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Showing papers in "Studies in Literature and Language in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated the patterns of ethnic identity loss in western Botswana, Southern Africa, which is both linguistically and culturally complex, due to the coexistence of Bantu and Khoesan groups.
Abstract: According to Lamy (1979) and Pool (1979), ethnic identity comprises four distinctive features, namely linguistic identity, cultural identity, autonymic identity and ethnonymic identity. When an ethnic group is losing its identity because of pressure or attraction from a major or dominant ethnic group in a marked bilingualism situation (Batibo, 1992, 2005), the loss is usually progressive, starting from linguistic identity and ending with ethnonymic identity. Although this pattern has been attested in a number of cases, particularly in trans-cultural situations, there have been several exceptions. This paper is based on a study which investigated the patterns of ethnic identity loss in western Botswana, Southern Africa, which is both linguistically and culturally complex, due to the co-existence of Bantu and Khoesan groups. The study showed that the ethnic identity loss model can be distorted, where there are factors that have strong impact on people’s lives in terms of fundamental human needs. Also, strong external socio-political pressure, such as restrictions and group domination may contribute to this situation.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the level of FLA and the impact of gender differences among EFL elementary school students in Saudi Arabia and revealed that gender difference did not play a significant impact on anxiety towards foreign language learning.
Abstract: Foreign language anxiety (FLA) plays a crucial role in language learning. This study aims to investigate the level of FLA and the impact of gender differences among EFL elementary school students. The sample of the study was 146 males and 114 female 6th. Grade Saudi Students of public schools in the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia. Foreign language classroom anxiety Scale (FLCAS) was administered and 10 students were selected and interviewed. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. T-test was used to compare the level of foreign language anxiety among male and female students. The findings of the quantitative and qualitative data went in parallel. They showed that FLA was moderate among our participants. They also revealed that gender difference did not play a significant impact on anxiety towards foreign language learning. Furthermore, some pedagogical implications and recommendations were provided to enrich early age EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia and to overcome the negative effects of anxiety among foreign language learners.

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors designed a series of tests to some Chinese university students to investigate the correlational relationship among vocabulary breadth, depth, and reading comprehension, and the major research findings of the study indicate that there exists a moderate, positive correlation relationship among vocabularies.
Abstract: Vocabulary knowledge is an important aspect of second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition, and it is widely accepted as a fundamental component of L2 proficiency. A clear tendency in the field of L2 vocabulary acquisition study is that vocabulary knowledge is no longer viewed as a one-dimensional construct rather than as a multi-dimension alone. Many various but complementary vocabulary knowledge frameworks have been proposed, in which breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge occupy a primary and central position. Based on a number of previous researches and studies, in this passage, the author designed a series of tests to some Chinese university students to investigate the correlational relationship among vocabulary breadth, depth and reading comprehension. The major research findings of the study indicate that there exists a moderate, positive correlation relationship among vocabulary breadth, vocabulary depth and reading comprehension.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the language of Z608 is found in Goethe's Faust and in Milton's Paradise Lost, and that this literary-religious reading of the language in Z608 expresses Wittgenstein's view that humanity lives, so to speak, in a fallen state, and therefore, human language and human philosophizing are limited by humanity's fallen (from paradise) state.
Abstract: Many scholars have found both Wittgenstein’s suggestion in para. 608 of Zettel (hereafter Z608) that language and thought may arise out of chaos at the centre and his remark to his friend Drury that he looks at philosophical problems from a religious point of view to be most puzzling. The paper argues that the language in Z608 illustrates his point in his remark to Drury. For the language of the emergence of meaning from chaos at the true centre is the religious language of creation found in Goethe and Milton—both of whom were much admired by Wittgenstein. The paper refutes the orthodox interpretations that Z608 suggests that language and thought may arise out of chaos at the neural centre. The “religious-cosmological” interpretation of Z608 is sketched. It is shown that the language of Z608 is found in Goethe’s Faust and in Milton’s Paradise Lost. On this basis a, roughly, phenomenological” reading of Z608 is developed. Finally, it is argued that this literary-religious reading of the language in Z608 expresses Wittgenstein’s view that humanity lives, so to speak, in a fallen state, and that, therefore, human language and human philosophizing are limited by humanity’s fallen (from paradise) state—or, as Wittgenstein puts it in the religious language in the Preface to his Philosophical Investigations, that humanity is currently limited by the “poverty and darkness of our time.”

