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Showing papers in "The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education in 2019"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that adopting a mindfulness practice for as little as once per week may reduce stress and anxiety in college students.
Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the impact of a six-week yoga and meditation intervention on college students' stress perception, anxiety levels, and mindfulness skills. Methods. College students participated in a six-week pilot program that consisted of a 60-minute vinyasa flow yoga class once weekly, followed by guided meditation delivered by trained faculty members at the University of Rhode Island College of Pharmacy. Students completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires to evaluate changes in the following outcomes: stress levels, anxiety levels, and mindfulness skills. The questionnaire consisted of three self-reporting tools: the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Students' scores on each were assessed to detect any changes from baseline using the numerical and categorical scales (low, medium, and high) for each instrument. Results. Seventeen participants, aged 19 to 23 years, completed the study. Thirteen participants were female and four were male. Nine of the students were enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy program and eight were enrolled in other academic programs. Students' anxiety and stress scores decreased significantly while their total mindfulness increased significantly. Changes in categorical data from pre- to post-intervention on the BAI and PSS were significant, with no students scoring in the "high" category for stress or anxiety on the post-intervention questionnaire. Conclusion. Students experienced a reduction in stress and anxiety levels after completing a six-week yoga and meditation program preceding final examinations. Results suggest that adopting a mindfulness practice for as little as once per week may reduce stress and anxiety in college students. Administrators should consider including instruction in nonpharmacologic stress and anxiety reduction methods, within curricula in order to support student self-care.

81 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There are differences between pharmacy and medical students with regards to their experience of mental health symptoms, willingness to seek help, and perception of stigma, and this analysis of national data indicates that opportunities exist to improve campus-based mental health education and offerings for pharmacy andmedical students.
Abstract: Objective. To examine and compare the prevalence of mental health problems, help-seeking attitudes, and perceptions about mental health problems among US pharmacy and medical students. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using existing, anonymous survey data collected in the Healthy Minds Study during the 2015-2016 academic year. The analysis included 482 students (159 pharmacy students and 323 medical students) from 23 institutions in the United States. Analyzed topics included demographic characteristics, mental health status and symptoms, substance abuse, stigma related to mental health, help-seeking behaviors and attitudes, and mental health treatment perceptions. Results. Pharmacy and medical students experienced similar rates of depression (18% met clinical cut-offs), but pharmacy students were more likely to meet clinical cutoffs for anxiety (21% vs 11%). Pharmacy students were less likely to seek help from student counseling services (only 11% vs 49%) and also less likely to know where to seek help on campus if needed. Pharmacy students also reported having higher levels of stigma regarding mental health treatment. Conclusion. There are differences between pharmacy and medical students with regards to their experience of mental health symptoms, willingness to seek help, and perception of stigma. Despite the small sample, this analysis of national data indicates that opportunities exist to improve campus-based mental health education and offerings for pharmacy and medical students.

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How virtual reality has been and is being used in pharmacy education, and the projected utility of VR technology in pharmacies education in the future are evaluated are characterized.
Abstract: Objective. To characterize how virtual reality (VR) has been and is being used in pharmacy education, and evaluate the projected utility of VR technology in pharmacy education in the future. Findings. Virtual reality technology has been used in pharmacy education for many years to provide engaging learning experiences. Although these learning experiences were not available in the three-dimensional digital environments provided by current VR, they demonstrated improvements in learning. Recent technological advancements have substantially increased the potential usefulness of VR for pharmacy education by providing immersive educational activities that mimic real world experiences to reinforce didactic and laboratory concepts. Virtual reality training that uses head-mounted displays is just beginning in pharmacy education, but more educational VR programs are becoming available. Further research will be necessary to fully understand the potential impact of VR on pharmacy education. Summary. Virtual reality technology can provide an immersive and interactive learning environment, overcoming many of the early challenges faced by instructors who used virtual activities for pharmacy education. With further technological and software development, VR has the potential to become an integral part of pharmacy education.

58 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of and barriers to critical thinking are reviewed and evidence-based recommendations to encourage development of these skills in pharmacy students are provided.
Abstract: Objective. To review the importance of and barriers to critical thinking and provide evidence-based recommendations to encourage development of these skills in pharmacy students. Findings. Critical thinking (CT) is one of the most desired skills of a pharmacy graduate but there are many challenges to students thinking critically including their own perceptions, poor metacognitive skills, a fixed mindset, a non-automated skillset, heuristics, biases and the fact that thinking is effortful. Though difficult, developing CT skills is not impossible. Research and practice suggest several factors that can improve one's thinking ability: a thoughtful learning environment, seeing or hearing what is done to executive cognitive operations that students can emulate, and guidance and support of their efforts until they can perform on their own. Summary. Teaching CT requires coordination at the curricular level and further to the more discrete level of a lesson and a course. Instructor training is imperative to this process since this intervention has been found to be the most effective in developing CT skills.

