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Showing papers in "Telos in 1979"


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the notion of communcations, which they call the "network of wires and switches, light-beams and impulses, fibers and all kinds of other things by which modern corporations seek to oversee the channelling of order, information, knowledge and assorted other categories of messages".
Abstract: What is this thing called communcations? Communications is the mass media, and its apparatuses and its content. Communications is the network of wires and switches, light-beams and impulses, fibers and all kinds of other things by which modern corporations seek to oversee the channelling of order, information, knowledge and assorted other categories of messages. Communications is a consultant coming into a factory or business and designing a routing system which will institute “efficiency” or will facilitate “order” or will expediate “conflict resolution.” Communications is an attempt to reconcile an increasingly universal market economy with the priorities of highly centralized corporate powers.

250 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The way Habermas has elaborated the tradition of Critical Theory makes his contribution difficult to evaluate as mentioned in this paper, and while he has undoubtedly rectified some of the most glaring theoretical defects of his predecessors, he has also markedly altered the spirit of their project.
Abstract: The way Habermas has elaborated the tradition of Critical Theory makes his contribution difficult to evaluate. While he has undoubtedly rectified some of the most glaring theoretical defects of his predecessors, he has also markedly altered the spirit of their project. He has gained the theoretical advantages of his own position at the price of breaking with Adorno, Horkheimer and Marcuse on fundamental issues. This does not mean that these theoretical advances could have been achieved in a different manner, nor that the spirit of the early Frankfurt School ought to be preserved. It means that Habermas' theory so differs from his predecessors' as to seriously raise the question of continuity.

164 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In the course of The Culture of Narcissism Christopher Lasch refers to Joseph Heller's novel Something Happened as discussed by the authors as a metaphor for the malaise of contemporary America which is caught in the throes of economic crisis, political bankruptcy, intellectual torpor and social dislocation.
Abstract: Several times in the course of The Culture of Narcissism Christopher Lasch refers to Joseph Heller's novel Something Happened. There are few works of fiction that criticize the quality of American life in such a sustained manner. On page after page, we are given an endless array of forms of self-deception as well as treachery with others in the context of deteriorating conditions in the family and at work, especially inside the world of the corporation. Something Happened reflects Lasch's own concern with the malaise of contemporary America which is caught in the throes of economic crisis, political bankruptcy, intellectual torpor and social dislocation.

135 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The red thread running through Habermas' political writings is the attempt to redeem the promise of the classical concept of politics to provide practical orientation to the just and good life, without relinquishing the rigor of scientific analysis.
Abstract: The red thread running through Habermas' political writings is the attempt to redeem the promise of the classical concept of politics to provide practical orientation to the “just and good life,” without relinquishing the rigor of scientific analysis. In the light of the definitive separation, since Max Weber, of the social sciences from normative reflection, Habermas' theory confronts the question of how, within a political situation, we can obtain clarification of what is practically necessary and at the same time objectively possible. This question reflects the concern to challenge the positivism of the social sciences as well as both the ideology of advanced capitalist societies to which this positivism corresponds so well, i.e., the tendential separation of politics and morality, the scientization of the former and the relegation of the latter to the residual realm of irrational choices.

130 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 1979-Telos
Abstract: The incorporation of the terminology and hypotheses of the social sciences into the writing of history has, with some delay in West Germany, led to a “sociologization of the writing of history.” On this level, the relation between history and sociology is in flux. But historians' receptivity stops short of what Luhmann calls “sociology's real theoretical contribution to history,” i.e., a theory of social evolution, admittedly still in its first stages of delineation. Parallels on the level of the history of ideas can be seen in the German historical school's dispute with the Hegelian philosophy of history, especially with sociological theories of development (from Marx to Spencer).

