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Showing papers in "Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A/r/tography as discussed by the authors is a research methodology, a creative practice, and a performative pedagogy that lives in the rhizomatic practices of the in-between.
Abstract: This article explores moments of becoming a/r/tography. A/r/tography is a research methodology, a creative practice, and a performative pedagogy that lives in the rhizomatic practices of the in-between. Resisting the tendency for endless critique of past experience and bodies of knowledge, a/r/tography is concerned with the creative invention of concepts and mapping the intensities experienced in relational, rhizomatic, yet singular, events. Considering several recent research projects, this article explores what it means to be becoming a/r/tography. Rather than asking what an art education practice means, the question becomes what does this art education practice set in motion do? There can be no being a/r/tography without the processes of becoming a/r/tography.

126 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss four theoretical perspectives (critical race theory, intersectionality, critical multiculturalism, and social justice education) that can foster nuanced analyses and cogent explanations of art education in the context of underservedness.
Abstract: Though it is widely used, the concept of “underserved” is sorely undertheorized in art education. Before the field of art education can effectively address the persistent educational disparities across different sociocultural and economic groups, we need deeper understandings of entangled sociocultural and political processes that create and conceal underservedness. The term “underservedness” moves us away from conceiving of populations, and instead draws attention to cultural articulations and material conditions that prevent certain groups from fully accessing and benefiting from the resources and opportunities for effective education, including high-quality art experiences. In this article, the authors discuss four theoretical perspectives—critical race theory, intersectionality, critical multiculturalism, and social justice education—that can foster nuanced analyses and cogent explanations of art education in the context of underservedness. The discussion focuses on key tenets of these theoretical per...

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper conducted a large-scale, international research project involving focus group interviews of adolescent and young adult members of a variety of self-initiated visual culture groups in five urban areas (Amsterdam, Budapest, Chicago, Helsinki, and Hong Kong).
Abstract: This article is the report of a large-scale, international research project involving focus group interviews of adolescent and young adult members of a variety of self-initiated visual culture groups in five urban areas (Amsterdam, Budapest, Chicago, Helsinki, and Hong Kong). Each group was established by young people around their interests in the production and use of a form of visual culture. The research questions for this study focused on: a) conditions of visual culture communities, b) group practices in visual culture communities, c) individuals in a visual culture community, and d) peer teaching and learning processes. The results of this study indicate that visual culture groups act as powerful student communities for auto-didactic and peer initiated learning. Although the education that occurs in these groups may be considered informal, students maintain them to increase their art knowledge and skills, as well as for entertainment and social networking. Several answers to each research question a...

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Transformative Learning approach is well suited to intergenerational art programs that focus on reciprocal learning in which the participants have an equal share in the decision making and shaping of the project as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Quality community-based art education programs for older adults over the age of 50 should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. We consider a developing paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the mature mind and incorporate transformative learning theory to engage the creative potential of older adults participating in these art programs. Older adults have a wealth of knowledge and experience, a broad range of interests and cognitive abilities, and a unique vantage point: the wisdom acquired with age. The reinterpreting of past experiences and understanding them in a new way may provide meaningful creative inspiration. Transformative experiences can occur for adults across cultures and generations through activities such as storytelling, social interaction, and collaborative artmaking.Quality community-based art education programsfor older adults should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. The National Art Education Association (NAEA) Committee on Lifelong Learning has long been committed to advocacy and arts learning beyond pK-12 education. The committee has promoted quality art education from "womb to tomb" and has focused on the importance of art learning opportunities for adults, particularly those over age 50. During the half century since the foundation of the committee, a dramatic aging of our population has become a demographic fact in the United States. Census projections have indicated that within the next 40 years, the number of Americans aged 65 and older will more than double from 40.2 million in 2010 to 88.5 million in 2050 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). Some will want to explore beyond traditional art appreciation and studio art into curriculum that reflects the diversity and history of their own community and personal interests.In this article, we consider an evolving paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the mature mind and incorporate transformative learning theory to engage the creative potential of older adults participating in these art programs. Creative pursuits benefit older adults psychologically, physically, and socially (Cohen, 2006a, 2006b; Schmidt, 2006). Older adults have a wealth of knowledge and experience, a broad range of interests and cognitive abilities, and a unique vantage point: the wisdom acquired with age. Cohen (2000) asserted, "as we age, some key ingredients of creativity-life experience and the long view-are only enhanced"(p. 10). Transformative learning theory (Mezirow, 1991) has been founded upon the reinterpretation of past experiences and understanding them from multiple perspectives. It may provide meaningful creative inspiration in adult art education and "involves reflexively transforming the beliefs, attitudes, opinions, and emotional reactions that constitute our meaning schemes or transforming our meaning perspectives (sets of related meaning schemes)" (p. 223). Cranton (1994) added, "through critical self-reflection, an individual revises old or develops new assumptions, beliefs or ways of seeing the world" (p. 4).The transformative learning approach is well suited to intergenerational art programs that focus on reciprocal learning in which the participants have an equal share in the decision making and shaping of the project, suggesting that teacher/learner roles are flexible and will shift according to the task at hand and the expertise required (Perlstein & Bliss, 1994). Reciprocal learning can foster a sense of empowerment for adults (La Porte, 2011) and improve young people's "self image and self-esteem" (Cohen, 2000, p. 34). Transformative experiences can occur for adults across cultures and generations through activities such as storytelling, social interaction, and collaborative artmaking. …

42 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study focused on students' responses to and challenges with 3D virtual worlds in both aspects of art education and learning, and found that most participants had positive learning experiences and attitudes toward 3D Virtual World as an art medium and an exhibition arena after overcoming a steep learning curve.