56 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study describes how pharmacy schools and colleges are implementing FC into their curricula and the types of pre-class learning that are being developed and assigned with the implementation and the best practices.
Abstract: Objective. To review the types of pre-class learning modalities used in flipped classrooms (FC) and team-based learning (TBL) and determine best practices. Findings. Forty-eight articles were included. Reading materials or video lectures were used most often as the primary modality to deliver the pre-class learning. Students favored assignments that have clear objectives, provide guidance, are guided, and are brief. Summary. This study describes how pharmacy schools and colleges are implementing FC into their curricula and the types of pre-class learning that are being developed and assigned with the implementation. More research should be done in comparing the impact of different types of pre-class material on learning outcomes, such as knowledge retention. This is especially important in FC settings because the in-class learning and higher order activities are built upon having a good foundational knowledge, which comes from the pre-class learning.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data indicate seismic shifts in supply and demand, from critical shortage to imminent oversupply, and pharmacy is on the brink of transforming the profession, but several important changes are still required to alter the current trajectories of supply andDemand.
Abstract: This commentary is an observation of longitudinal trends in national data on the pharmacist workforce and pharmacy education. Data indicate seismic shifts in supply and demand, from critical shortage to imminent oversupply. The change in the profession to employing more patient-care focused jobs has been observed as slow and minimal, although academia has focused on the clinical training and rapidly increased enrollments. Pharmacy is on the brink of transforming the profession, but several important changes are still required to alter the current trajectories of supply and demand. Pharmacy schools, associations, and employers must devote all energies to immediate and significant actions that tip the balance in favor of pharmacists of the future.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most common definitions of leadership involved motivating others toward the achievement of a specific goal and leading organizational change as discussed by the authors, and specific leadership competencies were listed or described in 40 (91%) articles.
Abstract: Objective. To characterize leadership definitions, competencies, and assessment methods used in pharmacy education, based on a systematic review of the literature. Findings. After undergoing title, abstract, and full-text review, 44 (10%) of 441 articles identified in the initial search were included in this report. Leadership or an aspect of leadership was defined in 37 (84%) articles, and specific leadership competencies were listed or described in 40 (91%) articles. The most common definitions of leadership involved motivating others toward the achievement of a specific goal and leading organizational change. Definitions of leadership in some articles required that individuals hold a formal leadership position whereas others did not. Only two leadership competencies were related to specific areas of knowledge. Most of the competencies identified were interpersonal and self-management skills. In terms of assessment, only one (2.3%) article assessed leadership effectiveness, and none assessed leadership development. Of the remaining 24 (55%) articles that included some type of assessment, most involved behavioral-based tools assessing individual attributes conceptually related to leadership (eg, strengths, emotional intelligence), or self-assessments regarding whether learning objectives in a leadership course had been met. Summary. Definitions for leadership in pharmacy varied considerably, as did leadership competencies. Most conceptualizations of leadership resembled a combination of established approaches rather than being grounded in a specific theory. If leadership development is to remain a focus within accreditation standards for Doctor of Pharmacy education, a consistent framework for operationalizing it is needed.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is emphasized that incorporating opportunities for retrieval after teaching is an essential component of lasting learning and can be incorporated in all aspects of instruction.
Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this review is to discuss some principles from cognitive psychology regarding the benefits of testing and translate those findings into practical applications for instruction and studying. Findings. Testing or retrieval practice is superior to re-study for promoting long-term retention. The benefits of testing can be see with open-ended responses (eg, cued or free recall) and multiple choice questions. The use of multiple-choice questions during testing may have an additional benefit as it may stabilize information that is stored in memory but temporarily inaccessible due to disuse (eg, marginal knowledge). Summary. Testing can have multiple learning benefits. We emphasize that incorporating opportunities for retrieval after teaching is an essential component of lasting learning. In addition, retrieval practice can be incorporated in all aspects of instruction.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In order to improve instructional design and assessment for pharmacy entrepreneurship education, a core set of KSAs for a pharmacist entrepreneur construct must be identified.
