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Showing papers in "The Eighteenth Century in 2004"


MonographDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the New Barbarian: Redefining the Turks in Classical Terms, Straddling East and west: Byzantium and Greek Refugees, and Crusade and Charlemagne: Medieval Influences
Abstract: Introduction Chapter 1. Crusade and Charlemagne: Medieval Influences Chapter 2. The New Barbarian: Redefining the Turks in Classical Terms Chapter 3. Straddling East and west: Byzantium and Greek Refugees Chapter 4. Religious Influences and Interpretations Epilogue: The Renaissance Legacy Notes Bibliography Index Acknowledgments

155 citations


MonographDOI
TL;DR: The authors traces the development of conceptions of God and the relationship between God's being and activity from Aristotle, through the pagan Neoplatonists, to thinkers such as Augustine, Boethius and Aquinas (in the West) and Dionysius the Areopagite, Maximus the Confessor and Gregory Palamas in the East, providing a philosophical backdrop to the schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.
Abstract: This book traces the development of conceptions of God and the relationship between God's being and activity from Aristotle, through the pagan Neoplatonists, to thinkers such as Augustine, Boethius and Aquinas (in the West) and Dionysius the Areopagite, Maximus the Confessor and Gregory Palamas (in the East). The result is a comparative history of philosophical thought in the two halves of Christendom, providing a philosophical backdrop to the schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.

125 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A materialist account of stage properties can be found in this paper, where Gil Harris and Natasha Korda present an account of early English artisanal drama and the dramatic and symbolic properties of the bed in Shakespearean tragedy.
Abstract: List of illustrations Notes on contributors 1. Introduction: towards a materialist account of stage properties Jonathan Gil Harris and Natasha Korda Part I. Histories: 2. Properties of skill: product placement in early English artisanal drama Jonathan Gil Harris 3. The dramatic life of objects in the early modern theatre Douglas Bruster Part II. Furniture: 4. Things with little social life (Henslowe's theatrical properties and Elizabethan household fittings) Lena Cowen Orlin 5. Properties of domestic life: the table in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness Catherine Richardson 6. 'Let me the curtains draw': the dramatic and symbolic properties of the bed in Shakespearean tragedy Sasha Roberts Part III. Costumes: 7. Properties in clothes: the materials of the Renaissance theatre Peter Stallybrass 8. Women's theatrical properties Natasha Korda 9. Staging the beard: masculinity in early modern English culture Will Fisher Part IV. Hand Properties: 10. Properties of marriage: proprietary conflict and the calculus of gender in Epicoene Juana Green 11. The woman's parts of Cymbeline Valerie Wayne 12. Wonder-effects: Othello's handkerchief Paul Yachnin Appendix Index.

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors take a new and broader look at the overall intellectual environment of the Collegio Romano and other Jesuit colleges to see how Jesuit scholars taught and worked, examine the context of the Jesuit response to the new philosophies, and chart the Jesuits' scientific contributions.
Abstract: Founded in 1540, the Society of Jesus was viewed for centuries as an impediment to the development of modern science. The Jesuit educational system was deemed conservative and antithetical to creative thought, while the Order and its members were blamed by Galileo, Descartes, and their disciples for virtually every proceeding against the new science. No wonder a consensus emerged that little reason existed for historians to take Jesuit science seriously.Only during the past two decades have scholars begun to question this received view of the Jesuit role in the Scientific Revolution, and this book contributes significantly to that reassessment. Focusing on the institutional setting of Jesuit science, the contributors take a new and broader look at the overall intellectual environment of the Collegio Romano and other Jesuit colleges to see how Jesuit scholars taught and worked, to examine the context of the Jesuit response to the new philosophies, and to chart the Jesuits' scientific contributions. Their conclusions indicate that Jesuit practitioners were indeed instrumental in elevating the status of mathematics and in stressing the importance of experimental science; yet, at the same time, the Jesuits were members of a religious order with a clearly defined apostolic mission. Understanding both the contributions of Jesuit practitioners and the constraints under which they worked helps us to gain a clearer and more complete perspective on the emergence of the scientific worldview.