Abstract: 3D virtual worlds (3D VWs) are considered one of the emerging learning spaces of the 21st century; however, few empirical studies have investigated educational applications and student learning aspects in art education. This study focused on students’ responses to and challenges with 3D VWs in both aspects. The findings show that most participants had positive learning experiences and attitudes toward 3D VWs as an art medium and an exhibition arena after overcoming a steep learning curve. They recognized that creating virtual art as well as viewing and critiquing it during art exhibits in a global virtual setting were great advantages for concept learning and art education. They also raised a concern about actual implementation in K-12 classrooms. The data shed light on how art educators and teachers can take advantage of the affordances of 3D VWs for teaching contemporary art in a digital age. Recommendations for future studies are provided.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an action research study examines the making of video games, using an integrated development environment software program called GameMaker, as art education curriculum for students between the ages of 8-13.
Abstract: This action research study examines the making of video games, using an integrated development environment software program called GameMaker, as art education curriculum for students between the ages of 8-13. Through a method I designed, students created video games using the concepts of move, avoid, release, and contact (MARC) to explore their understanding of complexity thinking. From this process of making games, students learned systems, deconstructing systems, and reconstructing systems using game-based art pedagogy. The findings of this study indicate that creating games expands the content of making in art education by being inclusive of the personal worlds and lives of students. Using the concept of MARC encourages students to think about the complexity of systems and how they work, identifying meaningful associations between students’ understanding of their worlds and games.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a mixed-methods practitioner inquiry aimed to facilitate transformative learning of individuals' racial attitudes is presented. The focus of this research was to investigate what influence participating in a...
Abstract: This mixed-methods practitioner inquiry aimed to facilitate transformative learning of individuals’ racial attitudes. The focus of this research was to investigate what influence participating in a...

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bekkala et al. as mentioned in this paper conducted a study intended to illuminate the scope of art school pedagogy and the dimensions of teaching and learning, as understood by foundation teachers and foundation-year art students.
Abstract: Research ProblemWhen I was teaching art in high school, many of my students went off to study at elite art colleges1 around the country. Those students often returned - full of wonder, pain, excitement - to share tales of their first-year experiences. And throughout my many years teaching foundation drawing, painting, and design - in a community college, a private liberal arts college, a large public university, as well as in a top-rated private art college - my undergraduates confided in me as they struggled to make sense of their encounters with college level studio art instruction. Later, when I taught art education courses at an art college, students related discoveries they had made during their first year as they bridged high school and art school. And when I led Master's of Fine Arts seminars in college studio pedagogy, the students, who were at the same time employed as graduate assistants in firstyear studio art classes, reflected on their own art education and discussed their observations of teaching and learning in the first-year studio courses in which they were assisting.This anecdotal data suggested that, while disconnects occurred at many levels of postsecondary art education, challenges to learning were most apparent in the foundation year of art college. This led me to wonder: what kinds of teaching and learning take place in the first-year studio classrooms of art schools? I, therefore, designed a study intended to illuminate the scope of art school pedagogy and the dimensions of art school learning - as understood by foundation teachers and foundation-year art students. This summary of the study includes a few highlights from the literature review, an outline of the research methodology, a description of teaching and learning, and four quandaries that emerged from the findings. To the extent that the participants in this study represent students, teachers, and content typical of today's foundation studio classes, results from this study, while not generalizable, may indicate what one might expect to find in other post-secondary studio programs.Literature ReviewConsensus in the field has suggested that contemporary art schools are educational settings in which creative work takes place2 (Bass & Jacob, 2010; Becker, 1996, 2009; Buckley & Conomos, 2010; EIDahab, Vidokle, & Waldvogel, 2006; Gregg, 2003; Madoff, 2009; Miles, 2005). Though some of today's art school students may become professional artists, the central purpose of a contemporary art school education is the development of the person as a creative, resourceful individual (Bass & Jacob, 2010; Buckley & Conomos, 2010; Enwezor, Dillemuth, & Rogoff, 2006; Matarasso, 2005). This does not appear to be a new mission for art schools; indeed, results from a 1973 study suggested that students' primary reason for attending art college was to develop as a person (Madge & Weinberger, 1973). Since that time, there have been four scholarly studies of art school teaching and learning, each of which included aspects of the foundation year experience (Bekkala, 1999; Edstrom, 2008; Kushins, 2007; Tavin, Kushins, & Elniski, 2007). These reports explored student artistic development (Bekkala, 1999; Edstrom, 2008) orcurricular restructuring (Kushins, 2007; Tavin, et al., 2007) through surveys, interviews, and observations of studio classrooms.Findings from these studies suggested that first-year students were quick to learn that they no longer had the "art star" status that often contributed to their sense of identity in high school; in art school, there were dozens of young artists just as capable as they (Bekkala, 1 999; Edstrom, 2008). In addition, students unable to handle the self-direction often required by art school were considered by some faculty to be unfit to become artists - so rather than work to support less successful students, they stood by as students struggled and failed (Edstrom, 2008). …

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a participatory action research project was conducted in which an art teacher, his eighth-graders, and the researcher as mentorteacher used democratic practices to negotiate the structure and content of their class over a school year.