Abstract: Objective. To review literature pertaining to entrepreneurship in pharmacy practice, education, and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) identified for pharmacist entrepreneurs. Findings. In terms of pharmacy practice, entrepreneurship was most frequently identified with innovation and creativity to develop new opportunities for pharmacists. The most frequent role for entrepreneurship in pharmacy education was related to schools putting a greater emphasis on innovation, creativity, or divergent thinking. Risk-taking and creativity/innovation were the most frequently identified KSAs, with 17 (63.0%) manuscripts mentioning these as important for a pharmacist entrepreneur. Other KSAs pertaining to pharmacy entrepreneurship that were mentioned in the articles included self-starter, management, proactivity, communication, strategic planning, positivity, decision-making, teamwork, versatility, marketing, critical thinking, competitiveness, proposal development, numeracy, technology, self-reflection, persistence, social responsibility, and cultural competence. Summary. No consensus for entrepreneurship in pharmacy practice or education currently exists. In order to improve instructional design and assessment for pharmacy entrepreneurship education, a core set of KSAs for a pharmacist entrepreneur construct must be identified. The most commonly cited KSAs in related literature that are not already part of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education standards include risk-taking, strategic planning, marketing, competitiveness, and social responsibility. These may serve as a starting point for enhancing pharmacy curricula to embrace pharmacist entrepreneurship.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This commentary discusses the five elements of culturally responsive teaching that will provide the tools necessary to integrate cultural humility across pharmacy curricula and addresses the salient objectives to evaluate gains in student, institutional, and societal outcomes.
Abstract: Cultural diversity training in pharmacy education has evolved from standalone lectures to longitudinal courses, service-learning initiatives, rotation experiences and global health opportunities. Cultural competency frameworks have served as the scaffold for cultural diversity training, yet educators in other health care disciplines have called into question the utility of such frameworks and offered cultural humility as an alternative to foster development and lifelong learning. In order to implement and assess outcomes tied to cultural diversity successfully, this commentary discusses the five elements of culturally responsive teaching that will provide the tools necessary to integrate cultural humility across pharmacy curricula. In addition, we address how to approach faculty development to avoid common maladaptations in pedagogical movements and conclude with addressing the salient objectives to evaluate gains in student, institutional, and societal outcomes.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the APRS-16 as a measure of academic resilience in pharmacy students and future studies should use the AP RS-16 to investigate the relationship between academic resilience and performance outcomes among pharmacy students.
Abstract: Objective. To develop a valid and reliable academic resilience scale for use in the didactic portion of the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum to identify those pharmacy students who have greater capacity to overcome academic adversity. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students to assess psychometric properties of a 30-item adapted academic resilience scale. Data were also collected using the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S). Demographic characteristics were collected from student records. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the number of underlying factors responsible for data covariation. Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method. Varimax rotation method was used, and the Cronbach alpha was estimated. Validity testing was conducted by calculating Pearson's r correlations between the adapted academic resilience scale and Grit-S. Results. The survey response rate was 84%. The final version of the scale, the Academic Pharmacy Resilience Scale (APRS-16), had four subscales and 16 items (14 items failed to load on any of the factors and were deleted). The Cronbach alpha was .84, indicating strong internal consistency. The APRS-16 and its subscales were significantly correlated to the Grit-S and its subscales, providing evidence of effective convergent validity. Conclusion. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the APRS-16 as a measure of academic resilience in pharmacy students. Future studies should use the APRS-16 to investigate the relationship between academic resilience and performance outcomes among pharmacy students.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A resource on cultural sensitivity for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are currently engaged or considering future outreach opportunities in the Arab world is created.
Abstract: Objective. To create a resource on cultural sensitivity for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are currently engaged or considering future outreach opportunities in the Arab world. Methods. A literature review (2000-2018) of databases and Internet searches with specific keywords and terms were conducted. Authors who had experience in travelling to and hosting students and professionals from the Arab world and authors with local work experience in the Arab world were solicited. Results. General information about the Arab world, including unique aspects of individual countries, is presented. Stereotypes and misconceptions regarding the region and the people are discussed. Specific information about the government and infrastructure of each country, including their health care system is provided, with emphasis given to pharmacy education and practice in the region. In addition, recommendations for culturally sensitive engagement for pharmacy and other health care practitioners are discussed. Finally, recommendations for culturally sensitive engagement when hosting students and/or faculty members from the Arab world are also addressed. Conclusion. Global engagement between schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States and those in the Arab world is increasing. For an enriching and fruitful engagement, sensitivity toward the cultural and clinical needs of the people, and in particular, the professionals of that region is critical.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using design approaches from the medical field in the development of postgraduate workplace-based pharmacy education programs proved to be feasible and successful and how to address the concerns and challenges encountered in developing and maintaining competency-based postgraduate pharmacies education programs merits further research.
