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JournalISSN: 0004-637X

The Astrophysical Journal 

About: The Astrophysical Journal is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Galaxy & Stars. It has an ISSN identifier of 0004-637X. Over the lifetime, 119379 publication(s) have been published receiving 7170361 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Astrophysical Journal & Astrophys. J..
Topics: Galaxy, Stars, Star formation, Luminosity, Redshift

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18 and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of interest (Omega_M <~ 1.5). For a flat (Omega_M + Omega_Lambda = 1) cosmology we find Omega_M = 0.28{+0.09,-0.08} (1 sigma statistical) {+0.05,-0.04} (identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda = 0 flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Lambda = 0 cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the cosmological constant is non-zero and positive, with a confidence of P(Lambda > 0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h) Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

15,392 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a full-sky 100 μm map that is a reprocessed composite of the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA maps, with the zodiacal foreground and confirmed point sources removed. Before using the ISSA maps, we remove the remaining artifacts from the IRAS scan pattern. Using the DIRBE 100 and 240 μm data, we have constructed a map of the dust temperature so that the 100 μm map may be converted to a map proportional to dust column density. The dust temperature varies from 17 to 21 K, which is modest but does modify the estimate of the dust column by a factor of 5. The result of these manipulations is a map with DIRBE quality calibration and IRAS resolution. A wealth of filamentary detail is apparent on many different scales at all Galactic latitudes. In high-latitude regions, the dust map correlates well with maps of H I emission, but deviations are coherent in the sky and are especially conspicuous in regions of saturation of H I emission toward denser clouds and of formation of H2 in molecular clouds. In contrast, high-velocity H I clouds are deficient in dust emission, as expected. To generate the full-sky dust maps, we must first remove zodiacal light contamination, as well as a possible cosmic infrared background (CIB). This is done via a regression analysis of the 100 μm DIRBE map against the Leiden-Dwingeloo map of H I emission, with corrections for the zodiacal light via a suitable expansion of the DIRBE 25 μm flux. This procedure removes virtually all traces of the zodiacal foreground. For the 100 μm map no significant CIB is detected. At longer wavelengths, where the zodiacal contamination is weaker, we detect the CIB at surprisingly high flux levels of 32 ± 13 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 μm and of 17 ± 4 nW m-2 sr-1 at 240 μm (95% confidence). This integrated flux ~2 times that extrapolated from optical galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field. The primary use of these maps is likely to be as a new estimator of Galactic extinction. To calibrate our maps, we assume a standard reddening law and use the colors of elliptical galaxies to measure the reddening per unit flux density of 100 μm emission. We find consistent calibration using the B-R color distribution of a sample of the 106 brightest cluster ellipticals, as well as a sample of 384 ellipticals with B-V and Mg line strength measurements. For the latter sample, we use the correlation of intrinsic B-V versus Mg2 index to tighten the power of the test greatly. We demonstrate that the new maps are twice as accurate as the older Burstein-Heiles reddening estimates in regions of low and moderate reddening. The maps are expected to be significantly more accurate in regions of high reddening. These dust maps will also be useful for estimating millimeter emission that contaminates cosmic microwave background radiation experiments and for estimating soft X-ray absorption. We describe how to access our maps readily for general use.

15,382 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The parameterized extinction data of Fitzpatrick and Massa (1986, 1988) for the ultraviolet and various sources for the optical and near-infrared are used to derive a meaningful average extinction law over the 3.5 micron to 0.125 wavelength range which is applicable to both diffuse and dense regions of the interstellar medium. The law depends on only one parameter R(V) = A(V)/E(B-V). An analytic formula is given for the mean extinction law which can be used to calculate color excesses or to deredden observations. The validity of the law over a large wavelength interval suggests that the processes which modify the sizes and compositions of grains are stochastic in nature and very efficient.

10,948 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We use high-resolution N-body simulations to study the equilibrium density profiles of dark matter halos in hierarchically clustering universes. We find that all such profiles have the same shape, independent of the halo mass, the initial density fluctuation spectrum, and the values of the cosmological parameters. Spherically averaged equilibrium profiles are well fitted over two decades in radius by a simple formula originally proposed to describe the structure of galaxy clusters in a cold dark matter universe. In any particular cosmology, the two scale parameters of the fit, the halo mass and its characteristic density, are strongly correlated. Low-mass halos are significantly denser than more massive systems, a correlation that reflects the higher collapse redshift of small halos. The characteristic density of an equilibrium halo is proportional to the density of the universe at the time it was assembled. A suitable definition of this assembly time allows the same proportionality constant to be used for all the cosmologies that we have tested. We compare our results with previous work on halo density profiles and show that there is good agreement. We also provide a step-by-step analytic procedure, based on the Press-Schechter formalism, that allows accurate equilibrium profiles to be calculated as a function of mass in any hierarchical model.

9,149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The evolutionary significance of the observed luminosity function for main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood is discussed. The hypothesis is made that stars move off the main sequence after burning about 10 per cent of their hydrogen mass and that stars have been created at a uniform rate in the solar neighborhood for the last five billion years. Using this hypothesis and the observed luminosity function, the rate of star creation as a function of stellar mass is calculated. The total number and mass of stars which have moved off the main sequence is found to be comparable with the total number of white dwarfs and with the total mass of all fainter main-sequence stars, respectively.

8,092 citations

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