Abstract: With the goal of re-engaging students in their art class, a participatory action research project was conducted in which an art teacher, his eighth-graders, and the researcher as mentorteacher used democratic practices to negotiate the structure and content of their class over a school year. Starting with an agreed upon concept of art, pedagogical strategies were developed that moved the class from teacher-centered to idea-centered. These strategies included elevating student perspectives, minimizing teacher talk with active listening techniques, and expanding “working in art class” to include idea-development practices.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that what is taught and learned in contemporary undergraduate studio classrooms has been largely unknown because research of teaching and learning in undergraduate studio art is not well understood.
Abstract: The author contends that what is taught and learned in contemporary undergraduate studio classrooms has been largely unknown because research of teaching and learning in undergraduate studio art is...

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Learning for underserved youth is integral to social progress as mentioned in this paper. Yet, too often, young people experience disconnects between their educational experiences and both individual and community needs, which can cause them to miss out on the benefits of education.
Abstract: Learning for underserved youth is integral to social progress. Yet, too often, young people experience disconnects between their educational experiences and both individual and community needs. Art...

Journal ArticleDOI
John Derby1
TL;DR: Art education is failing to serve disabled people by its omission of sustained research on issues "about us" and this discouraging trend defies the logic of inclusive education and is counterintuitive to the steady increase of disabled students being placed in regular art classrooms.
Abstract: (2013). Nothing about Us Without Us: Art Education’s Disservice to Disabled People. Studies in Art Education: Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 376-380.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored how to ensure visitor engagement with art objects at exhibition spaces in art museums through relational aesthetics, which focuses on the intersubjective relationship that art objects arouse in visitors.
Abstract: This article explores how to ensure visitor engagement with art objects at exhibition spaces in art museums through relational aesthetics, which focuses on the intersubjective relationship that art objects arouse in visitors. In the 1990s, Bourriaud coined the term relational aesthetics in reference to interactive installation art, but the concept has yet to be actively examined in terms of visitor engagement. In this context, this study examines the theoretical framework of relational aesthetics in terms of its implications for art museum education. As a result, this article explains how constructing relational aesthetics depends on intervening in visitors’ experiences with art objects through participatory acts to build individual visitors’ creative agency as well as intersubjectivity between visitors and objects in the in-between space.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report the findings of a longitudinal study of the making of artists within an Australian university art school and investigate the ways in which creativity is conceptualized and expounded.
Abstract: This article reports the findings of a longitudinal study of the making of artists within an Australian university art school. It investigates the ways in which creativity is conceptualized and exp...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Within an after-school community arts program for underserved children, teacher candidates tested prescribed teaching methods, experimented with teaching styles, and worked cooperatively with peers as mentioned in this paper, in order to improve the performance of the program.
Abstract: Within an afterschool community arts program for underserved children, teacher candidates tested prescribed teaching methods, experimented with teaching styles, and worked cooperatively with peers ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ivashkevich et al. as discussed by the authors worked with a group of African American and Caucasian women and girls who were charged with various law violations such as drug possession, battery, and shoplifting.
