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Showing papers in "Silicon in 2021"


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of nano-silica and silica fume (SF) on workability, setting time, compressive strength and microstructural properties of fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag (FA-GGBFS) based geopolymer concrete (GPC) is investigated.
Abstract: In this study, the effect of nano-silica (NS) and silica fume (SF) on workability, setting time, compressive strength and microstructural properties of fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag (FA-GGBFS) based geopolymer concrete (GPC) is investigated. Five mixtures of each containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% NS and SF are prepared for this investigation. The optimum GPC mixture with NS resulted in compressive strength of 63 MPa and the SF modified GPC achieved a compressive strength of 59.59 MPa after 28 days of outdoor temperature curing (Avg. temp. 31.4℃). The hardened concrete samples are analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and petrographic examination, for the better understanding of geopolymer mineralogy, mechanism and microstructure. Results indicate that both NS and SF facilitated a higher degree of geopolymerization, leading to the densification of the geopolymer matrix which led to the improvement of the properties of FA-GGBFS based GPC.

83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reveal the need and importance of adding nano-silica particles (a natural antibacterial substance) into neem oil when it is blended with epoxy resin to form a bio-composite.
Abstract: Epoxy bio composite was prepared using areca fibre, nano-silica and toughened by neem oil bio blender (anti-microbial content) for various engineering applications The principal aim of this research work is to reveal the need and importance of adding nano-silica particles (a natural antibacterial substance) into neem oil when it is blended with epoxy resin to form a bio-composite The nano-silica particle and areca fibre have been surface-treated by an amino silane 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) for better dispersion on neem-epoxy blended matrix medium The composites were prepared using hand layup method with post-cured at 120 °C in a hot oven The composites have been tested in accordance with ASTM standards The visco-elastic analysis shows that the storage modulus of 2 vol% of nano-silica particles in 30 vol% of areca-reinforced epoxy-neem composite found to be higher up to 98 GPa at room temperature and 18 GPa at 120 °C The loss factor also found to be higher at the glass transition temperature The differential scanning calorimetry results showed that the composites contain 2 vol% of nano-silica particles retains the glass transition (Tg) at higher neem oil blending (20 vol%) as higher than epoxy resin The antimicrobial behaviour of neem-epoxy composite was increased by the addition of 2 vol% of nano-silica Finally, the electrical insulation studies revealed that the composites built with non-polar neem oil and partial polar nano-silica not altered the electrical resistance much These antimicrobial enhanced and thermo-mechanically strengthened epoxy bio composites could be used as food storage containers, medical components carrier and domestic appliance manufacturing

74 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, an annular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is implemented for THz applications, which is loaded with graphene disk for obtaining the tunability in the frequency response.
Abstract: An annular dielectric resonator (DR) antenna (DRA) is implemented for THz applications. A silicon made DR is loaded with graphene disk for obtaining the tunability in the frequency response. The physical parameters of silicon annular DR can be set to obtain the resonance at any frequency in the lower THz band and can be tuned by changing the chemical potential of graphene nano-disk placed at the top of the DR. The response of antenna is preserved after changing the chemical potential of graphene. The higher order hybrid electromagnetic mode is excited in the antenna structure. The proposed research work provides a way to implement the antenna for THz frequency with high gain around 3.8 dBi and radiation efficiency in the range 72 − 75%.

56 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the full-fledged detail about the TFET based biosensors right from unfolding the device evaluation to biosensor application which includes qualitative and quantitative parameters analysis study like sensitivity parameters and different factors affecting the sensitivity by comparing different structures and the mechanisms involved.
Abstract: In this fast-growing technological world biosensors become more substantial in human life and the extensive use of biosensors creates enormous research interest among researchers to define different approaches to detect biomolecules. The FET based biosensors have gained a lot of attention among all because of its high detection ability, low power, low cost, label-free detection of biomolecules, and CMOS compatible on-chip integration. The sensitivity of the biosensor inversely proportional to device size since they detect low concentration yields quick response time. Although FET based biosensor is having a lot of advantages among others but the short channel effects (SCE’s) and the theoretical limitation on the subthreshold swing (SS > 60mv/dec) of the FET leads to restrict device sensitivity and also have higher power dissipation due to the thermionic emission of electrons. To avoid these problems researchers focus shifts to the new technology FET based biosensors i.e. TFET based biosensors which are having low power and superior characteristics due to Band to band tunneling of carrier and steep subthreshold swing. This manuscript describes the full-fledged detail about the TFET based biosensors right from unfolding the device evaluation to biosensor application which includes qualitative and quantitative parameters analysis study like sensitivity parameters and different factors affecting the sensitivity by comparing different structures and the mechanisms involved. The manuscript also describes a brief review of different sensitivity parameters and improvement techniques. This manuscript will give researchers a brief idea for developing for the future generation TFET biosensors with better performance and ease of fabrication.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, the melting-quenching method has been used to fabricate Na2B4O7 -CdO glass system and the XRD diffractometer procedure was used to check the status of these samples.