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a questionnaire was given out to 40 MA students majoring in English Language at The Hashemite University, Yarmouk University, and Al-al-Bayt University: 15 males and 25 females.
Abstract: Collocations are words that must accompany each other. When it comes to translation, collocations usually pose problematic cultural and sociolinguistic issues. This paper attempts to shed light on some of these problems that participants of this study faced in the English-Arabic translation of collocations. In order to examine these issues, a questionnaire was given out to 40 MA students majoring in English Language at The Hashemite University, Yarmouk University, and Al-al-Bayt University: 15 males and 25 females. The results showed that translators faced these cultural and sociolinguistic problematic issues: The word order within the same collocation, the availability of acceptable equivalents in the target language (TL), and linguistic issues related to religious words. The results also revealed that participants had not enough proficiency in collocations. Data were tabulated and analyzed. In addition, this study concludes with some recommendations, including offering at least two courses related to English and Arabic collocations in order to solve the problematic issues in translating collocations in Jordanian universities.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the prevalent patriarchal practices in Nigerian cultures and how it could be curbed via children's literature and found that children literature has always provided opportunity for nurturing, in response, appreciation and internalization of one's and group's cultural heritage.
Abstract: This study tried to investigate the prevalent patriarchal practices in Nigerian cultures and how it could be curbed via children’s literature. Patriarchy is generally accepted and widely practiced in Nigeria. Its tenets have remained unprinted but have been actively governing people’s lives and transactions in Nigeria over decades. These tenets which have overtly and covertly impacted negatively on the women folk and indirectly on men, also on the socio-economic and political advancement of Nigerian society in general have been effectively sustained and transferred, informally and formally to posterity, as part of Nigerian culture. Children’s literature has always provided opportunity for nurturing, in response, appreciation and internalization of one’s and group’s cultural heritage. It equally impacts on the growth and development of the children’s self perception, which results to the internal urge of transferring same to posterity. This study, therefore, postulates that given the evident roles literature plays in character molding, that children’s literature is therefore a veritable tool for expunging the negative patriarchal practices in Nigerian culture.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors applied Schourup (1999) characteristics of discourse markers: connectivity, optionality, non-truth conditionality, weak clause association, orality, initiality and multi-categoriality to check whether these lexical items are actually discourse markers.
Abstract: The current study addressed the discourse status and functions of three lexical items most frequently used in North Hail Arabic: jamaar, maar and ʔal-muhim It applied Schourup (1999)’s characteristics of discourse markers: connectivity, optionality, non-truth-conditionality, weak clause association, orality, initiality, optionality and multi-categoriality, so as to check whether these lexical items are actually discourse markers In addition to confirming their status as discourse markers, the study used one of the main tenets of the Relevance Theory, effort-effect trade-off in order to figure out their actual cognitive functions in discourse building and structuring It followed that these lexical items maximize the contextual effect of the speaker’s utterance where they show up and minimise the processing effort needed form the part of the hearer to interact properly with the speaker

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that the three different characters in the novel suffer from trauma, i.e., Kamal represents the Palestinian traumatic experience, Laila represents the Lebanese traumatic experience and Margo represents the Jewish traumatic experience.
Abstract: Trauma is not restricted to a particular place or a particular time. War memories intrude all nations and traumatize them. Following the crisis of the civil war in Lebanon, the invasion upon Palestine, the misery of Holocaust, and the wretchedness of World War II, many literary texts tackle them to show the traumatic experience of the individual. A Good Land by Nada Jarrar describes different traumatized nations and shows how the effect of trauma is one upon many individuals from different backgrounds. This research sets out to prove that the three different characters in the novel suffer from trauma. Kamal represents the Palestinian traumatic experience, Laila represents the Lebanese traumatic experience, and Margo represents the Jewish traumatic experience. This study focuses on the basic concepts of trauma. It shows how trauma affects identity. In addition, it displays the symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and examines how different characters present different symptoms. The research discusses the novel’s thematic representation of trauma. It focuses on trauma theory specifically the idea of ‘’acting out’’ that is explained by Dominick LaCapra and Cathy Caruth. Moreover, the study shows the impact of trauma on identity through using the work of Dolores Herrero and Sonia Baelo-Allue. Eventually, this research sets out to prove the possibility of representing trauma in A Good Land by Nada Jarrar.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the application of the Genre-based Curriculum Cycle in writing class in secondary school settings, which includes four phases: building knowledge of the field, modeling of the text, joint construction, independent writing.