Abstract: Objectives. To develop and implement a postgraduate, workplace-based curriculum for community pharmacy specialists in the Netherlands, conduct a thorough evaluation of the program, and revise any deficiencies found. Methods. The experiences of the Dutch Advisory Board for Postgraduate Curriculum Development for Medical Specialists were used as a guideline for the development of a competency-based postgraduate education program for community pharmacists. To ensure that community pharmacists achieved competence in 10 task areas and seven roles defined by the Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS), a two-year workplace-based curriculum was built. A development path along four milestones was constructed using 40 entrustable professional activities (EPAs). The assessment program consisted of 155 workplace-based assessments, with the supervisor serving as the main assessor. Also, 360-degree feedback and 22 days of classroom courses were included in the curriculum. In 2014, the curriculum was evaluated by two focus groups and a review committee. Results. Eighty-two first-year trainees enrolled in the community pharmacy specialist program in 2012. That number increased to 130 trainees by 2016 (a 59% increase). In 2015, based on feedback from pharmacy supervisors, trainees, and other stakeholders, 22.5% of the EPAs were changed and the number of workplace-based assessments was reduced by 48.5%. Conclusion. Using design approaches from the medical field in the development of postgraduate workplace-based pharmacy education programs proved to be feasible and successful. How to address the concerns and challenges encountered in developing and maintaining competency-based postgraduate pharmacy education programs merits further research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Lacking a strong support, being a non-native English speaker, having caregiving responsibilities, and experiencing “lonely” items described in the UCLA Loneliness Scale were positively associated with social isolation while student-involvement in organizations and community were protective factors.
Abstract: Objective. To determine the prevalence of social isolation and associated factors in graduate and professional health science students. Methods. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered via an online survey from graduate and professional students in the colleges of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health at a Midwestern university. Questions assessed students' demographics, weekly activity hours, support systems, and financial concerns, and included the 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Logistic regression was performed using the binary outcome of feeling socially isolated (yes/no) and examined program-related respondent comments using thematic analysis. Results. There were 427 survey respondents with 398 completing the full survey. Students answering the social isolation question (n=386) were included in the regression analysis. Nearly one-fifth (19.4%) of respondents indicated social isolation, with the highest percentage among nursing respondents (40.7%). Lacking a strong support, being a non-native English speaker, having caregiving responsibilities, and experiencing "lonely" items described in the UCLA Loneliness Scale were positively associated with social isolation. The ability to discuss feelings with friends in their professional program and experiencing "non-lonely" items were negatively associated with social isolation. Ninety-six comments revealed nine risk factor themes in four categories: individual (feeling different from peers, personality, employment), interpersonal (competition/exclusionary atmosphere, faculty relationship), organization (too busy with coursework, isolating program) and community (relocation reduces social support). Student-involvement in organizations (activities encouraging socialization) and community (support from outside the group) were protective factors. Conclusion. Understanding associated factors and designing strategies to reduce student social isolation may enhance the quality and well-being of future health professionals and scientists.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of SDT-based instruction in professional identity education resulted in increased levels of autonomy in pharmacy students, indicating a transition to more intrinsic levels of motivation.
Abstract: Objective. To design and evaluate a professional identity program (PIP) based on self-determination theory (SDT) for entering Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students. Methods. The PIP, which featured autonomy-supportive teaching approaches, was delivered as 10 workshops that were integrated into existing pharmacy courses over the first four semesters (2 years) of the BPharm program. The program was evaluated using a student satisfaction survey and two previously validated tools for measuring professional identity (MCPIS-9) and motivation to study pharmacy (Pharm-S). Nonparametric statistical techniques were used to compare students' scores before and after introducing the PIP. Results. Students responded positively to the introduction of the PIP in the pharmacy program. Based on survey responses, the students valued opportunities to engage in activities and discussions related to professional development and identity formation. Student scores on the motivation-based tool (Pharm-S) increased by the end of the first year of participation in the PIP, indicating an increase in student autonomy levels. There was no change in students' scores on the professional identity measure (MCPIS-9) after the first year. Conclusion. The use of SDT-based instruction in professional identity education resulted in increased levels of autonomy in pharmacy students, indicating a transition to more intrinsic levels of motivation. This has the potential to positively impact student professional identity and future professional practice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study supports use of the flips classroom method for teaching standard pharmacotherapy topics within a block curriculum, but underscores some of the resistance expressed by students despite understanding the potential benefits of the flipped format.