95 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: There has been for some time a recognized crisis in classical Marxist political theory that can no longer, if it ever did, adequately account for the role of the state in advanced capitalism as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: There has been for some time a recognized crisis in classical Marxist political theory that can no longer, if it ever did, adequately account for the role of the state in advanced capitalism. This crisis has called forth a series of creative but incomplete attempts to conceptualize the advanced capitalist state. There is likewise a long-smoldering crisis in liberal legal theory, which has, in turn, called forth a critical response symbolized by such developments as the creation of the Conference on Critical Legal Studies. One major strand in the emerging attack on liberal legalism is the elaboration of a neo-Marxist legal theory, which is laying foundations for the creation of a Marxist jurisprudential culture in the United States.

76 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The Poverty of Theory or an Orrery of Errors as mentioned in this paper is a collection of four essays written by Thompson, three of which appeared earlier (1973,1965, and 1960). Although the latter three are interesting, I will comment only on Thompson's long critique of Althusser.
Abstract: Thompson's new book is a collection of four essays, three of which appeared earlier (1973,1965, and 1960). Although the latter three are interesting, I will comment only on “The Poverty of Theory or an Orrery of Errors” (1978), Thompson's long critique of Althusser. One response to Althusser has been eclecticism: although his French Communist Party politics are not worth anything, his philosophical ideas can be detached from his politics and fit into something one could call “up-to-date Marxism,” or perhaps better, Super Marxism. This tolerance of Althusser is certainly a sign of the times because in the 1960s no one would have dared to put forward Roger Garaudy as a philosopher whose great ideas could be detached from his politics.

69 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1979-Telos
TL;DR: Sagan is the most effective popular science writer on the scene today as discussed by the authors, and his recent book on the human brain, The Dragons of Eden, was a best seller and won him the Pulitzer Prize.
Abstract: Carl Sagan is the most effective popular science writer on the scene today. His recent book on the human brain, The Dragons of Eden, was a best seller and won him the Pulitzer Prize. He is David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University as well as a leading participant in and spokesman for various NASA projects, including the Viking Mars landers. He is known to millions of TV viewers from his appearances on Johnny Carson's Tonight Show. His own TV science series will be aired on public television in the near future.

51 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The authors pointed out that Adorno's theoretical veil no longer clothed the methodological skeleton of his work, and argued that the methodological bareness of Adorno was a sign of a theoretical turn in critical theory from Adorno to Habermas.
Abstract: At the time of Adorno's death, Habermas pointed out a methodological bareness in Adorno's work. According to him, Adorno's theoretical veil no longer clothed the methodological skeleton. If one separates content from imagery, Habermas' comment signals a theoretical turn in critical theory from Adorno to Habermas. This is clear in their totally divergent forms of presentation, and especially regarding controversial relations to the tradition. This turn, which is equivalent to a change of paradigm within critical theory, has not hitherto been fully analyzed. It remains unclear which theoretical paths critical theory took as it moved from its early analysis of fascism to Habermas' social theory.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 1979-Telos
TL;DR: This paper pointed out that the triumph of the commodity form over every sphere of social existence has been made possible by a profound homogenization of work, play, aspirations and self-definition among subject populations.
Abstract: Over forty years ago Benjamin pointed out that “mass reproduction is aided especially by the reproduction of masses.” This statement captures the central cultural dynamic of a “late” capitalism. The triumph of the commodity form over every sphere of social existence has been made possible by a profound homogenization of work, play, aspirations and self-definition among subject populations — a condition Marcuse has characterized as one-dimensionality. Ironically, while U.S. radicals in the late 1960s fantasized about a “new man” in the abstract, capital was in the process of concretely putting the finishing touches on its new individual. Beneath the current black-female-student-chicano-homosexual-old-young-handicapped, etc., etc., ad nauseum, “struggles” lies a simple truth: there is no coherent opposition to the present administrative apparatus.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 1979-Telos
TL;DR: Habermas' recent "reconstruction of historical materialism" involves a general approach to certain Marxian problematics and is carried out in terms of contemporary theories of evolution and communication as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Habermas' recent “reconstruction of historical materialism” involves a general approach to certain Marxian problematics and is carried out in terms of contemporary theories of evolution and communication. While such “reconstruction” is legitimate, it is clear that Habermas does not adequately deal with certain crucial aspects of Marx's thought. This is not to advocate the refutation of Habermas in the name of an imaginary Marxist orthodoxy, since there is no one orthodoxy, but only tendencies toward a plurality of Marxisms. The essentials of Habermas' interpretation are present already in Knowledge and Human Interests, where Marx is criticized for having misunderstood his own discoveries.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The American political spotlight shines on a narrow stage, illuminating the actors so they assume enormous proportions and exaggerating both their importance and the distinctions between them as mentioned in this paper, while the left, and even the extreme right, operate almost totally out of the public eye.