52 citations



BookDOI
TL;DR: Yonemoto as mentioned in this paper traces changing conceptions and representations of space by looking at the roles played by writers, artists, commercial publishers, and the Shogunal government in helping to fashion a new awareness of space and place in early modern Japan.
Abstract: This elegant history considers a fascinating array of texts, cultural practices, and intellectual processes--including maps and mapmaking, poetry, travel writing, popular fiction, and encyclopedias--to chart the emergence of a new geographical consciousness in early modern Japan. Marcia Yonemoto's wide-ranging history of ideas traces changing conceptions and representations of space by looking at the roles played by writers, artists, commercial publishers, and the Shogunal government in helping to fashion a new awareness of space and place in this period. Her impressively researched study shows how spatial and geographical knowledge confined to elites in early Japan became more generalized, flexible, and widespread in the Tokugawa period. In the broadest sense, her book grasps the elusive processes through which people came to name, to know, and to interpret their worlds in narrative and visual forms.

48 citations


BookDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a guide to Chaucer studies Joerg Fichte is presented, along with an overview of Chaucer's style and his social and literary scene in England.
Abstract: 1. The social and literary scene in England Paul Strohm 2. Chaucer's French inheritance Ardis Butterfield 3. Chaucer's Italian inheritance David Wallace 4. Old books brought to life in dreams: the Book of the Duchess, the House of Fame, the Parliament of Fowls Piero Boitani 5. Telling the story in Troilus and Criseyde Mark Lambert 6. Chance and destiny in Troilus and Criseyde and The Knight's Tale Jill Mann 7. The Legend of Good Women Julia Boffey and A. S. G. Edwards 8. The Canterbury Tales: personal drama or experiments in poetic variety? C. David Benson 9. The Canterbury Tales I: Romance J. A. Burrow 10. The Canterbury Tales II: Comedy Derek Pearsall 11. The Canterbury Tales III: Pathos Robert Worth Frank, Jr. 12. The Canterbury Tales IV: Exemplum and fable A. C. Spearing 13. Literary structures in Chaucer Barry A. Windeatt 14. Chaucer's style Christopher Cannon 15. Chaucer's presence and absence, 1400-1542 James Simpson 16. New approaches to Chaucer Carolyn Dinshaw 17. Further reading: a guide to Chaucer studies Joerg Fichte.