Abstract: Introductory TaleFor the past few years, I have had the opportunity to work with several groups of adolescent girls (both African American and Caucasian from working-class backgrounds) who have been charged with various law violations such as drug possession, battery, and shoplifting. As an art educator, I became involved with this project through my university's women's and gender studies program, which holds a wide-ranging community initiative for underprivileged women and girls from local communities.1 The program's partnership with local juvenile arbitration has been well established and viewed as an alternative opportunity for teenage law offenders2 to reflect on their own lives and the issues of gender and justice. Apart from a rather overwhelming tour of juvenile prison that serves as a sound reminder for what they might need to prepare themselves for upon their second law violation, the local juvenile justice office has held a few educational and community service workshops aimed to prevent girls'further crime record, with our art and writing sessions among them.Due to the complex junction of contested ideas such as institutional/societal labeling and stigmatizing of the girls as law offenders on one hand, and the fantasy of their empowerment via educational intervention on another- both of which are problematic when working with underprivileged populations-reflecting on and theorizing this teaching experience has been a significant challenge. My teaching position in-between these public discourses- serving both the institutional needs of juvenile arbitration and the feminist community initiative-has been a continuous balancing act that requires an awareness of these discourses'functions, tensions, and limitations. Furthermore, as a White, college-educated woman who has never been in trouble with the law (although, having grown up in the Soviet Union, I do come from a modest economic background), my subjective experiences have differed vastly from the subjectivities of girls whom I encounter in this program. Thus, understanding and empathizing with girl participants' subject positions, as well as critically reflecting upon the pedagogical idea of empowerment and societal representations of bad3 girls (or girls in trouble) has constituted an important part of my work.As required by the juvenile arbitration, the projects that girls produced during our workshops cannot reveal their identities; that is, all recognizable identity markers (particularly girls' faces) must be carefully masked and concealed. This led me to search for spaces of ambiguous and often indirect visibility where the girl participants could openly speak about the issues that affect their lives while remaining anonymous. Initially, I focused on the production of multimedia collages that allowed them to use images of other women and girls from printed media as primary material to sort through and use to articulate their personal roadblocks, which, year after year, revolved around the issues of domestic violence, peer pressure, drug abuse, and body image (Ivashkevich, 2013). While these art projects were quite successful and generated a powerful community response when exhibited on the university campus, they had a notable limitation: the girls were not given a chance to work with their own images to talk back to their public stigma and reframe the layers of institutional and cultural perceptions and labels inscribed firmly on their bodies. The girls'voices (and bodies) seemed to be situated under the layers of other women and girls' representations. To overcome this expressive barrier, I decided to expand my search for spaces of their visibility into the realm of digital video and animation performances through which they could access and construct their self-representations and where their anonymity could be used as a metaphor or a deliberate artistic method rather than an expressive limitation.In the remainder of this article, I first examine the pervasive public discourses of bad girls (or girls in trouble) and a pedagogical fantasy of empowerment in order to situate and reposition my own teaching stance. …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kosciw, Greytak, Diaz, Bartkiewicz, Boesen, and Palmer as mentioned in this paper examined the material, physical, psychological, and spiritual impact of Conservative, fundamentalist, anti-LGBTQ religious doctrine in creating and maintaining the underserved, marginalized status of the LGBTQ community in the US.
Abstract: While the past decade shows dramatic progress in tolerance, acceptance, and support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people/rights in the United States, this population remains underserved. Statistics on LGBTQ youth suicide remain troublingly high; yet, when LGBTQ youth attend schools with Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), open faculty support, anti-bullying programs and policies, and LGBTQ-inclusive curricula, they fully integrate and avoid many of the stresses and negative safety/health consequences of homophobia (Kosciw, Greytak, Diaz, Bartkiewicz, Boesen, & Palmer, 2012, p. 6). An annual National Art Education Association Convention ensemble performance—Big Gay Church— examines the material, physical, psychological, and spiritual impact of Conservative, fundamentalist, anti-LGBTQ religious doctrine in creating and maintaining the underserved, marginalized status of the LGBTQ community in the US. Big Gay Church advocates and demonstrates the power of creative, collabo...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose that research which focuses on young children's experiences with the interactivity of new media not only furthers findings about young childrens digital lives but also e...
Abstract: In this article, I propose that research which focuses on young children’s experiences with the interactivity of new media not only furthers findings about young children’s digital lives but also e...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Lowenfeld's early teaching experiences at the Chajes realgymnasium, a secondary school for Jewish youth in Vienna, where he taught art and math for 14 years before fleeing the Nazis in 1938 and eventually emigrating to the United States.