Abstract: The American political spotlight shines on a narrow stage, illuminating the actors so they assume enormous proportions and exaggerating both their importance and the distinctions between them. In the shadows, the left, and even the extreme right, operate almost totally out of the public eye. The choice between relatively similar positions, Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, or Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagen, emerges as an ideological struggle between contrary political philosophies. The potential for change appears great, while the results are almost always the same. All other voices are pushed off to the sides, ignored or unknown. Mort Sahl used to joke about a friend who read Time and Newsweek to gain both sides of the political question. It isn't a joke.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In this context, it is finally possible to see Francoism in retrospect in order to understand how a blatant neo-fascist dictatorship could last so long and, most importantly, to draw appropriate lessons for the coming years as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Although its social and cultural heritage persists, Francoism is over. After 1977, a new period began in Spain with a new constitution, a new parliament, and mayors democratically elected for the first time since 1933. The dictator's death was a break, but these other legal breaks are more significant. A difficult transitional stage, marked by popular struggles, repression and a rightist regrouping in order to survive, has melted into a new institutional framework of liberal-parliamentarian democracy, which has resulted in a “disenchantment” for large masses of the population that exceeded another type of dynamic, leftist future. In this context, it is finally possible to see Francoism in retrospect in order to understand how a blatant neo-fascist dictatorship could last so long and, most importantly, to draw appropriate lessons for the coming years.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: Poster's new interest has roots in his own previous work as discussed by the authors, which deals with matters of generation conflict, relations between sexuality, social control and freedom, and related problems of everyday life.
Abstract: Mark Poster is not alone among those concerned with critical theory to have recently become particularly preoccupied with questions of family, psychology and sexuality. Poster's new interest has roots in his own previous work. While treating 19th and 20th century French social theory at large, his studies of Restif de la Bretonne, Fourier and Existential Marxism were already dealing with matters of generation conflict, relations between sexuality, social control and freedom, and related problems of everyday life. But his new book reflects a certain shift in gears. It is also an ambitious undertaking to examine not only the family as an institution, but prior theories of the family as well.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: As the war ends, the massive revelation of the genocide committed against the Jewish people and of the way it was carried out stupefies the Western world as mentioned in this paper, and European nations understand and recognize the immensity and unique nature of the crime with blinding immediacy.
Abstract: As the war ends, the massive revelation of the genocide committed against the Jewish people — and of the way it was carried out — stupefies the Western world. Infected to the core by the poison of anti-Semitism — and knowing that, to varying degrees, they are almost all guilty — the European nations understand and recognize the immensity and unique nature of the crime with blinding immediacy. So all is now clear, neither discussion nor contestation nor denial is possible; the Nazi crime has no precedent and, at the same time, it is unsurpassable precisely because it is an absolute crime.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: Testimony as mentioned in this paper is a collection of Shostakovich's own words written before, during and after the fall of the Soviet regime. It is a tale of blood, terror, intrigue (often of the most petty sort) and humiliation.