Abstract: The melt-quenching method has been used to fabricate Na2B4O7 - CdO glass system. The XRD diffractometer procedure was used to check the status of these samples. Inter-ionic distance (Ri) between Cd–Cd, Polaron radius rp, and inter-nuclear distance ri reduced with Cd content due to reducing molar volume. Ionicity Ib decreased and covalent glass character increased as CdO in the glass matrix increases. As the CdO contents increase, the values of Tg, Tc, and TP have been increased. All expected phases are displayed in the XRD patterns. SEM has studied the morphology of the vitreous ceramic. It has been noted that the velocities and elastic modulus of glass-ceramics samples are increased. The structural nature of the developed phase was monitored in spectroscopic FT-IR investigations of the glass-ceramic samples. Mass attenuation Coefficient (μ/ρ) increases with CdO-content increase. The Zeff values increase gradually at higher energy because of X-ray K-edges. Hence, the increase in CdO content can be developed the γ -radiation. According to our data, G7 is the best sample for shielding properties.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the possibilities of taking the advantages of these approaches to machining using the Abrasive Water Jet Machine (AWJM) for Taguchi's L27 Orthogonal Array (OA).
Abstract: Clustering techniques are used to group the data based on the structure or through classification to reduce the mathematical complexity of large datasets. The hierarchical and partitioning approach are two broad clustering/classification techniques in data-mining. An attempt has been made to study the possibilities of taking the advantages of these approaches to machining. AlSi7/63% of SiC hybrid composite prepared by stir casting technique is machined using the Abrasive Water Jet Machine (AWJM) for Taguchi’s L27 Orthogonal Array (OA). Water Pressure, cutting distance, and cutting Speed are taken as independent parameters. Material Removal Rate (MRR), Kerf Angle (KA) and Surface profile Roughness (Ra) are taken as dependent responses. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers with Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) classifies L27 OA into three classes of nine observations each. To compare and explore the difference between the partitional clustering and hierarchical clustering techniques at the same level of class, the study on K-means value is taken as 3 because of AHC group L27 OA into three classes. The value of K is fixed with three and it group into three classes of nine observations each. XLSTAT software is used for the analysis of AHC and K-means. Further, linear regression equations are developed for each class/classification of AHC and K-means and compared with the experimental observations. The analysis reveals that K-means classification based on the partitioning approach fits best with the experimental observations. AHC develops a single equation for all the classes, whereas K-means develops individual equations for all its classes.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: A silicon and two-dimensional MXene (Ti3C2Tx) layer-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was proposed in this paper, where the silicon layer is used between silver and MXene to increase the sensitivity.
Abstract: In this seminal, we proposed a silicon and two-dimensional MXene (Ti3C2Tx) layer-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. Use of MXene layer facilitates the adsorption of biomolecules due to its larger surface area, stronger light matter interaction and higher binding energies. Silver, silicon thicknesses and the number of MXene layers of proposed SPR have been optimized for the best performance. Sensitivity, detection accuracy, and figure of merit acquired with 50 nm silver, 5 nm silicon film and for monolayer MXene at 633 nm wavelength is 231οRIU−1 0.17 Degree−1 and 39.83 RIU−1. Silicon layer is used between silver and MXene to increase the sensitivity. Proposed SPR sensor with silicon shows sensitivity enhancement of 99.83% and 95.68% over conventional SPR and proposed SPR without silicon respectively. However, highest sensitivity is reached to 349.9οRIU−1 for 50 nm silver and 7 nm silicon without any MXene layer.

45 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, Taguchi-Data Envelopment Analysis based Ranking (DEAR) based multi criteria decision making has been proposed to obtain optimal combination process parameters on machining silicon steel in low frequency vibration assisted EDM process.
Abstract: In the present scenario, an endeavour is being utilized to associate the low frequency vibrations with electrical discharge machining process for enhancing the process mechanism. The process parameters of such process should be optimized to improve the quality measures. In the present study, Taguchi- Data Envelopment Analysis based Ranking(DEAR) based multi criteria decision making has been proposed to obtain optimal combination process parameters on machining silicon steel in low frequency vibration assisted EDM process. From the experimetal investigations, the optimal process parameters combination has been found was found as I (6A),Ton (50 μs), Toff (25 μs) and F (256 Hz) among the chosen parameters in the machining process. The vibration frequency is more dominant factor in ultrasonic vibration assisted EDM process owing to importance in flushing mechanism. The better surface topography has been obtained with higher micro hardness and lower micro cracks over the machined silicon steel under optimal process parameters combination.