Abstract: Objective. To assess the impact of using a flipped classroom instructional approach on Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students' learning outcomes and instructional preferences in a pharmacotherapy course within a block curriculum. Methods. Select topics in a gastrointestinal and liver pharmacotherapy course were taught using a flipped classroom method that required students to view lecture modules and respond to self-assessment questions prior to class. Classroom time included quizzes, application exercises, and discussion. The following year, teaching of these topics was switched back to a lecture/case format, and different topics were taught in the flipped classroom format, Student performance under each teaching method was examined, and student preferences and study habits were collected via a survey administered before and after experiencing the flipped classroom. Results. Combined mean formal assessment scores were higher for all four topics taught using the flipped classroom format compared to the lecture/case format. This pattern persisted when topics were examined individually, except for scores on one review topic. Survey responses reflected acknowledgement by about half of the students that the flipped format was more beneficial than traditional methods, but they still clearly preferred live lectures over prerecorded lectures. The majority of students reported that the amount of preparation time required for the flipped classroom was appropriate and that they had a positive or neutral experience with the flipped classroom overall. Conclusion. This study supports use of the flipped classroom method for teaching standard pharmacotherapy topics within a block curriculum, but underscores some of the resistance expressed by students despite understanding the potential benefits of the flipped format.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated educational debt-to-income trends in pharmacy, dentistry, medicine, optometry, and veterinary medicine in the United States from 2010 to 2016.
Abstract: Objective. To evaluate educational debt-to-income trends in pharmacy, dentistry, medicine, optometry, and veterinary medicine in the United States from 2010 to 2016. Methods. A retrospective analysis of educational debt and income for selected health professions was conducted. Data on student loan debt were collected from professional organizations and data on income were collected from the American Community Survey. Ratios of the mean educational debt of graduating students to the median annual income for their respective profession were calculated for 2010 through 2016. Average change per year in debt, income, and debt-to-income ratio were calculated. Results. Debt-to-income ratios for all selected health professions except medicine exceeded 100%. For physicians, debt-to-income ratios ranged from 89% to 95%. On average, physicians (-0.3 percentage point) and optometrists (-0.5 percentage point) had negative changes in their debt-to-income ratios from 2010 to 2016. Average increases per year in debt-to-income ratio of veterinarians, pharmacists, and dentists were 5.5, 5.7, and 6.0 percentage points, respectively. From 2010 to 2016, dentists had the largest average increase per year in debt ($10,525), while physicians had the largest average increase per year in income ($6667) and a minimal average debt increase per year ($5436). Pharmacists had the second largest average increase per year in debt ($8356). Conclusion. Educational debt-to-income ratios in the United States increased considerably over the past decade among pharmacists, dentists, and veterinarians and can negatively impact health professionals as well as patient care. Innovative strategies are needed to alleviate the educational debt burden.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Implementation of interprofessional cases using telehealth technology is an effective way for pharmacy schools to incorporate IPE into their curriculum and students reported improved self-perception of inter professional competence and attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration after participating in IPE telehealth cases.
Abstract: Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and assessment of simulated interprofessional education (IPE) telehealth case activities. Methods. Faculty from pharmacy and physician assistant schools developed interprofessional cases covering topics addressed in both curricula and designed for specific levels of learners. Using a telehealth format, pharmacy students were paired with physician assistant students and met at specified times in a virtual room. Faculty representing both professions assessed students as they discussed a patient case, determined a diagnosis, and collaborated to develop appropriate treatment options. Pre-experience and post-experience data and student reflections were collected. Results. Pharmacy students' responses to items on the Team Skills Scale (TSS) completed after participating in four IPE telehealth case activities indicated positive changes. Mean total TSS scores significantly improved from pre-experience 62.3 (SD 8.4) to post-experience 72.6 (SD 5.7). Quantitative evaluation of student teams' participation in an interprofessional activity was assessed using the Creighton Interprofessional Collaborative Evaluation (C-ICE) instrument and the average score was 90%. Theme analysis was performed on student reflections and the most prominent themes identified were satisfaction from interacting with other health care professionals, increased confidence in clinical decision-making ability, and affirmation that IPE telehealth cases should be included in each year of the curriculum. Conclusion. Implementation of interprofessional cases using telehealth technology is an effective way for pharmacy schools to incorporate IPE into their curriculum. Students reported improved self-perception of interprofessional competence and attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration after participating in IPE telehealth cases.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Significant associations between grit and measures of academic or professional achievement were not detected in this pharmacy student cohort, and the presence of small but significant changes in Grit-S scores over time has implications that further research should be conducted in this area.