Abstract: The black cover and red end papers that contain Dmitri Shostakovich's memoirs were no doubt intended by the publishers to symbolize the book's troubled content. Largely through Shostakovich's own words, this book unfolds a grim picture of the existence of a highly gifted composer before, during and after Stalin's regime. It is a tale of blood, terror, intrigue (often of the most petty sort) and humiliation. Since the memoirs are an attempt to explain frequently baffling events, Testimony occasionally obscures its subject when it means to illuminate it. To be sure, we now know more of Shostakovich's creative life than before, but one finishes the book with the realization that the reasons a man gives for his actions are sometimes not objectively sought for motives.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In their debates of the 1860s and 1870s, Marx and Bakunin presented two distinctive interpretations of social change, the nature of domination, and the conditions for human liberation as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In their debates of the 1860s and 1870s, Marx and Bakunin presented two distinctive interpretations of social change, the nature of domination, and the conditions for human liberation. Although their opposition had its basis in fundamental theoretical differences that are of enduring significance, the dispute has long been of interest primarily to historians, who have noted its considerable historical importance. For first it contributed to the dissolution of the First International, and later it left its mark on two increasingly polarized segments of the international labor movement. Whereas both parliamentary socialism and revolutionary communism ascribed to Marx's views, the anarchosyndicalist movement, a major force in Southern Europe and parts of Latin America, carried on Bakunin's tradition.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1979-Telos
TL;DR: Pateman as discussed by the authors argues that political obligation in the liberal democratic state constitutes an insoluble problem; insoluble because political obligation cannot be given expression within the context of liberal democratic institutions.
Abstract: Carole Pateman leaves no doubt regarding the addressees of her book: “My larger aim,” she writes, “which is both more substantive and more controversial, is to show that political obligation in the liberal democratic state constitutes an insoluble problem; insoluble because political obligation cannot be given expression within the context of liberal democratic institutions” (p. 1). Further: “The term ‘liberal democracy’ is sometimes used as if it were a combination or synthesis of liberalism and democracy; it has also, and most importantly, become popularly and academically identified with ‘democracy’ itself. It is widely assumed that ‘democracy’ can be nothing other than our existing liberal democracies.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 1979-Telos
TL;DR: Lukacs was already a classic in the twenties: friends and foes alike admit that History and Class Consciousness was the single major contribution to the history of Marxism as philosophy since Marx's death as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Classic or classicist personalities are characterized by the creation of norms which are subsequently imposed on their age as paradigms. In the above sense and in the humble guise of a mere interpreter of Marx, Lukacs was already a classic in the twenties: friends and foes alike admit that History and Class Consciousness was the single major contribution to the history of Marxism as philosophy since Marx's death. But the framework outlined in History and Class Consciousness collapsed at the end of the twenties, and not solely because of the Comintern's pressures and condemnations. At that time when there was so much opposition, it would have been easy to oppose the official interdiction.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The dominant category of aesthetics in modern societies, where the flow of life has been all but reduced to a series of minutely subdivided instants, that is, to the calculations of time-clock and stop-watch, has become that of dissonance.
Abstract: If in traditional societies, whose universe was governed by the notion of cyclical time, where the predictable and familiar position of the sun in the sky would prescribe the rhythm of daily life, the dominant category of aesthetics was that of beauty, in modern societies, where the flow of life has been all but reduced to a series of minutely subdivided instants, that is, to the calculations of time-clock and stop-watch, the predominant category of aesthetics has becomes that of dissonance. As if in direct response to the rationalized fabric of social life, the very concept of art today has virtually turned itself inside out, and all serious thought about art must take this fact as its point of departure.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze the internal conflicts within the Soviet ruling strata during the "great trials" of 1936-1938, and find that the latter tends to be seen as a monolithic block in which nothing can move.