Abstract: The article investigates the application of Genre-based Curriculum Cycle, which includes four phases: building knowledge of the field, modeling of the text, joint construction, independent writing, in writing class in secondary school settings. The study was conducted by a senior high school in Linfen, Shanxi province. Problems emerge in different phases such as lack of background knowledge, skip of the modeling phase, teacher’s focus on mistakes at the sentence level without looking at the schematic structure, and insufficient scaffolding. Suggestions are provided to enable teachers to make an efficient use of Genre-based Curriculum Cycle in writing class. At the same time, students’ writing ability can be improved.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The major colors in The Great Gatsby include green, white, red, yellow, blue, blue and grey as discussed by the authors, which is a good illustration of the mood of the Jazz Age.
Abstract: F. Scott Fitzgerald, who lived in the midst of the “Jazz Age”, was a representative of the “Lost Generation” in the 1920s. He is regarded as the spokesman of the special age in American history. His masterpiece The Great Gatsby, written in 1925, is a good illustration of the mood of the “Jazz Age” and is praised highly by many famous writers and critics. The novel applies a lot of symbols, which run through the whole novel and play an important role. And this paper intends to find out major symbols of colors and analyze their symbolic meanings. The major colors in The Great Gatsby include green, white, red, yellow, blue and grey. Green is closely associated with the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock. It symbolizes Gatsby’s deep love to Daisy and his American Dream. But as the green light is always feeble and far away, it also indicates the disillusionment of his dream. White, which is closely associated with Daisy, is not only pure but also hollow. It symbolizes vacuity, superficiality, hollowness and ruthlessness. Red is usually related to blood and is closely associated with Tom in the novel. Thus it represents Tom’s character: selfish, arrogant, barbarous, fractious and cruel. Yellow is the most common color appeared in the novel. First, it symbolizes money, materialism and high social position, such as Doctor T. J. Eckleburg’s enormous yellow spectacles and Gatsby’s golden tie. Second, it symbolizes luxury and greed when the author describes Daisy as a golden woman. Third, it also represents destructive power and death, such as the yellow leaves and yellow car. Blue symbolizes melancholy, loneliness, tranquility and fantasy, such as Doctor T. J. Eckleburg’s blue eyes, Gatsby’s blue gardens, blue leaves, blue lawn and blue livery. Grey symbolizes decadence, bleakness, corruption, disillusionment and spiritual emptiness. The Valley of Ashes explains this color best. Colors used in the novel play an important effect in shaping the characters, developing the plot, and deepening the theme of the novel. It makes this novel more profound and significant.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article analyzed the role of space in identity construction of the outstanding American poet, Sylvia Plath and Forough Farrokhzad, one of the greatest Iranian poets of the twentieth century.
Abstract: Since the twentieth century onward, women studies have gained undeniable significance in revealing gender issues. In this way the significance of space for women”s lives began to gain importance by Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929) and Guilbert and Gubar’s Madwoman in the Attic (1979). Indeed, space in general (domestic, public, private, and physical) has been influential in shaping gender identities. Some feminist theorists have theorized the inter-play of gender and other identities in place, over space, and in shaping the production of space and power. This essay aims to analyze the role of space in identity construction of the outstanding American poet, Sylvia Plath and Forough Farrokhzad, one of the greatest Iranian poets of the twentieth century.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the reasons beyond this ambiguity for undergraduate German students studying International Technical Translation and found that negative effect of their L1 and their vocabulary deficiency were the main reasons for their low performance in both recognition and production homophones tests.
Abstract: There are many ubiquitous words in English language that either sound or are spelt alike which cause ambiguity at the lexical level to learners of English. This could lead to a serious difficulty in communication in general as well as in translation or interpretation in particular. As far as German learners are concerned, this study explores the reasons beyond this ambiguity for undergraduate German students studying International Technical Translation. It was revealed that the negative effect of their L1 and their vocabulary deficiency are the main reasons for their low performance in both recognition and production homophones tests.