45 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (ABR) and nano-silica along with stitched E-glass fiber in epoxy composite was investigated.
Abstract: In this research, the role of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (ABR) and nano-silica along with stitched E-glass fibre in epoxy composite was investigated. The main objective of this present study is how the additions of ABR and nano-silica particle influences in the mechanical, drop load impact and fracture toughness properties of glass-epoxy composite. The layering of rubber sheet for improving the reinforcing effect is a novel approach in reinforced plastic. The composites were prepared using various stacking sequence of ABR and E-glass fibre with nano-silica toughened epoxy resin. The composites were characterized using ASTM standards. According to mechanical properties the composite designation FAF2 symmetric arrangement gives better overall (rank of 97) properties. Similarly, the composite designation AFA2 gives very higher penetration resistance against the fast moving impactor. The fracture toughness behaviour of the composite shows higher energy release rate of 3.8 MJ/m2 and fracture toughness of 22 MPa for 3 vol.% of nano-silica particle dispersed FAF epoxy composite. The SEM micrographs show improved adhesion of 3 vol.% nano-silica with fibre and ABR in composites. The penetration improved rubber based epoxy composites could be used in armour based device, automobile body parts and domestic product manufacturing industries.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
10 Apr 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of TiO2 addition on the spectroscopic and nuclear shielding properties of lithium fluoride zinc titanate borosilicate glasses with the form 59B2O3-29SiO2-2LiF-(10 − x)ZnO-xTiO2 x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mol % labelled as G1-G6, respectively were investigated.
Abstract: Effects of TiO2 addition on the spectroscopic and nuclear shielding properties of lithium fluoride zinc titanate borosilicate glasses with the form 59B2O3-29SiO2-2LiF-(10 − x)ZnO-xTiO2 x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mol % labelled as G1-G6, respectively were investigated. The amorphous state of this system was experimentally evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The spectroscopic properties of the recent glasses positively correlated to the increase in TiO2 content. Molar Refractivity (Rm), molar Polarizability (∝m),reflection loss (RL), metallization criterion (M), electron Polarizability (α°), ionic concentration (Ni), titanium-titanium separation (dTi – Ti), inter ionic distance (Ri), inter-nuclear distance (ri), and polaron radius (rp)of the synthesized glasses were determined. Our results show that both the band gap and refractive index increased with TiO2 content while Urbach energy decreased. The nuclear radiation shielding properties of these glasses were explored by utilizing Phy-X/PSD simulations. The lower value of the (MFP) sample contains higher TiO2 content, so good glasses for γ radiation attenuation are accessible. Fast cross section neutron removal of these glasses enhanced as the concentration of TiO2 increased. Gamma-ray shielding properties of these glasses were compared with different conventional shielding materials and commercial glasses. Therefore, the investigated glasses have potential uses in gamma shielding applications.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of particle reinforcement on the tensile strength and micro hardness of aluminum matrix composite was investigated by stir casting, which is a widely used liquid state method of a fabrication technique for preparing metal matrix composite with the help of mechanical stirring.
Abstract: Aluminium matrix composites impact greatly in modern trends for huge applications in the aerospace and automotive industry due to its better strength to weight ratio and temperature resistance capacity. This work investigated the effect on SiC and TiB2 powder reinforced aluminium matrix composite fabricated by stir casting. Stir casting is a widely used liquid state method of a fabrication technique for preparing metal matrix composite with the help of mechanical stirring. Density, tensile strength, hardness, and fracture analysis were done to observe the development of ceramic particle reinforced aluminium matrix composite. SEM analysis revealed the uniform distribution of reinforcement particles throughout the aluminium matrix. Universal tensile strength and micro hardness of aluminium matrix composite enhanced from 140 MPa to 182 MPa and 66 HV to 81 HV respectively due to the addition of particle reinforcement. The microstructural investigation from the fractured surface of tensile samples indicated ductile nature appeared in Al7075, Al7075/SiC, and Al7075/TiB2 composites due to nucleation and micro-voids formation.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of increase in an atoms numbers added to the (PVA-NiO-SiC) structures on the geometrical parameters, electronic and spectroscopic characteristics for low cost electronic applications by Gaussian 0.9 program with help of Gaussian View 0.5 using DFT with (LanL2DZ).