Abstract: Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960), one of the most influential art educators of the 20th century and author of Creative and Mental Growth (1947, 1952, 1957), barely talked or wrote about his early teaching experiences at the Chajes Realgymnasium, a secondary school for Jewish youth in Vienna, where he taught art and math for 14 years before fleeing the Nazis in 1938 and eventually emigrating to the United States. Lowenfeld did write extensively about teaching blind and visually impaired students during the same period in Vienna, publishing his findings in The Nature of Creative Activity (1939). This article formulates new information about Lowenfeld’s early teaching years at the Chajes Realgymnasium based on two student art portfolios, personal interviews with three of Lowenfeld’s former students, and additional correspondence with others. Discussion about Lowenfeld’s relative silence about his years at the Chajes Realgymnasium concludes the article.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabasi, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994).
Abstract: This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabasi, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network dynamics as they relate to digital image data sets, the author explores notions of influence and interpretation through the language of network analysis and suggests opportunities for art education taking place within complex digital visual systems.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use the philosophy of Jean-Luc Nancy to discuss some thoughts on "performative experimental communities" as a possible path toward an alternative thinking of togetherness as a material for art education.
Abstract: Historically, art education has focused mainly on individual learning processes. In Nordic countries,' for example, discourses of training the rational individual through skills of objective representation, developing the authentic individual through child-centered education, or stimulating identity-processes through critical pedagogy have dominated over ideas of collectivity, community, and society (llleris, 2002; Kjosavik, 2001; Lindstrom, 2009; Pedersen, 1998; Pohjakallio, 1998). Today, poststructuralist theories of subjectivity and subjectivation are challenging these modernist discourses by proposing more dynamic models of multiple and instable learning selves, always in the making (e.g., Aure, 2010; Ellsworth, 2005; Gothlund & Lind, 2010; Lind, 2010).In this commentary, I turn my attention away from individual learning processes of becoming self and focus on un(becoming) collective; shared and social as both object and subject for art pedagogy. Through a brief critique of the potential cynicism of visual culture pedagogy and the potential romanticism of community-oriented art education in Nordic countries, I use the philosophy of Jean-Luc Nancy to discuss some thoughts on "performative experimental communities"as a possible path toward an alternative thinking of togetherness as a material for art education.Visual Culture PedagogyDuring the last decade, researchers in visual culture pedagogy have focused on developing reflexive and performative approaches in order to provide students with appropriate tools to navigate in contemporary visual realities, both as consumers and producers (e.g., Buhl & Flensborg, 2011; Freedman, 2003; llleris & Arvedsen, 2011). The once contrasting modernist myths of the individual have been reduced to elements in ready-made lifestyle-proposals in the current political situation. Now, many Nordic researchers have adopted a critical and constructivist position, where concepts such as strategy and choice are central (e.g. Buhl, 2005; Gothlund & Lind, 2010; llleris, 2009). While on one hand, these researchers (including myself) endorse poststructuralist views of the self as a relationally constituted singularity that is always in the making, on the other hand, they acknowledge the usefulness of engaging with students about how to play with visual self-presentations in order to construct identity as a strategic visual position. Through the use of concepts such as genre, style, modality, seduction, fascination, and power, the lesson taught by visual culture pedagogy is that identity is "a position, not something you are, but a role that is relationally constructed within every single event" (llleris & Arvedsen, 2011, p. 57). As a consequence, working with self-presentations in visual culture pedagogy is to work with a focus on"how you wish others to perceive you and to experiment with different possible interpretations of your appearance....This entails that you create a distance to how you look and act in a certain situation. You are, so to say, conscious that you appear a certain way, and that you can experiment with and explore this certain way." (Buhl & Flensborg, 2011, p. 175 [my translation])2From a critical point of view, visual culture pedagogy in the Nordic countries follows the tradition of critical art education by teaching students to be reflexive in their use of complex contemporary imagery; however, it runs an unintended risk of sustaining the neo-liberal myth of the emancipated individual as a flexible position whose visual form is always open for play. By considering self as a social and visual construction, and by using what might be perceived by students as existential choices as strategies of appearance, visual culture pedagogy could be accused of cynically reducing all naive or idealistic discourses of ethics and values to matters of personal choice or style, neglecting the utopian and politically empowering potentials of art education (llleris, 2012a). …

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TL;DR: A study on art teachers' life histories is presented in this article, with the goal of providing insight into how policy reforms, new models of professionalism and school government affect teachers' lives, their moral commitment to curriculum, and the craft of teaching.