Abstract: The primary concern of the present study is to analyze the internal conflicts within the Soviet ruling strata during the “great trials” of 1936-1938. By and large, historians have paid only scant attention to social and political conflicts during this crucial period in Soviet society, when they have not simply ignored them altogether. This is often due to a certain assumption concerning the nature of Soviet society. For the latter tends to be seen as a monolithic block in which nothing can move, dominated as it is by a bureacratic apparatus whose empire extends without exception over all activities — an apparatus that in turn was dominated for a long time by the will of a single individual, Stalin.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The authors argue that Habermas is best understood not as a break with critical theory but rather as an effort to recapture some of the offensive thrust that can be found in Horkheimer's essays of the 1930s.
Abstract: Adorno once suggested that a commentator was almost invariably faced with the alternative sins of pedantry or parasitism. Of necessity my comments on Axel Honneth's discussion of Habermas' effort to move beyond a “defensive posture” and attempt to revive the practical intentions of critical social theory will partake of a little of both. My comments accept enough of Honneth's basic argument to follow the general outlines of his argument. Like him, I think that Habermas is best understood not as a break with critical theory but rather as an effort to recapture some of the offensive thrust that can be found in Horkheimer's essays of the 1930s without forsaking the crucial step that Adorno had taken by the 1940s: a detaching of critical theory from any reliance on class agents as traditionally conceived within Marxist theory.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: This paper made a statement that many people on the left who do not like intellectuals, including and especially leftist intellectuals, have had it and would now like to tell them one and all to eat shit.
Abstract: I would like to open this review with a statement I have long waited to make, although it has nothing really to do with the book at hand. There are many people on the left who do not like intellectuals, including and especially leftist intellectuals. Nor do they care for theory, intellectual work, books by foreign authors, foreign words and words in English with too many syllables. In most instances they are not fond of thinking in any sense of the term. I have listened to many of their rantings, often with a patience they have not deserved. Well, I have had it and would now like to tell them one and all to eat shit.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The early Barthes made a fully acknowledged use of Sartre's theory of literature as mentioned in this paper, and several of these "surpassing" vanguard spirts can be variously situated along a continuum of parricidal intent.
Abstract: Sartre's thought is routinely declared to have been surpassed by the ideas of this or that subsequently elevated figure. Sometimes, of course, these claims are made in good faith, but often one cannot escape the feeling that such reports are insufficiently grounded in an adequate understanding, or even an honest reading of the body of work that ostensibly has been left in the dust. Several of these “surpassing” vanguard spirts can be variously situated along a continuum of parricidal intent, for it can be shown that they owe to Sartre important, founding debts. The early Barthes made a fully acknowledged use of Sartre's theory of literature.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In a discussion of terrorism last fall, at the peak of the government's manhunt following the kidnapping of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, my godmother in Wuppertal said to me, "I love this government".
Abstract: 1. During a discussion of terrorism last fall, at the peak of the government's manhunt following the kidnapping of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, my godmother in Wuppertal said to me, “I love this government.” I remember this sentence, not only because of its remarkable senselessness, but also because of its aggressive and erotic implications. Is it at all possible to love an abstract and “un-bourgeois” structure like the government? What provokes a person to make such a statement voluntarily? Or are we Germans particularly predestined to love our government because of our long tradition? In 1813, Mikhail Bakunin wrote, \"The Germans…are, to the greatest extent possible, a government conscious people, and this awareness of government supercedes all other passions in them, and completely represses in them the instinct for freedom…a real deification of governmental power has developed over the centuries in the hearts of the Germans, a cult which has, by degrees, generated a bureaucratic theory and practice.”

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1979-Telos
TL;DR: A study of the experiences of Eurocommunist parties in Italy, France, Spain and Portugal can be found in this paper, where the authors argue that there is a viable Marxist alternative to both Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism consistent with the ideals of classical pluralistic liberalism.