Abstract: This work aims to study of the effect of increase in an atoms numbers added to the (PVA-NiO-SiC) structures on the geometrical parameters, electronic and spectroscopic characteristics for low cost electronic applications by Gaussian 0.9 program with help of Gaussian View 0.5 using DFT with (LanL2DZ). The structural, electronic and optical properties included: energy gap, cohesive energy, chemical softness, electron affinity, ionization potential, chemical hardness, electronegativity, electrophilicity, density of states, IR spectra, UV spectra and Raman spectra. The results indicated to the increase in atoms numbers leads to decrease the cohesive energy, energy gap, and ionization potential. The UV-Vis spectra of small molecules are higher than larger molecules in intensity and moves toward cut off energy frequency for large molecules. The results indicated to the (PVA-NiO-SiC) structures can be useful for various optoelectronics fields like: electronic gates, diodes, photovoltaic devices, transistors...etc.

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Feb 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, a modified-interlock friction stir weld lap joint was induced to join AA8011-AA7475 with different wt% of SiC particles, which showed improved hardness, tensile strength and elongation suitable for aircraft wing stringers application.
Abstract: The present requirement of the aerospace industry is seeking light-weight joining material that satisfies the technical and technological requirements with better mechanical characteristics. Aluminum alloy with spot-welding process meet the requirements of modern demands. In this present paper, a modified-interlock friction stir weld lap joint is induced to join AA8011-AA7475 with different wt% of SiC particles. Friction stir machine process parameters were tool rotational speed 1600 rpm, plunge speed rate 0.08 mm/s and traverse speed 40 mm/s maintained constantly. Mechanical and metallurgical characterizations were investigated. EDS analysis and microstructure confirmed the presence of silica particles in the NZ of the weld joints and uniformed homogenous distribution of the particulates throughout the weld. Joints made with SiC particulates showed improved static properties because intensive softening occurred in the stir zone leading to Si-Al-based precipitate particulates. The fracture test showed that the joints with SiC had a ductile fracture. AA8011-AA7475 with 2 wt% SiC showed maximum hardness, tensile strength of 229 HV, 192 MPa and a decrease in elongation was observed from 9.5 to 5%. AA8011-AA7475/2 wt% showed improved hardness, tensile strength and elongation suitable for aircraft wing stringers application.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the electronic properties and optimized geometry for (PVA-PEO-SiC)(56Atom) by using DFT at B3LYP level with bases set LanL2DZ for electronic, photonic and optic applications.
Abstract: Present study deals with the electronic properties and optimized geometry for (PVA-PEO-SiC)(56Atom) by using DFT at B3LYP level with bases set LanL2DZ for electronic, photonic and optic applications. The electronic characteristic which contain total energy, cohesive energy, HOMO, LUMO), ionization potential, energy gap, softness, electronic affinity, hardness, electronegativity and electrophilicity. The spectroscopic properties (IR, NMR and UV) for (PVA-PEO-SiC)(56Atom)were investigated at the same large level of theory. DFT calculations of1H NMR chemical shifts on(PVA-PEO-SiC)(56Atom) showed a higher shielding of PEO. The results indicate to the PVA-PEO-SiC have excellent optical and electronic properties with low energy band gap which make it suitable for various optoelectronics applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jan 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated aluminum alloy powder (Al7075) of mesh size 60μm and the reinforcement SiC of varying its weight percentage (2.5, 4, 6, 6), and keeping constant Al2O3 of particle size <50nm has been used to synthesize aluminium alloy hybrid nanocomposites.
Abstract: The present study investigates aluminium alloy powder (Al7075) of mesh size 60 μm and the reinforcement SiC of varying its weight percentage (2 wt%, 4 wt%, 6 wt%) and keeping constant Al2O3 (2 wt%) of particle size <50 nm has been used to synthesis aluminium alloy hybrid nanocomposites. The compaction pressure (350 MPa) and the sintering temperature (750 °C) are used to develop such hybrid composites. The microstructure and mechanical behaviour of progressed composites have been characterized as per ASTM standards. The aluminium alloy hybrid composites sintered effectively and the strengthening particles are consistently disseminated in the matrix alloy without indication of the cluster along with the fine grains of intra dendrite grain boundaries that are precipitated throughout grains of an aluminum matrix. In comparison with base alloy, the hardness (14%) and compressive strength (24%) of synthesized composites have been increased invariably. ASTM B117 salt spray experiment has been performed to study the corrosion properties of incorporated composites. It has been inferred that corrosion-resistant is improved due to the presence of interface AlC2, Al2SiC between the intermixtures. This act as a barrier for disruption and it minimizes the effect of oxidation of developed aluminium hybrid composites.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of MMT clay on thermal, mechanical, water absorption and biodegradable properties of PLA-biocomposite and PLA-hybrid biocomposites has been studied.