Abstract: Our study started during March 2011 in the midst of the social upheaval and political activism across Wisconsin that resisted the legislation and budget put forward by Governor Walker's office. Among many antisocial measures, this legislation included the derogation of collective bargaining rights to unions and the implementation of extreme cuts in public education that severely affected the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.With budget reductions of $182 million over the course of 3 years, 2011-2013, some questioned the viability of Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS). But as Kaiser (2011) reported during a school board meeting held in March, Superintendent Thorton affirmed thatMPS is going to survive... There will be 82,000 children that will show up in September and we will work hard to provide the best possible program. [But] it won't be the program that they deserve, (para. 11)Some of the losses implied in this statement were the termination of math teacher leaders, school nurses, preschool programs, advance placement, children-at-risk programs, bilingual aid programs, poverty aid programs, school breakfast, and so on. MPS is the largest school district in Wisconsin, the 33rd largest in the nation, and has an enrollment of more than 80,000 students-with 80.9% from low-income households (Milwaukee Public Schools, 2011).The impact of these cuts added to a history of reduced resources resulting from the urban crisis defining the city since the 1970s, the consequent social and financial inequalities between Milwaukee and its Metro area, and a privatization movement that over the last 12 years has brought on the loss of more than $50 million of public money to support school vouchers (Miner, 2011 ; Carl, 2011 ).Parallel to the unfolding of these events, we started hearing the concerns of K-12 art specialists working for MPS, who felt uncertain about the future of their programs. During spring and summer 2011, numerous art programs were terminated, positions lost, and some teachers reinstated in different schools and communities.A Study on Art Teachers' Life HistoriesThrough our experiences as teacher educators in Milwaukee, we collaborated with many art teachers who were affected. The loss of their jobs reduced the opportunities for our teacher candidates and challenged our social justice mission to create opportunities for public and quality art experiences for urban children. In response to this, we decided to:* capture the testimonies of practitioners in a moment when public quality K-12 urban art education programs were disappearing in the city;* learn about how the subjectivities of art educators were affected, formed, and reformed by these sociohistorical events; and* keep a record of such programs and practices for future research and teaching.We designed a study on Teacher's Life Histories (TLH) with the goal of providing insight into how policy reforms, new models of professionalism, and school government affect teachers' lives, their moral commitment to curriculum, and the craft of teaching (Goodson, 1992,1997).In TLH, personal experience is not studied to capture the truth of a particular individual or voice. Instead, TLH examines how projects of subject constitution articulate in relation to larger sociohistorical narratives, triangulating personal testimony with contextual documentation and theory. In this approach,[Theory] broadens the concern with personal truth to take into account wider socio-historical concerns even if these are not part of the consciousness of the individual... it permits us to view the intersection of the life history of men [sic] with the story of the society, thereby enabling us to understand better choices, contingencies and options open to the individual. (Goodson, 2008, p. 24)Our study examined the TLH's of three art teachers-Sue, Steve, and Maggie-who have developed their careers within the last decade. …

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TL;DR: For instance, Rossner et al. as mentioned in this paper argued that good science relies on good data, and that manipulation is an intrusion on the objectivity that is a hallmark of good data.
Abstract: What are the capacities of visual arts curricula to engage learning within narrow frameworks of overly "scientistic" standards (Lather, 2007)? With growing emphasis in schools under STEM initiatives and evidence- based standards, the possible cross-pollination of effects that art education may have on a science-centric education may be a lifeline to budgets and relevancy. Yet, focal points to ponder these possibilities illuminate not only what art education has to offer, but also, what contradictions in scientific visualization and representation offer to art educators. Seeing in science can be just as much a cultural practice as seeing in art.Take for instance the laboratory practice of histochemistry and histochemists' relationship to graphic design software. As the science of preparing cell material in order to observe its composition, histochemists use Photoshop in sample preparation to further augment visualizing cellular structures through methods that, for example, utilize qualities intrinsic to digital images such as saturation and hue (Lehr, Van der Loss, Teeling & Gown, 1999). This process has been called an "art form" because histochemists select methods from a variety of approaches to get the best results: manipulations of cellular material that make visible the agential substance or structure that is being sought out (Heidcamp,1 995, para 2). The decision matrix for histochemists in visualizing cell samples indicates that the same tissue sample can be manipulated in different ways to illicit different visibilities related to different diagnostic purposes. For example, in determining liver disease, methods of both analog staining of the tissue and quantification of the area of fibrous tissues are determined within the digital image through what is essentially "pixelcounting" (Matkowskyj, Schonfeld, & Benya, 2000, p. 303). Photoshop is used to illicit visibility and quantification, but these efforts take place in Photoshop and not under the microscope.Just as James Elkins (2007) surveyed visualization across the university to understand the complexity of the visual studies field, the art form of histochemistry provides insight on pedagogies of visual culture through our mutually complex relationship with digital image manipulation. Many histochemists agree that Photoshop is a useful tool in practices of scientific visualization because of its capacity to objectify image analysis through quantification by automating adjustments so that they can be applied without subjective interjection (Dahab, Kheriza, El-Beltagi, Fouda, & Sharaf El-Din, 2004). Ironically, this very trust in automation makes art educators distrustful in the ways that Photoshop may do too much in producing student art. As Taylor and Carpenter (2007) stated, "We must be wary of the allure of the spectacular and superficial qualities of digital media at the expense of personal, cultural, social, and global content" (p. 89). With a similar suspicion of the spectacular, Mike Rossner and Kenneth Yamada (2004), as the managing editor and editor respectively of The Journal of Cell Biology, stated, "It's so easy with Photoshop"(p. 11). Art educators and histochemists share a distrust in the "allure" of digital media such as Photoshop, but our respective reasons are quite different.Histochemists question Photoshop's participation in making scientific visualizations as an ethical question of good scientific method. For histochemists, this ease of digital image manipulation has translated into a"temptation"that ultimately "constitute^] inappropriate changes to youroriginal data, and making such changes can be classified as scientific misconduct" (Rossner & Yamada, 2004, p. 11). The editors propose that good science relies on good data, and that manipulation is an intrusion on the objectivity that is a hallmark of good data. For Rossner and Yamada (2004), "Creating a result is worse than making weak data look better" (p. 11). …