39 citations


MonographDOI
TL;DR: Rogues and Early Modern English Culture as discussed by the authors is a collection of critical essays on the literary and cultural impact of the early modern rogue. But it does not address the role of women in this group of marginal figures.
Abstract: "Rogues and Early Modern English Culture" is a definitive collection of critical essays on the literary and cultural impact of the early modern rogue. Under various names - rogues, vagrants, molls, doxies, vagabonds, cony-catchers, masterless men, caterpillars of the commonwealth - this group of marginal figures, poor men and women with no clear social place or identity, exploded onto the scene in sixteenth century English history and culture. Early modern representations of the rogue or moll in pamphlets, plays, poems, ballads, historical records, and the infamous Tudor Poor Laws treated these characters as harbingers of emerging social, economic, and cultural changes.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Ark of Studies is described as an episode in the history of the organization of knowledge and Thomas Harrison and his "Ark of studies" are discussed. But they do not discuss the role of women in this history.
Abstract: (2004). Thomas Harrison and his ‘Ark of Studies’ An Episode in the History of the Organization of Knowledge. The Seventeenth Century: Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 196-232.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a recent survey, a group of leading experts from Canada, the United States, and Europe examined the reception of Plato's Timaeus throughout history, as well as its impact on major intellectual and cultural traditions as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In recent years, Plato's Timaeus has recaptured the interest of scholars, sparking an exploration of the astonishing influence this work has had on a wide range of intellectual traditions. Plato's Timaeus as Cultural Icon brings together a group of leading experts from Canada, the United States, and Europe to examine the reception of Plato's Timaeus throughout history, as well as its impact on major intellectual and cultural traditions. Gretchen J. Reydams-Schils's enlightening introduction tackles the issue of why the Timaeus has enjoyed such tremendous cultural status, and sets the stage for the many topics covered in this volume, which include an assessment of the Timaeus' influence on Plato's successors, an examination of how it became connected to traditions of sacred texts, an analysis of the "mind-body problem," the tradition of music and its relation to philosophy, the cultural impact of Calcidius' Latin translation of the work, and the interaction between the Timaeus and Islamic philosophy. As a collaborative effort of expert philosophers, classicists, and historians, this remarkable book serves as a wonderful starting point and research tool for anyone with an interest in Plato's Timaeus.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A wide-ranging collection of essays draws on architectural and art history, court studies, English literature, garden history, musicology, economic history, and women's studies.
Abstract: The Cecils were the dominant noble family in Elizabethan and Jacobean England William, Lord Burghley rose to power and great wealth under Elizabeth I, then used his extensive patronage and exceptional breadth of interests to advance the Cecils' remarkable political and cultural pre-eminence This wide-ranging collection of essays draws on architectural and art history, court studies, English literature, garden history, musicology, economic history, and women's studies The extensive building programme of William, Lord Burghley and his son Robert, Earl of Salisbury was the most spectacular of the 16th and early 17th centuries, and much of it, particularly Burghley House and Hatfield House, still survives Their encouragement of new processes of manufacturing was, like their splendid houses, innovative, forward-looking and highly influential The Cecils were also innovative patrons of the arts They were pioneers in the vogue for collecting paintings; patrons of musicians such as John Dowland and writers such as Ben Jonson; and introduced new styles of Renaissance design into gardens and interiors The Cecil women, too, were influential in both political and cultural spheres The notable character of Mildred, Lord Burghley's wife, and the marriage alliances and female courtiership of the Cecil daughters are some of the themes explored in this refreshingly inter-disciplinary collection of essays