Journal ArticleDOI
Wenjuan Shi1
TL;DR: In this paper, a cultural comparison and contrast between English and Chinese idioms from three aspects: cultural connotation overlaps, cultural conflicts and cultural vacancy is analyzed. But the majority of them have different cultural connotations.
Abstract: Idiom, being a special and indivisible part of language, is the crystallization of culture. With the development of globalization, idiom plays an increasingly important role in spreading national culture. Due to its special and close relationship with culture, idiom is very difficult to learn. In view of the difficulty in and significance of idiom learning, due attention and efforts should be given to the cultural comparison and contrast between English and Chinese idioms. This article attempts to analyze the cultural phenomena reflected by the cultural comparison and contrast between English and Chinese idioms from three aspects: cultural connotation overlaps, cultural connotation conflicts and cultural connotation vacancy. By introducing the knowledge of cultural overlaps, cultural conflicts and cultural vacancy, the article analyzes idioms from a relatively new cultural perspective. It starts with an introduction which includes basic knowledge of idioms. Then each part deals with a cultural phenomenon in the following order: introducing the cultural phenomenon, analyzing the causes and effects of the cultural phenomenon, putting forward solutions. The last part is conclusion which includes the implications and limitations of the article. It is found that some English and Chinese idioms have equivalent cultural connotations. But the majority of them have different cultural connotations. They are either opposite or vacant in cultural meaning. Meanwhile, many examples are cited to illustrate the cultural similarities and differences between English and Chinese idioms. The article may serve to enrich language learners’ knowledge on the cultural connotations of English and Chinese idioms. Consequently, the increasing cultural awareness would help learners get rid of the interference of mother tongue. At the same time, their foreign language proficiency and intercultural competence will be improved.

Journal ArticleDOI
Lingyan Zhu1
TL;DR: The authors examines the translation activities in late Qing dynasty in China and examines how the late Qing translators interact with the socio-cultural constraints and how their translation activities counteract to the target culture.
Abstract: The target-oriented theories in cultural turn, based on the theoretical foundation that translation is a process subject to differing socio-historical conditions, provide us a wide scope to re-observe translators’ activities as well as their interaction with the target socio-cultural context. Aiming to have a deep understanding of this type of interaction, this paper examines the translation activities in late Qing dynasty inChina. By presenting a general picture about the translation practice in late Qing dynasty, this paper looks into how the late Qing translators interact with the socio-cultural constraints and how their translation activities counteract to the target culture.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical discourse analysis of news reports about China's bullet-train crash collected from Western media is presented, which reveals how the Western media construct China's image by using different linguistic tools, explore the relationship between this constructing mode and big social cultural context, and thus unhidden the ideology embedded behind the social news reports.
Abstract: The purpose of critical discourse analysis is to study the relationship between language and the ideology embedded in the text of the dialectical aspect. Critical discourse analysis is an emerging method of discourse analysis, which assimilates the results of multi-disciplinary scientific research in linguistics, psychology, sociology, media studies and so on. It attaches importance to all the non- literary discourses, but it takes news discourses as its main research object. Based on Halliday’s three metafunctions, critical discourse analysis in this thesis is done on the basis of news reports about “China’s bullet-train crash” collected from Western media. Fairclough’s three-dimensional model is adopted in the analysis, including description, interpretation and explanation. The aims of the thesis are to reveal how the Western media construct China’s image by using the different linguistic tools, explore the relationship between this constructing mode and big social cultural context, and thus unhidden the ideology embedded behind the social news reports.

Journal ArticleDOI
Beili Zhang1, Tuo Xu1
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors conducted a tentative research on this topic from the perspective of linguistic landscape, in the hope that it would inspire further research and provide useful references for the research and practice of Chinese-English translation of linguistic signs in future practice.