Abstract: Nowadays, the starring attentions of the polylactic acid based composites are improved due to environmental awareness and diminution of petroleum oil. The bio-plastics were restricted to limited applications due to its higher cost. The bio-plastics filled fiber and or fillers lessen the cost with enhanced properties. In this research, the PLA- biocomposite and PLA-hybrid biocomposites were prepared with twin screw extruder, two-roll mill, and compression molding method. The PLA based bio and hybrid biocomposites are fabricated with 30 wt% of treated kenaf fiber and 0, 1, 2 and 3 wt% montmorillonite clay filler. The influence of MMT clay on thermal, mechanical, water absorption and biodegradable properties of PLA-biocomposite and PLA-hybrid biocomposites has been studied. The PLA-hybrid biocomposites thermal, mechanical and water resistance properties are increased with adding of MMT clay. However, 1 wt% MMT clay included PLA-hybrid biocomposite exhibits increased tensile, flexural and impact properties, and abrasion resistance than other PLA-hybrid biocomposites. The PLA-bio and hybrid biocomposites showed higher tensile and flexural modulus than pure- PLA. The results TGA analysis depicted that inclusion of MMT clay can improve the decomposition temperature of the biocomposite. SEM analysis discloses that, MMT clay it acts as a transfer mechanism. The water absorption and biodegradability properties results illustrates that water resistance of hybrid biocomposites improved and biodegradability decreased due to adding of MMT clay.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, a strain sensitive quantum well-structured photonic crystal has been utilized to realize a pressure sensor device, which can work in the range between 0 and 6 GPa corresponding to wavelength range 1509-1550 nm.
Abstract: In the present communication, the strain sensitive quantum well-structured photonic crystal has been utilized to realize a pressure sensor device. The quantum well-structure in one dimensional photonic crystal opens a channel into the photonic bandgap. The channel can be tuned with the refractive index of material, which depends on parameter, i.e. pressure. This tunability of the channel with the applied pressure is used in high pressure sensor application. The proposed sensor can work in the range between 0 and 6 GPa corresponding to wavelength range 1509–1550 nm. The proposed sensor has a high quality factor, sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) as ~ 105, 6.74 nm/GPa, 872.43 /GPa, respectively.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, a heptagonal cladding with the rotated-hexacore (RH) in photonic crystal fiber (H-PCF) has been made for the field of chemical sensing in the terahertz (THz) area.
Abstract: A heptagonal cladding (HC) with the rotated-hexacore (RH) in photonic crystal fiber (H-PCF) has been made for the field of chemical sensing in the terahertz (THz) area. There are five layers of circular air holes (CAH) in the heptagonal cladding region and two layers of rotated-hexa of CAH in the area of the core that have been second hand to enterprise this PCF. This suggested H-PCF, a full-vectorial finite element method (FEM) and perfectly matched layers (PML) boundary condition has been utilized based on a software instrument. After simulation results, the proposed sensor displays the relative sensitivity (RS) 68.48%, 69.20%, 66.78% and the confinement losses (CL) are 2.13 × 10−09 dB/m, 1.92 × 10−09 dB/m and 2.70 × 10−06 dB/m for focused analytics Ethanol (n = 1.354), Benzene (n = 1.366) and Water (n = 1.330) independently at 1 THz frequency regime. We have also discussed total power fraction, effective mode index, and effective area elaborately here. However, our proposed H-PCF is suitable for the user such as in chemical sensors as well as in many diverse industrial and medical areas.

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Apr 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, the structural, mechanical, and radiation shielding characteristics of glass samples were investigated using the melt-quench method, and the mass attenuation coefficient, mean free path, half-value layer, tenth value layer, and effective atomic number of glasses were designed to simulate gamma photon energies between 0.015 and 15 µmV.
Abstract: Glasses with the chemical composition of 52B2O3 – 12SiO2–26Bi2O3 – (10 − x)TiO2 - xY2O3, :(0 ≤ x ≤ 10) prepared using the melt-quench method. The goal of this study is to investigate the structural, mechanical, and radiation shielding characteristics of these samples. XRD analysis has explored the nature of the glass system. Molar volume obtained reduced while the density denotes increased in the present system. As the molar volume decrease inter-ionic distance, polaron radius, inter-nuclear distance, and Y-Y separation of the investigated glasses decreased. The mechanical characteristics depend on the glass structure of the current glasses sample. Ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli (experimental and theoretical) for these glasses obtained they were observed to get enhanced. The radiation shielding efficiency was investigated by Phy-X/PSD software. The mass attenuation coefficient, mean free path, half-value layer, tenth value layer, and effective atomic number of glasses have been designed to simulate gamma photon energies between 0.015 and 15 MeV.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of Si as a foliar application on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, plant-water status, metals accumulation, water-use efficiency and yield of maize grown under drought and metals-contaminated irrigation water stresses was investigated.