Abstract: Objective. To characterize Grit-S scores in pharmacy students, determine whether Grit-S scores change within individual pharmacy students and cohorts over time, and investigate the relationship between Grit-S scores, academic outcomes, and professional outcomes. Methods. A survey was conducted in fall 2016 and again in fall 2017 to determine Grit-S scores in first- through fourth-year pharmacy students. Participant demographic variables, grade point average (GPA), advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) ratings, and residency match results were collected. Results. Over the study period, 852 survey responses were completed by 85% of students surveyed. The mean Grit-S scores of each cohort ranged from 3.5 to 3.7 (on a 5-point scale with 5 representing the highest level of grit). Underrepresented minorities had slightly higher Grit-S scores and first-generation college students had slightly lower Grit-S scores. Two hundred eighty-seven students responded to both the 2016 and 2017 surveys. Among these paired responses, small but significant changes in individual Grit-S scores over time that varied in direction and magnitude by school year were noted. Higher Grit-S scores were not associated with higher GPA or superior APPE performance, nor were they predictive of a student matching to a postgraduate pharmacy residency. Conclusion. Significant associations between grit and measures of academic or professional achievement were not detected in this pharmacy student cohort. The presence of small but significant changes in Grit-S scores over time, in the absence of any intervention, has implications that further research should be conducted in this area.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A capstone course that applied the PPCP framework successfully taught third-year PharmD students the patient care skills they would need in advanced pharmacy practice experiences.
Abstract: Objective. To develop, implement, and assess student performance and confidence in a pharmacy capstone course that used case-based instruction and the Pharmacist's Patient Care Process (PPCP) to develop patient work-up skills in third-year Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods. A skills-based capstone course was developed by a team of faculty members and instructional designers that focused on patient evaluation skills and applying the steps of the PPCP to complex patient cases housed in a simulated electronic health record (SEHR). The acuity of the cases increased over the course of the semester. For each patient case, students were expected to identify drug-related problems and develop an assessment and plan based on the information provided in the SEHR. Results. Students (n=134) were assessed through weekly quizzes and two practical examinations. The average score for all quizzes was 81%. A significant correlation was found between average quiz scores and performance on the end-of-course practical examination. Student scores significantly improved from the first to the second practical examination (10.4 vs 12.9, respectively), and student confidence with regard to all course objectives significantly improved from the beginning to the end of the semester. Conclusion. A capstone course that applied the PPCP framework successfully taught third-year PharmD students the patient care skills they would need in advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparison of students’ responses on the pretest with those on the posttest suggest a noticeable increase in agreement with AWA’s benefits as an effective, online tool for improving their reflective learning skills.
Abstract: Objective. To assess pharmacy students' perceptions of the benefits and utility of a novel online reflective-writing tool. Methods. After completing a required Academic Writing Analytics (AWA) workshop, Master of Pharmacy students submitted a reflective writing assignment in the AWA web application. A six-item survey was administered to students prior to and immediately after using AWA. Results. Sixty students volunteered to participate in the study; however, only 39 students provided a pseudonym that allowed their pretest and posttest to be matched. A comparison of students' responses on the pretest with those on the posttest, which was administered four weeks after the workshop, suggest a noticeable increase in agreement with AWA's benefits as an effective, online tool for improving their reflective learning skills. Conclusion. This novel online tool has the potential to assist pharmacy students with self-critiquing and improving their reflective writing assignments prior to submission. Furthermore, as the elements of reflection are transferable, this tool has the potential to be used in other educational contexts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A discussion of the question of whether pharmacy education leaders must take aggressive action or strategic approaches to prevent further declines in enrollment was conducted at the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy INfluence 2017 meeting in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico.
Abstract: Members from Cohort 13 of the Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) 2016-2017 were challenged to present a debate on the topic: "In Turbulent Times, Pharmacy Education Leaders Must Take Aggressive Action to Prevent Further Declines in Enrollment" at the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy INfluence 2017 meeting in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. This paper is the result of thoughtful insights emerging from this debate. We present a discussion of the question of whether pharmacy education leaders must take aggressive action or strategic approaches to prevent further declines in enrollment. There are many thoughts regarding current declines in enrollment. Some educators contend that a more aggressive approach is needed while others argue that, while aggressive actions might lead to short-term gains, a more viable approach involves strategic actions targeting the underlying causes for decreasing enrollment. This paper explores themes of enrollment challenges, current and future workforce needs, and financial issues for both pharmacy programs and students. In summation, both aggressive actions and a strategic, sustainable approach are urgently needed to address declining enrollment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work highlights the extensive use of predatory publications or editorial board involvement by applicants applying for a faculty position in the Pharmaceutical Sciences department at the Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy at East Tennessee State University and caution search committees at other pharmacy schools to thoroughly examine applicant curricula vitarum (CVs) for predatory publishing.