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Abstract: In this article, two art teacher trainers explore the possibility of saddling critical pedagogy with queer theory in order to question the art curriculum’s potential for critiquing personal relationships. As a preadolescent boy, one author initiated his own sex education curriculum with his middle school peers by creating “secret nude sketches” in order to prompt conversations about sex and sexuality. The other author considers his efforts to challenge the conventions of assessment and personal reflection by radically combining these activities into an alternative mid-term examination. By paralleling their teaching and learning experiences, the authors begin to grapple with multiple aspects of their identities within and outside of the curriculum. This article suggests that approaching curriculum as a set of actions built toward conversations of understanding will help art teachers queer spaces between themselves, the classroom, the students, and the world.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors address the holistic-spiritualistic movement in art and its education and raise questions about why the interest in the spiritual and the occult has grown in such leaps and bounds at this historical juncture, what fantasy and longing desire has holistic spiritualism tapped into that make its particular Imaginary so appealing and easy to believe in?
Abstract: Putting something called [N] ature on a pedestal and admiring it from afar does for the environment what patriarchy does for the figure of Woman. (Morton, 2008, p. 5)This commentary addresses the holistic-spiritualistic movement in art and its education. In many respects it may be for naught, but questions should be raised in a time of ecological terrorism and climate breakdown of a dying Earth. It is for naught because of the crucial distinction that differentiates knowledge from belief. They are asymmetrical. Belief requires trust, a minimal sense of reflection. When I say, "I believe in spirituality," it is the equivalent of saying that there are others who believe that as well. Its appeal is symbolic. Knowledge, on the other hand, is empirical, lean believe through the Other, but I cannot know through the Other. I can say, "I believe in God," whereas another can say, "I don't." End of discussion. No amount of knowledge will necessarily settle the score. (Pascal's wager was that it was more prudent to believe in God... just in case!) Belief as opposed to knowledge is always a question of ideology - that is, the imaginary relationship of individuals to their perceived 'real' conditions of existence - for ultimately, it comes down to a trust in some big Other. Ideology here is not meant pejoratively. Rather, it identifies an element of fantasy. The Holistic and spiritual movement in art and its education asks for our trust to believe in their Cause - in their particular Other as a "beautiful sou I" that exists in an evil world. Belief can only be putto doubt. So, why do I doubt?Doubt # 1While fundamental Evangelical voices certainly have their profile in United States politics, the writers of the NAEA Caucus on the Spiritual in Art Education (CSAE) are quick to distance and differentiate spirituality from religion. However, as a number of sociologists (Caplow, 1983; Dobbelaere, 2003; Luckmann, 1967) have shown, secularization - defined as the shrinking influence and relevance of over-arching religious systems - has ironically produced precisely the spiritualization that is being called for. A multiplicity of spiritualisms are now available, a bricolage of selected values culled from various traditional religions. Sociologists have called it individual religion, "bricolage religion," "private religion," "invisible religion," and "diffuse religion/'The very separation of church from state has ironically not led to secularization but, on the contrary, to the 'sacralization' of life in American society. In America, secularization is sacralization centered strongly on ego psychology that dates back to the impact of such visionaries as William James. As Peter London (2004) told us in his monograph: the existential questions of what it means to be "human"can be asked and explored through art to explore just where I belong in the symbolic Order. In short, to satisfy desire - what does the Other want of me? Who am I to the Other?Doubt #2The next question to ask is: Why has the interest in the spiritual and the occult grown in such leaps and bounds at this historical juncture? What fantasy and longing desire has holistic spiritualism tapped into that make its particular Imaginary so appealing and easy to believe in? The spiritual-holistic literature of art and its education is upfront about this. By directly addressing the anxieties of the postmodern age, it rides primarily on the dystopic fears on two fronts that have been exploited by other discourses as well. The first is instrumental technology, while the second is ecology. Most forcefully put, the charge is that the cyborgian future of instrumental reason into which we are headed has caused the "death of Nature," to use Carol Merchant's 1980 title. For many. Nature is being de-realized as genetic engineering continues to make progress. Ecofeminists, paganists, Wicca, goddess spiritualities, and "deep ecologists" hold hands to condemn this"loss. …

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TL;DR: Exploring the Glass City: The Teacher's Guide to the Glass Pavilion, published in 2008 to celebrate the opening of the Toledo Museum of Art's glass Pavilion, exemplifies the museum's multidisciplinary approach to public art museum education as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Exploring the Glass City: The Teacher’s Guide to the Glass Pavilion, published in 2008 to celebrate the opening of the Toledo Museum of Art’s Glass Pavilion, exemplifies the museum’s multidisciplinary approach to public art museum education. This research narrative about the teacher’s guide unfolds in three levels. The first, autoethnography, relates aspects of personal history with the Toledo Museum of Art. The second level links four generations of family history to the social history of Toledo, Ohio. Curricular questions in the guide are used to rethink family history in relation to social movements, labor struggles, economic trends, and environmental change. The third level discusses ways of teaching art that allow students to make connections between self, family, place, and society through the study and creation of art. At every level, the narrative grapples with questions of how to bring the personal and political together in an embodied teaching practice. This task is complicated by an understandi...