Abstract: Irrigation water rarity and its contamination with toxic metals are increasing gradually and have become imperious issues for the environment at personal and governmental levels. Silicon (Si) can increase plant tolerance to abiotic stressors and beneficially affect plant growth and productivity. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of Si as a foliar application on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, plant-water status, metals accumulation, water-use efficiency (WUE) and yield of maize grown under drought and metals-contaminated irrigation water stresses. We conducted two-season field experiments in 2017 and 2018 summer seasons on maize grown under two irrigation regimes (Full irrigation (FI = 100%) and deficit irrigation (DI20% = 80%) of crop evapotranspiration) combined with 0 (Si0), 2 (Si2), and 4 (Si4) mM of Si in form of Na2SiO3 applied at 40 and 60 days after planting as a foliar application. In both seasons, maize plants were irrigated with metals-contaminated redundant water (Ni2+; 5.5 ppm, Cd2+; 0.27 ppm, and Cr3+; 5 ppm). Exogenous application of Si increased drought stress tolerance in maize by enhancing photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal conductance (gs) and cell membrane integrity as evaluated by membrane stability index. These results were positively reflected in improving plant growth, WUE, and productivity along with decreasing accumulation of Ni+2, Cd+2, and Cr+3 in leaves and grains under drought stress by metals-contaminated irrigation water. Deficit irrigation and metal-contaminated irrigation water conditions reduced growth and productivity of maize plants. However, foliar application of Si was effective in enhancing the physiological performance, water use efficiency, and productivity of maize under drought and/or contaminated irrigation water conditions. Therefore, Si may, in future, find value as a potential plant growth stimulant under different abiotic stresses.

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Mar 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the dynamic field of Si-based solar cells from high-cost crystalline to low-cost cells is reviewed and how to preserve high possible efficiencies while decreasing the cost.
Abstract: Renewable energy has become an auspicious alternative to fossil fuel resources due to its sustainability and renewability. In this respect, Photovoltaics (PV) technology is one of the essential technologies. Today, more than 90 % of the global PV market relies on crystalline silicon (c-Si)-based solar cells. This article reviews the dynamic field of Si-based solar cells from high-cost crystalline to low-cost cells and investigates how to preserve high possible efficiencies while decreasing the cost. First, we discuss the various types of c-Si solar cells with different device architectures and report recent developments. Next, thin-film solar cells with their recent advancements are given. Then, Si nanowires solar cells and their recent results are discussed. Finally, we present the most encouraging tendencies in achieving low-cost solar cells utilizing cheap materials like heavily doped silicon wafers.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, Ni-Co-Cr-SiC composites with various weight percentages were manufactured via powder metallurgy (PM) route and the powders were mixed using planetary ball mill for a period of 10h.
Abstract: In this investigation, Ni-Co-Cr-SiC composites with various weight percentages were manufactured via powder metallurgy (PM) route. The compositions of the composites are Ni-10%Co-5%Cr, Ni-10% Co-5%Cr-4%SiC, Ni-10%Co-5%Cr-8%SiC and Ni-10%Co-5%Cr-12%SiC. The powders were mixed using planetary ball mill for a period of 10 h. The ball milled powders were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. By utilizing 150 kN hydraulic press with appropriate punch and die the ball milled powders were compacted as a cylindrical billets. The green compacts were sintered in a tubular furnace at two different temperatures 1000 °C and 1200 °C for3 h. The characterization examination namely XRD, SEM and Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDAX) was made on the sintered samples. Unreinforced Ni-Co-Cr exhibits higher sinterability at both sintering temperature. The sintering temperature and reinforcement weight percentage effect on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the composites were examined. From these investigations, the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the composites were enhanced while increasing the sintering temperature and SiC weight percentage in the Ni-Co-Cr super alloy matrix.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of Si on growth, yield and fruit quality of cantaloupe under drought stress were evaluated in a polyhouse experiment, where the treatments consisted of four Si fertilizer doses (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg−1) applied in the form of silicic acid [H4SiO4, 20% Si content] and three soil moisture regimes (100, 75% and 50% field capacity [FC]).