Abstract: To bring convenience to the life and work of the foreigners who live and/or stay in China but do not know Chinese, a large number of linguistic signs have been set up in bilingual forms at almost every corner of cities, and even towns. Those correctly and properly-translated signs are helpful, practical and informative, hence enhancing the image of the cities. However, current situations of the Chinese-English translation (C-E translation) of linguistic signs are far from being satisfactory. Some poorly or even mistakenly-translated signs often cause confuses to foreigners and may even mislead them. To some extent, it will damage cities’ images as well as China’s international image as a whole. Therefore, the author chooses to conduct a tentative research on this topic from the perspective of linguistic landscape, in the hope that it would inspire further research and provide useful references for the research and practice of C-E translation of linguistic signs in future practice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The social background of learning analytics’ emergence in educational settings, and the development of data-driving learning analytics since 20th century are examined together with introduction to other online learning media.
Abstract: As a significant area of technology-enhanced learning, learning analytics emerged during the last decade and has influential impact on almost all branches of higher education. This article begins with an examination of the social background of learning analytics’ emergence in educational settings, and the development of data-driving learning analytics since 20th century, together with introduction to other online learning media. It specifically highlights the value and practice of learning analytics in computer assisted language learning, and also identity a series of future challenges in its application.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper argued that such linguistic variation in the Arab World results in a state of unity and convergence instead of any presumed divergence by virtue of opting for Standard Arabic cross-regionally; thus, its socio-cultural manifestations may prove how this sociolinguistic phenomenon can be best perceived as uniglossic rather than being diglossic.
Abstract: Diglossia is primarily concerned with displaying sociolinguistic diagnosis of linguistic duality or even multiplicity that can result in evident sense of exaltation of one language or variety and its subsequent prejudice against other varieties within the same speech community. This has been unfortunately the case and the trend in most studies that have approached Arabic over the past six decades , evidently driven by Fergusonianism as a commensurate corollary of pan-Arabism, which thrived and mushroomed under totalitarian regimes and dictatorships in 1950s & 1960s. However, this paper primarily aims at rebutting such predominant assumptions and thereby disambiguating their consequential implications in various linguistic, cultural and pedagogical disciplines. This study, therefore, argues in principle that such linguistic variation in the Arab World results in a state of unity and convergence instead of any presumed divergence by virtue of opting for Standard Arabic cross-regionally; thus, its socio-cultural manifestations may prove how this sociolinguistic phenomenon can be best perceived as uniglossic rather than being diglossic.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors carried out a metacognitive strategy training session and it was conducted with the 105 low achievers by applying a newly constructed training model from the integration of Oxford's (1990) eight-step model with Cohen's 1997 Strategies-based Instruction (SBI).
Abstract: Language high achievers and language low achievers vary considerably in metacognitive strategy use. This study carried out a metacognitive strategy training session and it was conducted with the 105 low achievers (47 of them belonging to the experimental group and 58 of them belonging to the control group) by applying a newly constructed training model from the integration of Oxford’s (1990) eight-step model with Cohen’s 1997 Strategies-based Instruction (SBI).The results indicate that the training can greatly enhance both metacognitive strategy use and language proficiency and that the metacognitive strategy has great impact on the language low achievers and the training is effective.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the theory of karma in Mo Yan's Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out, and demonstrate that human beings can liberate themselves from samsara by following the Buddhist path which helps them to attain salvation and self-enlightenment that are considered to be the ultimate goal in an individual's life.
Abstract: Buddhism may best be defined as a path of practice and spiritual improvement leading to insight into the true nature of reality. Buddhist beliefs and practices intend to change individuals so as to develop the qualities of consciousness, benevolence, and wisdom. The experience developed within the Buddhist tradition over thousands of years has made a unique asset for each one of human beings who wish to pursue a path—a path which ultimately culminates in Enlightenment. The theory of Karma is the central tenet of that ethical path in Buddhism. According to this theory, actions good or bad which drives samsara (cycle of existence) for creatures, produce their consequences in the life of the individuals. The present study undertakes to examine the theory of karma in Mo Yan’s Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out. It likewise demonstrates that human beings can liberate themselves from samsara by following the Buddhist path which helps them to attain salvation and self-enlightenment that are considered to be the ultimate goal in an individual’s life.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study of the Zoo Story is presented with the hope to enlighten the hidden corners and reveal the implied meanings of a play which is quite rich in its symbolic suggestiveness.