Abstract: Recently, scientific publishing has experienced an expansion of journals and publishers whose primary goal is profit and whose peer review process is virtually non-existent. These “predatory” or “o...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The EPA statements may be a reliable assessment tool for student performance in pharmacy education and there was an increase in student performance over time.
Abstract: Objective. To examine entrustable professional activities (EPAs) as an assessment tool for student pharmacists completing early practice experiences. Methods. Students completed a 2-month practice experience upon conclusion of their first year. Student performance on EPAs was assessed by preceptors and students at the midpoint and conclusion of the experience using a scale that ranged from dependent (1.0) to independent (5.0). Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test assessed for differences between the midpoint and final evaluations on student self-evaluations and between the midpoint and final evaluation on preceptor-student evaluations. Cronbach’s α assessed reliability of the EPAs. Results. From May to August 2016, 147 students completed a practice experience. Student-self and preceptor-student evaluations at the midpoint and final approximated a median score of 3.0 (IQR 2) and 4.0 (IQR 3), respectively, on EPAs 1-14. Analyses revealed statistically significant increases from midpoint to final evaluation for all constructs on both evaluations. Cronbach’s α yielded scores of 0.98 for the preceptor evaluations and 0.95 for the student self-evaluation. Conclusion. There was an increase in student performance over time. The EPA statements may be a reliable assessment tool for student performance in pharmacy education.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prior to participating in an interprofessional student forum, pharmacy students generally had positive attitudes toward interprofessional collaborative practice, and after participating in the forum, these attitudes become even more positive.
Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the impact of a large-scale interprofessional forum on pharmacy students' attitudes toward interprofessional collaborative practice. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete the Interprofessional Attitudes Scale (IPAS) prior to and after completing a three-hour interprofessional forum. Scores for the total IPAS and each of the subscales were computed using the mean of students' responses to the items for each. Results. Of the 133 pharmacy students who participated in the forum, there were valid pre- and post-intervention matched IPAS data for 124 (93.2%). In general, prior to the forum, students reported positive attitudes toward interprofessional collaborative practice as demonstrated by mean scores greater than 4.0 (agree) on the total IPAS scale and on all of the IPAS subscales except the Interprofessional Biases subscale). There was a significant increase from pre- to post-intervention scores on all the subscales except Patient-Centeredness. Based on the Cohen d measure of effect size, the greatest changes were in the Teamwork, Roles and Responsibilities and Community-Centeredness subscales, followed by the Interprofessional Biases subscale and Diversity and Ethics subscale. Conclusion. Prior to participating in an interprofessional student forum, pharmacy students generally had positive attitudes toward interprofessional collaborative practice. After participating in the forum, these attitudes become even more positive. Interprofessional education interventions, such as the forum, play an important role in shaping student's attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work aims to provide a practical guide to examination item writing, item statistics, and score adjustment for use by pharmacy and other health professions educators.
Abstract: Objective. To provide a practical guide to examination item writing, item statistics, and score adjustment for use by pharmacy and other health professions educators. Findings. Each examination item type possesses advantages and disadvantages. Whereas selected response items allow for efficient assessment of student recall and understanding of content, constructed response items appear better suited for assessment of higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Although clear criteria have not been established, accepted ranges for item statistics and examination reliability have been identified. Existing literature provides guidance on when instructors should consider revising or removing items from future examinations based on item statistics and review, but limited information is available on performing score adjustments. Summary. Instructors should select item types that align with the intended learning objectives to be measured on the examination. Ideally, an examination will consist of multiple item types to capitalize on the advantages and limit the effects of any disadvantages associated with a specific item format. Score adjustments should be performed judiciously and by considering all available item information. Colleges and schools should consider developing item writing and score adjustment guidelines to promote consistency.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Health-based profiles of Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico are presented to serve as models for establishing, enhancing, and maintaining partnerships across Latin America.