Abstract: Silicon (Si) plays an important role in mitigating adverse effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses including drought. Polyhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Si on growth, yield and fruit quality of cantaloupe under drought stress. The treatments consisted of four Si fertilizer doses (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha−1) applied in the form of silicic acid [H4SiO4, 20% Si content] and three soil moisture regimes (100%, 75% and 50% field capacity [FC]). Growth, yield and fruit quality were significantly (p < 0.01) affected by decreasing soil moisture level. Yield and water productivity were reduced by 63–69% and 19–34%, respectively, at different Si fertilizer doses when soil moisture was reduced from 100% to 50% FC. Overall, application of Si fertilizer was beneficial at all soil moisture regimes. There was no significant difference in yield and water productivity among four Si fertilizer doses at 50% FC, while these parameters were increased by 18–27% and 16–22%, respectively, at 75% FC and by 10–19% and 2–12%, respectively, at 100% FC with increasing Si fertilizer dose. Flesh thickness and total soluble solids content were also higher in Si-fed plants than the control. Application of silicic acid at 200 and 400 kg ha−1 maximized yield at 75% and 100% FC, respectively, and hence could be recommended as optimum doses. Selection of proper Si dose in synchronization with soil moisture level could be critical in cantaloupe production when soil moisture is a limiting factor.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, a photonic crystal based micro-ring resonator (MRR) structure is proposed which is very compact in size and has very fast response and is employed for temperature sensing purpose.
Abstract: In the present report, a photonic crystal based micro-ring resonator (MRR) structure is proposed which is very compact in size and has very fast response and is employed for temperature sensing purpose. Temperature sensing application for both the single MRR and cascaded MRR is illustrated in this paper. The sensitivity of the reported structure is increased from 2.9 nm/°C to 3.4 nm/°C by cascading two MRR. The refractive index of the material is subjected to change with the variation in temperature which results in the shift of the resonant wavelength of the proposed sensor. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation is utilized to see the transmission spectrum of the proposed structure and analyzing the shift in the resonance wavelength the temperature is calculated. The proposed design is simple, reliable and may be integrated into different transducer and sensing applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jan 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of stir casting parameters of AA7178/Si3N4 composites for varying filler mass proportionate, stirring speed and stirring time were assessed employing a universal testing machine and using a L9 (3)3 Taguchi orthogonal array.
Abstract: In the recent days, the employ of aluminum alloy has enriched dramatically especially in engineering applications extensively employed in ship building, aerospace, structural, non-structural and automotive applications like driveshaft, wheels, crankshaft, connecting rod, chassis, brake rotors, cylinder blocks and piston etc. The foremost objective of this evaluation is to optimize the impacts of stir casting parameters of Aluminium Alloy AA7178/Si3N4 with response of tensile strength by utilizing Taguchi approach. MINITAB software was employed for conducting the Taguchi analysis. The stir casting parameters of this examination are stirring speed, stirring time and reinforcement percentage. The tensile behaviour of AA7178/Si3N4 composites for varying filler mass proportionate, stirring speed and stirring time were assessed employing a “universal testing machine”, and using a L9 (3)3 Taguchi orthogonal array. The nine samples of trials are employed to estimate the tensile behaviour of the composite material. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is extensively assistance to intimate which parameter is highly impact for this evaluation. Amid those factors, filler content as highly influenced factor to response value followed as stirring time and stirring rpm.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the use of waste materials (supplementary cementitious materials (S.C.M) and recycled materials) was explored in the production of self-compacting concrete.
Abstract: Sustainability issues have been a major concern in the construction field, owing to the overexploration of natural raw material sources. The high demand of natural materials is traceble to increasing urbanization and industrialization. Various landmark research achievement has been made in the production of self-compacting concrete in recent years. The focus has been on the use of wastes emanating from agricultural, construction, and industrial activities. However, finding a workable framework for the use of the alternative materials is still an issue. This study presented procedures for cleaner production of self-compacting concrete with selected industrial rejects. The use of waste materials (supplementary cementitious materials (S.C.M.) and recycled materials) were explored. The materials, according to research trend, were either utilized as a partial or total replacement of conventional materials. From the available data, the study found that industrial by-products demonstrated potential to serve as an alternative material in production of self-compacting concrete. It is shown from the study that greener, and sustainable S.C.C. with enhanced properties could be achieved by using industry rejects. The presented procedures will serve as a guide for industrial application of the materials, and also foster economic benefits to the construction sector.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented the analog and RF performance evaluation of junctionless accumulation mode (JAM) Gate Stack Gate All Around (GS-GAA) FinFET, and the results acquired have been compared with conventional Fin-FET and GAA Fin FET.
