SPIE milestone series
About: SPIE milestone series is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Laser & Laser pumping. It has an ISSN identifier of 1050-0529. Over the lifetime, 1023 publication(s) have been published receiving 93920 citation(s).
01 Jan 2003-SPIE milestone series
Abstract: We propose a new type of scanning fluorescence microscope capable of resolving 35 nm in the far field. We overcome the diffraction resolution limit by employing stimulated emission to inhibit the fluorescence process in the outer regions of the excitation point-spread function. In contrast to near-field scanning optical microscopy, this method can produce three-dimensional images of translucent specimens.
01 Jan 1998-SPIE milestone series
Abstract: A fast-Fourier-transform method of topography and interferometry is proposed. By computer processing of a noncontour type of fringe pattern, automatic discrimination is achieved between elevation and depression of the object or wave-front form, which has not been possible by the fringe-contour-generation techniques. The method has advantages over moire topography and conventional fringe-contour interferometry in both accuracy and sensitivity. Unlike fringe-scanning techniques, the method is easy to apply because it uses no moving components.
01 Jan 2002-SPIE milestone series
Abstract: Schawlow and Townes1 have proposed a technique for the generation of very monochromatic radiation in the infra-red optical region of the spectrum using an alkali vapour as the active medium. Javan2 and Sanders3 have discussed proposals involving electron-excited gaseous systems. In this laboratory an optical pumping technique has been successfully applied to a fluorescent solid resulting in the attainment of negative temperatures and stimulated optical emission at a wave-length of 6943 A. ; the active material used was ruby (chromium in corundum). After demonstration in 1954 of the 'maser' principle (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), systems were sought in which the effect occurred in the infrared and visible spectrum. This goal was reached in 1960 when Theodore Maiman achieved optical laser action in ruby.
01 Jan 2005-SPIE milestone series
Abstract: ELECTROLUMINESCENT devices have been developed recently that are based on new materials such as porous silicon' and semiconducting polymers 2,3 . By taking advantage of developments in the preparation and characterization of direct-gap semiconductor nanocrystals 4-6 , and of electroluminescent polymers7, we have now constructed a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device. Light emission arises from the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV) 2-10 with electrons injected into a multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Close matching of the emitting layer of nanocrystals with the work function of the metal contact leads to an operating voltage" of only 4 V. At low voltages emission from the CdSe layer occurs. Because of the quantum size effect 19-24 the colour of this emission can be varied from red to yellow by changing the nanocrystal size. At higher voltages green emission from the polymer layer predominates. Thus this device has a degree of voltage tunability of colour.
01 Jan 1999-SPIE milestone series
Abstract: Single-crystal silicon is being increasingly employed in a variety of new commercial products not because of its well-established electronic properties, but rather because of its excellent mechanical properties. In addition, recent trends in the engineering literature indicate a growing interest in the use of silicon as a mechanical material with the ultimate goal of developing a broad range of inexpensive, batch-fabricated, high-performance sensors and transducers which are easily interfaced with the rapidly proliferating microprocessor. This review describes the advantages of employing silicon as a mechanical material, the relevant mechanical characteristics of silicon, and the processing techniques which are specific to micromechanical structures. Finally, the potentials of this new technology are illustrated by numerous detailed examples from the literature. It is clear that silicon will continue to be aggressively exploited in a wide variety of mechanical applications complementary to its traditional role as an electronic material. Furthermore, these multidisciplinary uses of silicon will significantly alter the way we think about all types of miniature mechanical devices and components.