Abstract: To establish and maintain successful global pharmaceutical and health care partnerships, pharmacists, pharmacy educators, and students should first learn more about the political, cultural, economic and health care dynamics that affect all of the parties involved in these arrangements. This paper explores Latin America within the context of transnational pharmacy and health-based engagement, including pharmacy-related concepts, health care and cultural considerations, behavioral health perspectives, and common misconceptions. Expert knowledge and experience were used to support and corroborate the existing literature about cultural dynamics of health. Recommendations are provided for how schools and colleges of pharmacy can enhance engagement in culturally sensitive partnerships within Latin America. Health-based profiles of Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico are presented to serve as models for establishing, enhancing, and maintaining partnerships across Latin America.

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TL;DR: An active-learning laboratory helped to improve pharmacy students’ knowledge, confidence, and attitudes with regard to opioids and the use of naloxone to treat a patient who has overdosed.
Abstract: Objective. To educate third-year pharmacy students about the role of pharmacists in the opioid crisis and measure their knowledge, confidence, and attitudes towards opioids and opioid overdose. Methods. All third-year students (n=130) enrolled in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree program participated in opioid overdose and naloxone education and training followed by a three-part laboratory session that included mock naloxone counseling, case-based discussion of the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP), and equianalgesic opioid dose conversion scenarios. A pre- and post-assessment focused on the individual's clinical knowledge, confidence, and attitudes about opioid overdose management and naloxone use was administered before and after the laboratory session to evaluate the student's baseline understanding and experience compared to learning gains from the session. An evaluation of the laboratory session was also conducted. Results. Upon completion, 99% percent of students rated the opioid laboratory as excellent (59%) or good (40%). Students believed the laboratory was stimulating (93%), relevant to pharmacy practice (96%), and contributed to their professional development (97%), and that the information provided was at an appropriate level (98%). Knowledge-based assessments improved in the areas of PDMP timely reporting, differentiating between naloxone devices, and naloxone administration technique. Student attitudes toward managing opioid overdoses improved on a majority of items. The majority of students agreed they had enough information to help them manage an opioid overdose (88.5%) and denied the need for additional training (61.5%). Conclusion. An active-learning laboratory helped to improve pharmacy students' knowledge, confidence, and attitudes with regard to opioids and the use of naloxone to treat a patient who has overdosed.

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TL;DR: This special issue is intended to serve as a resource for US schools and colleges of pharmacy currently engaged in or considering future outreach opportunities in these regions, and for those seeking opportunities in the United States.
Abstract: Global engagement between schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States and many regions of the world is increasing. For an enriching and fruitful interaction, sensitivity toward the cultural, ethical, educational, religious, historical, political, regulatory, and practice issues is critical. Lack of sensitivity may negatively impact engagement among students, professionals and other people from different regions of the world. In this special issue, eight papers will introduce general information about five regions of the world that have established and increased global engagements with institutions in the United States: Africa, the Arab world, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America. In addition, the special issue will include a paper with key information related to global engagement within the United States. For each paper, the specifics provided about the selected countries include: demographics, culture, climate, pharmacy education, and health care systems, as well as common stereotypes and misconceptions held by and about the people of the country. Further, recommendations for pharmacists and other health care professionals on culturally sensitive engagement will be emphasized. Finally, recommendations for culturally sensitive engagement when US schools are hosting students and faculty members from those regions will be summarized. The papers are based on literature reviews of databases from 2000 to 2018 and internet searches with specific keywords or terms, such as cultural sensitivity, global, pharmacy, stereotypes, and ethics. Additional keywords are identified in individual papers on specific regions. Authors for each paper consist of practitioners with experience in travelling to and hosting students and professionals from the regions; practitioners with local work experience, and professionals from each region. The special issue is intended to serve as a resource for US schools and colleges of pharmacy currently engaged in or considering future outreach opportunities in these regions, and for those seeking opportunities in the United States. The special issue will provide key information to facilitate culturally sensitive engagement in existing or future relationships.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper is a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy who are currently engaged or considering future outreach opportunities in Africa, and recommendations for culturally sensitive engagement for pharmacy and other health care practitioners when hosting members from, or visiting this region.
Abstract: Global engagement between schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States and Africa is increasing. For a balanced and fruitful engagement, sensitivity towards the cultural and clinical needs of the people and professionals of the African region is critical. In this paper, we have divided the discussion into Southern, East, Central, and West Africa. General information about Africa, with unique aspects for individual subregions and countries, will be introduced. Stereotypes and misconceptions about the region and the people will also be discussed, along with recommendations for culturally sensitive engagement for pharmacy and other health care practitioners when hosting members from, or visiting this region. The paper is a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy who are currently engaged or considering future outreach opportunities in Africa.