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A case study of the relationship between painting and flamboyant architecture can be found in this paper, where the authors describe a Pilgrimage to Chartres Cathedral in the early 13th century.
Abstract: VOLUME I (Texts) Acknowledgements Introduction PART I. THE PILGRIM'S JOURNEY: VISION AND REALITY 1. Pilgrims and Fashion: The Functions of Pilgrims' Garments, Anja Grebe 2. Spiritual Pilgrimage in the Paintings of Hans Memling, Vida J. Hull 3. Hans Memling's St. Ursula Shrine: The Subject as Object of Pilgrimage, Jeanne Nuechterlein 4. A Case Study of the Relationship between Painting and Flamboyant Architecture: The St.-Esprit Chapel at Rue, in Picardy, Claire Labrecque PART II. HOUSING FOR SAINTS: CHURCHES AND SHRINES 5. The Eventful Lives of Two Mosan Chasses, Albert Lemeunier 6. Architectural Representations on the Medallions of the Heribert Shrine, Ilana Abend-David 7. Pilgrimage to Chartres: The Visual Evidence, James Bugslag PART III. EXPERIENCE AND ICONOGRAPHY AT PILGRIMAGE CENTERS: DISCERNING MEANING 8. The Journey to Emmaus Capital at Saint-Lazare of Autun, William J. Travis 9. Portals, Processions, Pilgrimage, and Piety: Saints Firmin and Honore at Amiens, M. Cecilia Gaposchkin 10. Pilgrimage, Performance, and Stained Glass at Canterbury Cathedral, Anne F. Harris PART IV. CONNECTIONS TO JERUSALEM AND THE HOLY JERUSALEM THROUGH PILGRIMAGE SITES 11. At the Center of the World: The Labyrinth Pavement of Chartres Cathedral, Daniel K. Connolly 12. The Architecture and Iconographical Sources of the Church of Neuvy-Saint-Sepulcre, Nora Laos 13. Relics and Reliquaries of the True Cross, Kelly M. Holbert 14. Erit Sepulcrum Ejus ... Gloriosum: Verisimilitude and the Tomb of Christ in the Art of Twelfth-Century Ile-de-France, Stephen Lamia PART V. PILGRIM SOUVENIRS: MEANING AND FUNCTION 15. Medieval Pilgrim Badges and Their Iconographic Aspects, Marike de Kroon 16. Reconstructing the Shrine of St. Thomas Becket, Canterbury Cathedral, Sarah Blick 17. Pilgrim Ampullae from Vendome: Souvenirs from a Pilgrimage to the Holy Tear of Christ, Katja Boertjes 18. Searching for Signs: Pilgrims' Identity and Experience Made Visible in the Miracula Sancti Thomae Cantuariensis, Jennifer M. Lee 19. "Shameless and Naked Images": Obscene Badges as Parodies of Popular Devotion, Jos Koldeweij PART VI. COMMON CAUSE FOR MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANS: POLITICS AND PRACTICALITIES OF CULT DEVELOPMENT 20. Doubt and Authority in the Host-Miracle Shrines of Orvieto and Wilsnack, Kristen Van Ausdall 21. Building a Presbytery for St. Aethelthryth: Bishop Hugh de Northwold and the Politics of Cult Production in Thirteenth-Century England, Virginia Blanton 22. 'Y Me Tarde': The Valois, Pilgrimage, and the Chartreuse de Champmol, Laura D. Gelfand 23. Channels of Grace: Pilgrimage Architecture, Eucharistic Imagery, and Visions of Purgatory at the Host-Miracle Churches of Late Medieval Germany, Mitchell B. Merback PART VII. CULTS AND CULT PRACTICES: EVOLUTION AND EXPRESSION 24. The Iconography of the Rheno-Mosan Chasses of the Thirteenth Century, Benoit Van den Bossche 25. Relics and Pilgrimage in the Xylographic Book of St. Servatius of Maastricht, Scott B. Montgomery 26. Pilgrimage and Procession: Correlations of Meaning, Practice, and E ects, Rita Tekippe 27. The Aachen Karlsschrein and Marienschrein, Lisa Victoria Ciresi Bibliography Index VOLUME II (Plates) List of Illustrations Illustrations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Ruff as mentioned in this paper provides a useful synthesis of violence from the Reformation to the French Revolution in Western Europe, focusing on the more quotidian violence of a civilian population, considering it 'part of the discourse of early modern interpersonal relations' in all social strata.
Abstract: Julius R. Ruff, Violence in Early Modern Europe 1500-1800, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 269, hb. £40, ISBN: 0521591198In this book, Julius R. Ruff provides a useful synthesis of violence from the Reformation to the French Revolution in Western Europe. Excluding 'military violence of war', he centres on 'the more quotidian violence of a civilian population' (p. 5), considering it 'part of the discourse of early modern interpersonal relations' in all social strata (p. 2). Based on a wide reading of sources, he sets out 'to assess the nature and extent of violence ..., to examine its causes, and to weigh the reasons for its generally decreasing incidence until the twentieth-century crime wave' (p. 2). Ruff begins his survey by exploring representations of violence, using sources which reflect both popular and elite understanding. He describes oral and print culture, various forms of print material and themes, and highlights the vital role of the growing press which stimulated fears and shaped perceptions of violence.Ruff then investigates the relationship between state, arms and armies. He notes the decline of private armies, which had often posed immediate danger to the state's security. The growth of the state helped to control armies and regulate the use of arms. However, despite the state's efforts to monopolise violence, its control 'was tenuous' (p. 44). Private weapons and a lack of arms regulation remained a problem. Moreover, armies were growing larger, and the increasing number of soldiers posed a threat to civilians.Chapter three focuses on the practice of justice and explores the persistence of various modes of regulating disputes outside the institutions of state justice. The crucial role of honour and vengeance is emphasised. The state's ability to control violence was limited and did not prevail against traditional measures. Violent and non-violent private dispute resolution outweighed official forms of justice, which were costly and often inaccessible. Ruff notes a decline in the use of capital punishment towards the end of the period, and of the earlier 'brutal theatricality of punishment' (p. 111); public executions became more infrequent while a new penology developed.In chapter four Ruff explores 'the discourse of interpersonal violence' and draws on themes such as homicide, domestic violence, rape of young girls or marginalised women, and newborn-child murder. The fact that human interchange involved honour and 'face' is rightly emphasised. Most violent confrontations resulted from verbal or nonverbal communication, and the symbolism of these acts of violence has to be recognized.Chapter five pursues the themes of symbolism and ritual, and shows how group violence was often part of carnivals, festivals, and games. Towards the end of the period, the authorities began to regard these activities as a threat to public order, patronage diminished and religious reformers objected on moral grounds.Ruff then turns to popular protest and violence, protest as a means of intimidation, riots and rebellions. Protests remained mostly local and resulted from some drastic change or measure, food shortages, religious or political issues. …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the culture of violence in Shakespeare's plays and the display of violence, and the central tragedies and violence in the late plays of Shakespeare's play 'Romeo and Juliet'.
Abstract: List of illustrations Preface 1. Introduction: 'Exterminate all the brutes' 2. Shakespeare's culture of violence 3. Shakespeare and the display of violence 4. Plays and movies: Richard III and Romeo and Juliet 5. Shakespeare on war: King John to Henry V 6. Violence, Renaissance tragedy, and Hamlet 7. The central tragedies and violence 8. Roman violence and power games 9. Violence and the late plays 10. Afterword Index.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Goodare et al. as mentioned in this paper described the Scottish witch-hunting in the early seventeenth century and the last major witch-hunt in Scotland in 1697-1700.
Abstract: Preface List of Figures List of Abbreviations Notes on contributors 1. Introduction - Julian Goodare 2. The global context of the Scottish witch-hunt - Ronald Hutton 3. In search of the Devil in Fife witchcraft cases, 1560-1705 - Stuart MacDonald 4. The Scottish witchcraft panic of 1597 - Julian Goodare 5. The Devil and the domestic: witchcraft, quarrels and women's work in Scotland - Lauren Martin 6. Devices and directions: folk healing aspects of witchcraft practice in seventeenth-century Scotland - Joyce Miller 7. Hunting the rich witch in Scotland: high-status witchcraft suspects and their persecutors, 1590-1650 - Louise Yeoman 8. Witch-hunting and the Scottish state - Julian Goodare 9. The western witch-hunt of 1697-1700: the last major witch-hunt in Scotland - Michael Wasser 10. The decline and end of Scottish witch-hunting - Brian P. Levack 11. Witch-hunting, witchcraft and witch historiography: England and Scotland compared - James A. Sharpe 12. The last of the witches: the survival of Scottish witch belief - Edward J. Cowan and Lizanne Henderson Further Reading

BookDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Heitsch and Vallee discuss the history of dialogue from Bruni to Montaigne in the Renaissance and the development of dialogue in Il libro del cortegiano: From the Manuscripts Drafts to the Definitive Version.
Abstract: Foreword - Dorothea Heitsch and Jean-Francois Vallee Part One: The Fate of Dialogue *Problematizing Exemplarity: The Inward Turn of Dialogue from Bruni to Montaigne. Francois Rigolot (Princeton University) Part Two: The Utopia of Dialogue *Dialogue, Utopia, and the Agencies of Fiction. Nina Chordas (University of Alaska Southeast, Juneau) *The Fellowship of the Book, Printed Voices and Written Friendships in More's Utopia. Jean-Francois Vallee (College de Maisonneuve, Montreal) *Thomas More's Utopia and the Problem of Writing a Literary History of EnglishRenaissance Dialogue. Chris Warner (Kent State Uniersity ? East Liverpool) Part Three: Dialogue and the Court *The Development of Dialogue in Il libro del cortegiano: From the Manuscripts Drafts to the Definitive Version. Olga Pugliese (University of Toronto) *Between the locus mendacii and the locus veritatis: Pietro Aretino's Ragionemento delle corti. Robert Buranello (Georgetown University) *From Dialogue to Conversation: Marie de Gournay's Views on a Social Activity. Dorothea Heitsch (Shippensburg University) Part Four: Dialogues with History, Religion, and Science *'Truth Hath the Victory': Dialogue and Disputation in John Foxe's Acts and Monuments. Josef Puterbaugh (Independent Writer) *Milton's Hence: Dialogue and the Shape of History in L'Allegro and Il Penseroso. W. Scott Howard (University of Denver) *Hobbes, Rhetoric, and the Art of the Dialogue. Luc Borot (Universite Paul Valery, Montpellier) Part Five: The Purpose of Dialogue *Francesco Barbaro'sDe Re Uxoria: A Silent Dialogue for a Young Medici Bride. Carole Collier Firck (Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville) *Dialogue and German Language Learning in the Renaissance. Nicola McLelland (Trinity College, Dublin) Part Six: The Subject of Dialogue *Renaissance Dialogue and Subjectivity. Eva Kushner (Victoria University, Toronto)



