials like arsenene, borophene, blue phosphorene, GeSe monolayer and germanene are reviewed to understand the surface interaction mechanism.
Abstract: Toxic gases, such as NOx, SOx, H2S and other S-containing gases, cause numerous harmful effects on human health even at very low gas concentrations. Reliable detection of various gases in low concentration is mandatory in the fields such as industrial plants, environmental monitoring, air quality assurance, automotive technologies and so on. In this paper, the recent advances in electrochemical sensors for toxic gas detections were reviewed and summarized with a focus on NO2, SO2 and H2S gas sensors. The recent progress of the detection of each of these toxic gases was categorized by the highly explored sensing materials over the past few decades. The important sensing performance parameters like sensitivity/response, response and recovery times at certain gas concentration and operating temperature for different sensor materials and structures have been summarized and tabulated to provide a thorough performance comparison. A novel metric, sensitivity per ppm/response time ratio has been calculated for each sensor in order to compare the overall sensing performance on the same reference. It is found that hybrid materials-based sensors exhibit the highest average ratio for NO2 gas sensing, whereas GaN and metal-oxide based sensors possess the highest ratio for SO2 and H2S gas sensing, respectively. Recently, significant research efforts have been made exploring new sensor materials, such as graphene and its derivatives, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), GaN, metal-metal oxide nanostructures, solid electrolytes and organic materials to detect the above-mentioned toxic gases. In addition, the contemporary progress in SO2 gas sensors based on zeolite and paper and H2S gas sensors based on colorimetric and metal-organic framework (MOF) structures have also been reviewed. Finally, this work reviewed the recent first principle studies on the interaction between gas molecules and novel promising materials like arsenene, borophene, blue phosphorene, GeSe monolayer and germanene. The goal is to understand the surface interaction mechanism.
TL;DR: This review paper examined the suitability of upper limb prosthesis (ULP) inventions in the healthcare sector from their technical control perspective and the overall structure of pattern recognition schemes for myo-control prosthetic systems and their real-time use on amputee upper limbs.
Abstract: Upper limb amputation is a condition that significantly restricts the amputees from performing their daily activities. The myoelectric prosthesis, using signals from residual stump muscles, is aimed at restoring the function of such lost limbs seamlessly. Unfortunately, the acquisition and use of such myosignals are cumbersome and complicated. Furthermore, once acquired, it usually requires heavy computational power to turn it into a user control signal. Its transition to a practical prosthesis solution is still being challenged by various factors particularly those related to the fact that each amputee has different mobility, muscle contraction forces, limb positional variations and electrode placements. Thus, a solution that can adapt or otherwise tailor itself to each individual is required for maximum utility across amputees. Modified machine learning schemes for pattern recognition have the potential to significantly reduce the factors (movement of users and contraction of the muscle) affecting the traditional electromyography (EMG)-pattern recognition methods. Although recent developments of intelligent pattern recognition techniques could discriminate multiple degrees of freedom with high-level accuracy, their efficiency level was less accessible and revealed in real-world (amputee) applications. This review paper examined the suitability of upper limb prosthesis (ULP) inventions in the healthcare sector from their technical control perspective. More focus was given to the review of real-world applications and the use of pattern recognition control on amputees. We first reviewed the overall structure of pattern recognition schemes for myo-control prosthetic systems and then discussed their real-time use on amputee upper limbs. Finally, we concluded the paper with a discussion of the existing challenges and future research recommendations.
TL;DR: This article provides a detailed survey of all relevant research works, in which ML techniques have been used on UAV-based communications for improving various design and functional aspects such as channel modeling, resource management, positioning, and security.
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be an integral part of the next generation wireless communication networks. Their adoption in various communication-based applications is expected to improve coverage and spectral efficiency, as compared to traditional ground-based solutions. However, this new degree of freedom that will be included in the network will also add new challenges. In this context, the machine-learning (ML) framework is expected to provide solutions for the various problems that have already been identified when UAVs are used for communication purposes. In this article, we provide a detailed survey of all relevant research works, in which ML techniques have been used on UAV-based communications for improving various design and functional aspects such as channel modeling, resource management, positioning, and security.
TL;DR: The deep learning model for nodules’ detection and classification, combined with clinical factors, helps in the reduction of misdiagnosis and false positive results in early-stage lung cancer diagnosis.
Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths due to its aggressive nature and delayed detections at advanced stages. Early detection of lung cancer is very important for the survival of an individual, and is a significant challenging problem. Generally, chest radiographs (X-ray) and computed tomography (CT) scans are used initially for the diagnosis of the malignant nodules; however, the possible existence of benign nodules leads to erroneous decisions. At early stages, the benign and the malignant nodules show very close resemblance to each other. In this paper, a novel deep learning-based model with multiple strategies is proposed for the precise diagnosis of the malignant nodules. Due to the recent achievements of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) in image analysis, we have used two deep three-dimensional (3D) customized mixed link network (CMixNet) architectures for lung nodule detection and classification, respectively. Nodule detections were performed through faster R-CNN on efficiently-learned features from CMixNet and U-Net like encoder–decoder architecture. Classification of the nodules was performed through a gradient boosting machine (GBM) on the learned features from the designed 3D CMixNet structure. To reduce false positives and misdiagnosis results due to different types of errors, the final decision was performed in connection with physiological symptoms and clinical biomarkers. With the advent of the internet of things (IoT) and electro-medical technology, wireless body area networks (WBANs) provide continuous monitoring of patients, which helps in diagnosis of chronic diseases—especially metastatic cancers. The deep learning model for nodules’ detection and classification, combined with clinical factors, helps in the reduction of misdiagnosis and false positive (FP) results in early-stage lung cancer diagnosis. The proposed system was evaluated on LIDC-IDRI datasets in the form of sensitivity (94%) and specificity (91%), and better results were obatined compared to the existing methods.
TL;DR: An automatic stress detection system using physiological signals obtained from unobtrusive smart wearable devices which can be carried during the daily life routines of individuals which has modality-specific artifact removal and feature extraction methods for real-life conditions.
Abstract: The negative effects of mental stress on human health has been known for decades. High-level stress must be detected at early stages to prevent these negative effects. After the emergence of wearable devices that could be part of our lives, researchers have started detecting extreme stress of individuals with them during daily routines. Initial experiments were performed in laboratory environments and recently a number of works took a step outside the laboratory environment to the real-life. We developed an automatic stress detection system using physiological signals obtained from unobtrusive smart wearable devices which can be carried during the daily life routines of individuals. This system has modality-specific artifact removal and feature extraction methods for real-life conditions. We further tested our system in a real-life setting with collected physiological data from 21 participants of an algorithmic programming contest for nine days. This event had lectures, contests as well as free time. By using heart activity, skin conductance and accelerometer signals, we successfully discriminated contest stress, relatively higher cognitive load (lecture) and relaxed time activities by using different machine learning methods.
TL;DR: The design and evaluation of a UAV-based system aimed at automating inventory tasks and keeping the traceability of industrial items attached to Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags are presented, concluding that the system is able to obtain the inventory data really fast in comparison to traditional manual tasks.
Abstract: Industry 4.0 has paved the way for a world where smart factories will automate and upgrade many processes through the use of some of the latest emerging technologies. One of such technologies is Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), which have evolved a great deal in the last years in terms of technology (e.g., control units, sensors, UAV frames) and have significantlyr educed their cost. UAVs can help industry in automatable and tedious tasks, like the ones performed on a regular basis for determining the inventory and for preserving item traceability. In such tasks, especially when it comes from untrusted third parties, it is essential to determine whether the collected information is valid or true. Likewise, ensuring data trustworthiness is a key issue in order to leverage Big Data analytics to supply chain efficiency and effectiveness. In such a case, blockchain, another Industry 4.0 technology that has become very popular in other fields like finance, has the potential to provide a higher level of transparency, security, trust and efficiency in the supply chain and enable the use of smart contracts. Thus, in this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a UAV-based system aimed at automating inventory tasks and keeping the traceability of industrial items attached to Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags. To confront current shortcomings, such a system is developed under a versatile, modular and scalable architecture aimed to reinforce cyber security and decentralization while fostering external audits and big data analytics. Therefore, the system uses a blockchain and a distributed ledger to store certain inventory data collected by UAVs, validate them, ensure their trustworthiness and make them available to the interested parties. In order to show the performance of the proposed system, different tests were performed in a real industrial warehouse, concluding that the system is able to obtain the inventory data really fast in comparison to traditional manual tasks, while being also able to estimate the position of the items when hovering over them thanks to their tag's signal strength. In addition, the performance of the proposed blockchain-based architecture was evaluated in different scenarios.
TL;DR: A special clustering method called Energy Centers Searching using Particle Swarm Optimization (EC-PSO) is presented to avoid these energy holes and search energy centers for CHs selection and outperforms than some similar works in terms of network lifetime enhancement and energy utilization ratio.
Abstract: Energy efficiency and energy balancing are crucial research issues as per routing protocol designing for self-organized wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Many literatures used the clustering algorithm to achieve energy efficiency and energy balancing, however, there are usually energy holes near the cluster heads (CHs) because of the heavy burden of forwarding. As the clustering problem in lossy WSNs is proved to be a NP-hard problem, many metaheuristic algorithms are utilized to solve the problem. In this paper, a special clustering method called Energy Centers Searching using Particle Swarm Optimization (EC-PSO) is presented to avoid these energy holes and search energy centers for CHs selection. During the first period, the CHs are elected using geometric method. After the energy of the network is heterogeneous, EC-PSO is adopted for clustering. Energy centers are searched using an improved PSO algorithm and nodes close to the energy center are elected as CHs. Additionally, a protection mechanism is also used to prevent low energy nodes from being the forwarder and a mobile data collector is introduced to gather the data. We conduct numerous simulations to illustrate that our presented EC-PSO outperforms than some similar works in terms of network lifetime enhancement and energy utilization ratio.