Abstract: Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story is about the interaction between its two main characters Peter and Jerry dramatizing the former’s disillusionment in the hands of the latter; Jerry’s speech and action aim at shattering Peter’s obsession with material things, his easy justification for stability, and his reluctance to understand the alienation at the core of his life. Jerry’s success in changing Peter comes at the cost of his life; however, there are interesting techniques deployed by him in order to convert Peter from an incommunicative person to someone who finally understands the value of human connection. Concentration on the conflicts between the two characters, detecting the causes of their alienation, and finally analyzing the techniques that Jerry employs to convert Peter, are the main issues discussed in this study with the hope to enlighten the hidden corners and revealing the implied meanings of a play which is quite rich in its symbolic suggestiveness.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Flash fiction is a hybrid style that mixes verse with narrative to form a story that captures a'moment' of a larger narrative sequence akin to a series of still photographs taken from a movie as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The proliferation of an unconventional miniature story, in the digital age, is a testament to its rising popularity. In response to the expanding demand for very short stories, writers have delivered the briefest possible stories falling under the short-short fiction umbrella. Short-short fiction is identified with various labels; however, flash fiction is more commonly used in America. The term ‘flash fiction’ was initially used for short-short stories of up to 750 words. However, since then, stories ranging from 50 words to 1,500 words have also been included in the classification of the flash fiction genre. Flash fiction is a hybrid style that mixes verse with narrative to form a story that captures a ‘moment’ of a larger narrative sequence akin to a series of still photographs taken from a movie. Flash Fiction is not plot driven and precisely includes only essential information in a compressed manner. Flash fiction writers deliberately sketch scenes with strokes of ambiguity to keep readers fully attuned to each word. They also withhold details regarding the story’s characters, events, scenes, and atmosphere that watchful readers try to compensate with an active imagination. Apparently, the readers also are inclined towards making sense of each word based on their individual experiences and perceptions. Typically ending with an ironic twist, flash fiction’s ending surprises the readers and leaves them stimulated that encourages multiple re-readings for closure. This paper argues that flash fiction uniquely draws the reader into a partnership with the writer and it is with their combined contribution that the story is completed and remains memorable.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the task-driven teaching method was introduced into the teaching of automation technology and application, effectively improving the learning interest of different professional students; combined with the variety professional characteristics of the professional students, improve students' ability to solve practical problems.
Abstract: General education curriculum is a curriculum and social development needs to adapt to the curriculum, represents the new direction of the reform of the curriculum system in colleges and universities. Automation Technology and Application is a general education curriculum for students with various specialty specialties, deeply welcomed by students. This paper attempts to introduce the task driven teaching method into the teaching of automation technology and application, effectively improve the learning interest of different professional students; combined with the variety professional characteristics of the professional students, improve students’ ability to solve practical problems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the cultural differences between Chinese loong and western dragon are analyzed to show that Chinese dragon is not exactly equal to the dragon in western culture, aiming to avoid the misunderstanding on dragon that are caused by these cultural differences.
Abstract: Dragon is a mysterious animal that never exists in our real life. The culture of dragon is developing in different civilization with the elapse of time. However, people have different cognition about the origin, the cultural symbolization and the usage of loong and dragon because of the cultural difference. Chinese people regard loong as the symbol of auspiciousness and authority. By contrast, in Western people’s eyes, dragon is the symbol of devil and bugbear. This paper aims to analyze the cultural differences between Chinese loong and western dragon to indicate Chinese loong is not exactly equal to the dragon in western culture, aiming to avoid the misunderstanding on dragon that are caused by these cultural differences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine David Herbert Lawrence's novel Women in Love in terms of form and structure, and conclude that although themes were what Lawrence was interested in, form was not his important concern.
Abstract: The present study aims to examine David Herbert Lawrence’s novel Women in Love in terms of form and structure. Lawrence was quite impatient of the conventional demands of a rigid and coherent plot construction made of a novelist. The novel bears witness of Lawrence as a narrator and as a sturcturalist, and Women in Love aren’t without a form. In his later novels, Lawrence perfected the form that bears his distinct mark. The form, which he has evolved by combining myths, allegories and symbols, has been perfected in his second phase of writing, and Women in Love is one of them. He was attempting in his fiction what others before him had never been done. The analytical approach will be adopted throughout the paper. The novel discussed in this paper bears enough evidence to justify the hypothesis that although themes were what Lawrence was interested in, form and structure were his important concerns.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focused on the effect of classroom environment factors on the autonomous EFL learning of Chinese university students of non-English majors and found that both teachers' teaching and students' learning produced positive effect on students' autonomous English language learning.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the effect of the two important classroom environment factors on the autonomous EFL learning of Chinese university students of non-English majors. 461 university students participated in the investigation. Multiple regression analysis indicated that in the classroom environments both teachers’ teaching and students’ learning produced positive effect on students’ autonomous EFL learning. In addition, the latter exerted greater influence than the former and the combination of the two could produce more effect upon university students’ autonomous EFL learning. There are five implications for the results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined whether vocabulary size test designed by Nation & Beglar (2007) ccould predict learners' EFL proficiency and found that participants' vocabulary size was significantly correlated with their scores for CET4, but not to those for CET6.