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of trust in Genoese merchant enterprises in the sixteenth century was examined in this paper, where the authors examined how traders used shared property rights to foster trust and to build complex activities even in an environment where neither punishment nor the threat of punishment could provide an efficient barrier to opportunistic behavior.
Abstract: This study examines the role of trust in Genoese merchant enterprises in the sixteenth century. While great merchants and international financiers could rely on the state and its bank, smaller traders were left to their own devices. With no durable centralized state institutions to regulate and bolster long-distance trade, Genoese merchants relied on informal networks consisting of a combination of close associates and transient partners. Relationships between traders were enforced by means of a variety of weak mechanisms, none of which were able to prevent cheating by partners; but together they were able to provide just enough assurance when a merchants agent "trusted well." In contrast to traders in more well studied Venice and Florence, Genoese traders used shared property rights to foster trust and to build complex activities even in an environment where neither punishment nor the threat of punishment could provide an efficient barrier to opportunistic behavior.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the Afro-Caribbean backdrop and the politics surrounding it, potent as they may be, are incidental to Wollstonecraft's idea of British women's condition.
Abstract: Although Mary Wollstonecraft appears to have thought about slavery nearly as much as she thought about rights and duties, the body of scholarship on her idea of slavery is slight. Despite the recent proliferation of books and articles on her work the only extended discussions of this subject are to be found in essays by D. L. Macdonald, who argues that Wollstonecraft anticipates Hegel's master-slave dialectic, and Moira Ferguson, who attaches a great deal of importance to the effects of Afro-Caribbean slavery on Wollstonecraft's thoughts about British women's "slavery." (1) I argue, contrary to Ferguson, that the Afro-Caribbean backdrop and the politics surrounding it, potent as they may be, are incidental to Wollstonecraft's idea of British women's condition. To focus one's attention on the situation in the Caribbean as the chief motivation for Wollstonecraft's idea of slavery is to risk missing what is most important and disturbing about Wollstonecraft's thoughts on the matter, which derive from the language of virtue and corruption that prevails in Protestant political discourse: throughout A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), a slave is an individual who is morally corrupt and who is complicit in his or her own ongoing corruption. Wollstonecraft sees moral corruption--'slavery'--at work everywhere she turns: among British women, men of wealth, soldiers, servants, and the inhabitants and rulers of empire. This corruption extends from the display of artificial manners to the promotion of a culture of luxury, which inevitably results in abuses of power. To describe those slaves who lack rights as uprooted, tortured, incarcerated, disenfranchised, unpaid, or uneducated is to recognize the conditions they may suffer, but it is not to identify fully what the slave is. A slave is oppressed and unenlightened, lacking in reason and virtue. (2) By contrast, we must assume that one who is oppressed yet enlightened is necessarily in the process of casting off shackles and is not a slave but a revolutionary. That it may be difficult to locate enough revolutionaries in society to effect change is a problem of which Wollstonecraft is well aware: "Educated in slavish dependence, and enervated by luxury and sloth, where shall we find men who will stand forth to assert the rights of man;--or claim the privilege of moral beings, who should have but one road to excellence?" (3) Because Wollstonecraft finds the condition of British women especially troubling, she first addresses the need for a national system of public coeducation that will lead women out of "slavery" and into freedom and a condition of virtue. But she writes about the greater part of society suffering enslavement as well: The civilization of the bulk of the people of Europe is very partial; nay, it may be made a question, whether they have acquired any virtues in exchange for innocence, equivalent to the misery produced by the vices that have been plastered over unsightly ignorance, and the freedom which has been bartered for splendid slavery. (W 13) Wollstonecraft does see pockets of reason and virtue existing in ancient and modern history among a handful of enlightened Europeans, and, despite the pacifism she brings to her opposition to military imperialism, she celebrates individual military leaders, such as the Roman general Fabricius and the American general George Washington, who, she believes, led defensive battles against civil and political slavery. Scholars have noted that Wollstonecraft's frequent descriptions of marital relations and women's condition in terms of a system of slavery reflect her broader interest in an idea of slavery that is both literal and figurative. In the Rights of Woman and in the earlier A Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790), D. L. Macdonald suggests, Wollstonecraft is preoccupied with the injustices of the Afro-Caribbean institution as well as the literally slavish aspects of British women's social, economic, and legal condition; in the Rights of Woman, Macdonald points out, women are also represented to be metaphorical slaves to pernicious social forces. …