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TL;DR: The art teacher's desire is toward his own artmaking, but when I speak of teachers' desires, I am not limiting this to desires of balancing one's teacher and artist identities and wishing to paint more often.
Abstract: Jerri [an art student]: Are you living your dreams Mr. Jellineck?Mr. Jellineck [the art teacher]: Well, I'm an artist.Jerri: Well, aren't you a teacher?Mr. Jellineck:Yes, Jerri, but I get the best of both worlds. I get to teach you youngsters how to create and I get to spend my summers thinking about wanting to paint.Jerri: Wow, must be nice to hope for the thing you wish to want.Many art educators may read this quote and hesitantly laugh, imagining themselves in the same position of the art teacher, commiserating with his lackof time to create while fulfilling his duties of teaching art. This short scene from an episode of the former cable TV series Strangers with Candy (Colbert, Dinello, Sedaris, & Lauer, January 31 , 2000) is, however, about more than just an interaction between a high school student and her art teacher or the teacher's perceived lack of time to create personal artwork. It is a glimpse of what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art - of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. In the parodie scenario, the art teacher's desire is toward his own artmaking, but when I speak of teachers' desires, lam not limiting this to desires of balancing one's teacher and artist identities and wishing to paint more often. Instead, I am considering teachers' desi res for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and their desires to save and be saved - all in addition to their desires about their own identities, and all within the context of their art classrooms and populations of art students (Hetrick, 2010a).Are we so afraid to address the subject of future teachers and their desires? Do we, as a field, fear to mention those two concepts, teachers and desires, in the same sentence for what it may connote in today's society? While desire is a concept that can be considered in a more colloquial sense as sexual appetite or urge, the connection between lovers, an unsatisfied longing or craving based on lack or lust, it also can be understood in a different, productive sense, such as motivating educational forces, including the proclivity to help others, the passion to learn, or the inclination to teach and form connections with students. Often, when desire appears in educational scholarship 'It is most likely to be in relation to student-related concerns about sexual harassment... rather than a teacher's desire to teach," (McWilliam, 2004, p. 137).Perhaps the word desire is troubling for some individuals due to its socially implied and sexually explicit connotations; mention the word in the context of education, especially involving teachers and students in the classroom, and it is misconstrued as something akin to blasphemous. This is unfortunate because "[d]esire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process" (Watkins, 2008, p. 1 1 3). Desire, for me, is not necessarily defined as a sexual appetite or urge but rather considered as both a probable Lacanian desire of and lack in the Other (Stavrakakis, 2007) and also as a Deleuzoguattarian productive, transformative force that "runs in a flow that is continuous and is always becoming" (Zembylas, 2007, p. 336). 1 Desire is what motivates us to teach and, interestingly enough, to return to teaching after those really bad days we have all lived through (jagodzinski, 2002; Stavrakakis, 2007). Art teacher educators should stop avoiding the term in classroom discussions, hang up reservations in addressing the topic, and bring desire - personal, professional, pedagogical - to the forefront, especially in preservice preparation programs and pedagogies.As a current art teacher educator, I have noticed that teacher education programs and their accompanying texts usually contain tips about becoming newteac hers and often address concerns of curriculum, getting to know and manage the student population, and dealing with everyday situations in the classroom (Salas, Tenorio, Walters, & Weiss, 2004; Schwebel, S. …