Abstract: Vocabulary plays a crucial role in L2 acquisition. This research examined whether Vocabulary Size Test designed by Nation & Beglar (2007) ccould predict learners’ EFL proficiency. 96 Chinese sophomores of non-English majors participated in three tests which included College English Test Band-4 (CET4), College English Test Band-6 (CET6) and Vocabulary Size Test (VST). Result indicated that participants’ vocabulary size was significantly correlated to their scores for CET4, but not to those for CET6. Five explanations were proposed for the results and implications for EFL teaching were also discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Faustus as discussed by the authors is a new born of the Renaissance, like many his peers, who craves for classical knowledge while thinking less of Christianity, and is tempted by devils step by step from mistake to sin, and also turns the whole city into a desire swelling hell.
Abstract: As a new born of the Renaissance, like many his peers, Faustus craves for classical knowledge while thinking less of Christianity. He changes from an innocent mistaker to a grievous sinner, however, at the start he is not a sinner, and what he requires is not overdone. His two weak points – the ignorance of Christianity and the extreme desire of knowledge—are grasped by devils to choose him as the victim of temptation, as well as the breakthrough to take down the whole Wittenberg. In fact, he is tempted by devils step by step from mistake to sin, and also turns the whole city into a desire swelling hell. The result is not only of Faustus and the devils’ effort, but God’s absence in the play as well. In this battle with God, devils do far more things than God, both mentally and materially, which lead to Faustus’s suspicion and despair of God so that the devils finally win.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptualization of abstract time in Chinese can be instantiated by 'Time is Water' and three reasons can be provided for the conceptualisation of this metaphor and will be discussed in this paper.
Abstract: A conceptualization of abstract time in Chinese can be instantiated by ‘Time is Water’. Time is universally important in a human being’s daily life, yet it is conceptually abstract. This abstraction of time can be understood through the concept of metaphor. Although the English and Chinese languages share many metaphorical conceptions of time, there is one particular metaphor in China that is not as commonly instantiated in English – Time Is Water. Three reasons can be provided for the conceptualization of this metaphor and will be discussed in this paper: water is one of the five basic elements in Chinese philosophy; conceptualization of time as water in Chinese is quite systematic and time and water share many similarities; Confucius’ words have a great effect for the metaphor of time as water to be pervasive in Chinese. Cultural understandings of the Chinese people will be shown to impact their language production through metaphorical conceptualization.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored and highlighted major issues that explicitly exhibit aspects of syntactic and semantic interface in TEFL classes and identified various methods and strategies that Arab students usually resort to while developing their translation/writing skills.
Abstract: This paper is a culmination of long years of daily observations of the two researchers’ joint experience while teaching a plethora of linguistics, translation and writing courses at KSA Teachers’ colleges and Jordan universities. To guarantee the conformity and the heterogeneity of results, the analysis presented in this study is strictly confined to data derived from 120 writing and translation assignments submitted only by BA English students whose performance is good, very good and excellent. Therefore, this paper primarily explores and highlights major issues that explicitly exhibit aspects of syntactic and semantic interface in TEFL classes. The researchers have identified various methods and strategies that Arab students usually resort to while developing their translation/writing skills. Many of these writing strategies are based on various translation levels and techniques while translating from their mother language into English as a result of overt similarities or differences between the source language and the target language in terms of syntactic structures and semantic relations pertaining to their lexical choice. Noticeably, these strategies turn to be fruitful in many cases where the SL system and the TL system slightly diverge while they prove to be fully ungrammatical, odd and even absurd in other instances where there is an abyss of syntactic and semantic differences between these two systems.