Abstract: This work presents the analog and RF performance evaluation of Junctionless Accumulation Mode (JAM) Gate Stack Gate All Around (GS-GAA) FinFET, and the results acquired have been compared with conventional FinFET and GAA FinFET. It has been observed that in comparison to conventional FinFET, leakage current (Ioff) reduces by almost thirty times for the GS-GAA FinFET configuration. Thus, revamping the threshold voltage (Vth), switching ratio (Ion/Ioff), and subthreshold slope (SS) of the proposed device. Also, major analog parameters like transconductance (gm), transconductance generation factor (TGF) enhances considerably with early voltage (VEA) and intrinsic gain (Av) increased by over two times in magnitude for the GS-GAA FinFET configuration. Furthermore, several important RF parameters have been explored, and the outcome of the study is that the GS-GAA FinFET configuration shows superior RF performance. In GS-GAA FinFET configuration, the gain frequency product (GFP) and gain transconductance frequency product (GTFP) amplified by over two times in magnitude with minimal decrease in the cut-off frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax). Thus, the proposed GS-GAA FinFET device can be looked upon as an appealing option for high-frequency analog/RF applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, a study was conducted to evaluate the performance of concrete mixture incorporating recycled products as partial replacement of Portland cement, and the results showed that the incorporation of BCM resulted in a decrease in the slump and mechanical properties.
Abstract: The increasing demand for concrete for various infrastructure construction has led to significant production and usage of Portland cement which is the main binder used for concrete The production of Portland cement poses a sustainability threat as its production emits a large amount of carbon dioxide into the environment coupled with the high consumption of natural resources Therefore, the use of alternative materials will result in a significant reduction in these carbon emissions and deformation of the environment On the other hand, the increasing population coupled with urbanization has led to the generation of several tonnes of solid wastes annually from various processes Some of these wastes generated can be recycled and used as partial replacement of Portland cement in concrete mixtures In order to improve the sustainability of concrete mixtures, this study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of concrete mixture incorporating recycled products as partial replacement of Portland cement Corn cob ash and glass powder which are waste products from the agricultural and manufacturing industry respectively were used as binary cementitious material (BCM) to replace Portland cement up to 20% in concrete production The effects of the BCM on the slump and mechanical properties were evaluated Results from this study showed that the incorporation of BCM resulted in a decrease in the slump of the concrete mixtures In terms of mechanical properties, 10% BCM was deemed the optimum due to the enhancement of the compressive and split tensile strength Sustainability analysis of the mixtures also indicates BCM can be used to reduce the embodied energy and carbon of concrete mixtures

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of alumino silicate materials on strength properties, characterization and micro structural analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared spectrograph (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) in geopolymer concrete under ambient curing condition was investigated.
Abstract: Geopolymer concrete is an eco-friendly alternate to conventional concrete that considerably lower green house gases emitting into the atmosphere. Fly ash based geopolymer concrete is reported to become hardened during heat curing process which comes as a major constraint for cast in in-situ applications. In this study, the aluminosilicate materials such as Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) with varying percentages such as 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replaces the fly ash (FA) in geopolymer concrete was used. Manufactured sand (M-sand) is used as full replacement material for natural sand as fine aggregate owing to its increasing demand. This work aims at investigating the effect of alumino silicate materials on strength properties, characterization and micro structural analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in geopolymer concrete under ambient curing condition. The SEM and EDX results reveals that, the micro structural properties of fly ash, GGBS materials, CaO, Si/Al ratio, and gel formation have a significant effect on compressive strength and setting time of geopolymer concrete. The FTIR analysis reveals that the stretching vibration of fly ash shifts to low wave number values due to changes in geopolymerization. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) reports show that the C-S-H gel formed around 27–30° 2theta value due to increase of GGBS in geopolymer concrete.

Posted ContentDOI
02 Sep 2021-Silicon
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the FLUKA code to estimate the main attenuation considerations mass attenuation coefficients (MAC) and linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) for Zinc lead silicate glass.
Abstract: Zinc lead silicate glass system contains different amount of WO3 were fabricated using the classical melt-quench technique. The nature of the samples was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli were tested experimentally after that the results were compared by using the theoretical consideration. With increasing the WO3 content, decreasing the molar volume causes a decrease in the inter-ionic distance Ri. The FLUKA code were used to estimate the main attenuation considerations mass attenuation coefficients (MAC) and linear attenuation coefficients (LAC). The LAC increment from 0.728 cm-1 to 0.856 cm−1 as the WO3 concentration increment from 0 to 5 mol%, resulting in high shielding performance for G5. The dose rate at energy of 0.6 MeV with the G5 sample found to be declines from 2.35 × 107 R/h at 1 mm to 4.71 × 106 R/h at 4 mm. The values of mean free path (MFP) and the half value layer (HVL) are smaller than those of the traditional photon shields signifying that the fabricated samples (particularly G5) have interesting shielding characteristics to be used in applications involving x/gamma rays.