Abstract: The problem of the democratic credibility of Eurocommunism has been equated to the squaring, of the circle, and it revolves around whether there is a viable Marxist alternative to both Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism consistent with the ideals of classical pluralistic liberalism and appropriate to Western Europe. The answer to this problem requires a study of the experiences of Marxist parties in Italy, France, Spain and Portugal. Although there are already many useful studies for the more important cases of Italy and France, they remain inconclusive, and the problem of meaningfully articulating the Eurocommunist alternative is far from solved. There is, to be sure, near-unanimous agreement that this alternative is rooted in Gramsci's works, but this only displaces the problem since interpretations of Gramsci are notoriously difficult.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: It is not at all surprising that August Thalheimer's 1930 essay on fascism should have been so enthusiastically rediscovered, reprinted and widely discussed in left-wing European circles during the 1960's as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: It is not at all surprising that August Thalheimer's 1930 essay on fascism should have been so enthusiastically rediscovered, reprinted and widely discussed in left-wing European circles during the 1960's. Informed debate on fascism had reached a major theoretical impasse: factually, more was known than ever before, or, at any rate, enough to dismiss as “empirically inadequate” virtually all of the better known traditional interpretations; yet, conceptually, no new theoretical nets had been cast that might have better accounted for the full range of phenomena to be subsumed under the generic term fascism. Moreover, to the degree that extremely well-researched, specialized monographs had successfully challenged the old theoretical warhorses, few scholars were inclined to hazard new totalizing formulations lest their own heads in turn be severed on the merciless empirical block.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The charge that universities are less retreats for delicate scholars, dreamers, and social misfits than motels where the delegates to the conference on self-advancement gather was first made by the left in the 1960's.
Abstract: Once upon a time in the 1960's, the universities and academies were denounced by the left as “ivory towers.” Today this charge sounds like the utopian proposal it always was. The universities are less retreats for delicate scholars, dreamers and social misfits than motels where the delegates to the conference on self-advancement gather. To denounce the university as an ivory tower converts a feeble myth into a current apology. Schools and departments of business, management, agriculture, engineering, diplomacy and other sub-dependencies leave no doubt. Professional consulting and outside contracts are not foreign additions to pure scholarship but bread and butter.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1979-Telos
TL;DR: In the late 1940s, Kraus' writings, chiefly Die Fackel, the journal he wrote and published from 1899 to 1934 (from 1911 on without other contributors) and the scanty, mostly pre-war secondary literature, were available in the Rare Book rooms of a few major university libraries and, usually, as very incomplete sets, in the homes of emigré Krausians as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: When I first became interested in Kraus more than 30 years ago, he was an exciting memory for a few Jewish refugees. Kraus was then frequently regarded as the greatest master of the German language, while literary histories almost never even mentioned him. In the late 1940s, Kraus' writings, chiefly Die Fackel, the journal he wrote and published from 1899 to 1934 (from 1911 on without other contributors) and the scanty, mostly pre-war secondary literature, were available in the Rare Book rooms of a few major university libraries and, usually, as very incomplete sets, in the homes of emigré Krausians.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1979-Telos
TL;DR: The theoretical contributions of Anton Pannekoek, Herman Gorter, Henriette Roland-Hoist and other council communists belong to a particularly dynamic phase of Marxist development as mentioned in this paper, that was characterized by the search for a revolutionary alternative to, first, the prewar extremes of Social Democratic revisionism and anarcho-syndicalism and, second, the bureaucratic statist degeneration of the Soviet system after 1920.
Abstract: The theoretical contributions of Anton Pannekoek, Herman Gorter, Henriette Roland-Hoist and other council communists belong to a particularly dynamic phase of Marxist development — the period between 1900 and 1930 — that was characterized by the search for a revolutionary alternative to, first, the prewar extremes of Social Democratic revisionism and anarcho-syndicalism and, second, to the bureaucratic statist degeneration of the Soviet system after 1920. In terms of its historical role, most notably in its double assault on orthodox Marxism and Leninism, the German-Dutch radical left occupies the same general terrain as the original “Western Marxist” current represented by Luxemburg, Korsch, Lukacs, Gramsci, and the early Frankfurt School.