Journal ArticleDOI
Adam Smyth1
TL;DR: Gibson's "Commonplace Book of Sir John Gibson" as mentioned in this paper is a manuscript compiled while serving a prison sentence for debt in Durham Castle between 1653 and about 1661 while he compiled the manuscript.
Abstract: One discernable trend in early modern studies of the last decade has been a shift towards considerations of the reception of texts and, in particular, of readership. As part of this growing interest in consumption, several scholars have turned their attention to handwritten additions to printed books, considering moments when an early modern reader has altered a printed text or, more frequently, added a cross, a tick, a pointing hand, or, in the case of one verse collection I recently read, the repeated and endearing 'I like' beside various poems.1 But while readers' marginalia constitutes a small but emerging field, the related early modern practice of inserting, pasting or binding printed pages within a manuscript has been largely overlooked.2 This is not surprising: instances of the appropriation of a printed fragment within a manuscript are much less common than augmentations of a printed text with handwritten additions. However, the commonplace book of Sir John Gibson (British Library, Additional Manuscript 37719), compiled between 1655 and 1660, offers a sustained and often spectacular embodiment of just this practice, and a close account of this text presents compelling implications not only for the history of reading and of manuscript compilation, but also for our understanding of disenfranchised Royalists of the 1650s.The compiler's circumstances are as striking as the text produced: Gibson (1606-1665) was serving a prison sentence for debt in Durham Castle between 1653 and about 1661 while he compiled the manuscript.3 Gibson had been a wealthy Royalist landowner whose fortunes came crashing down as a result of the Civil War and its aftermath.4 Born in Welburn, North Riding, Yorkshire, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, Gibson's wealth was built on his substantial land holdings and the alum mining monopoly he inherited from his father. He expressed his politics through a conspicuous loyalty to the King: during the Civil War, Gibson was appointed to the Commission of Array for Yorkshire and rose to the rank of Colonel of the Horse. In 1644 Gibson's troop was ordered to guard York city during the siege of York which resulted in a Parliamentary victory.The origins of Gibson's imprisonment are both representative and opaque: representative in that Gibson, like many landowning Royalists, faced financial hardship as a consequence of his politics; yet opaque, in that the precise details are difficult to establish. In the early 1640s Gibson had stood as surety for John Redmayne and Henry Marshall in debts to a Yorkshire apothecary, William Wilson, and the demand to repay these debts in the 1650s coincided with a period of acute economic difficulty for Gibson. By then Gibson's estate - his primary source of income - had been compounded by Parliament, and his alum mine was rendered profitless when Parliament revoked the miners' patents in 1648, proclaiming them unfair monopolies. Gibson was thus unable to repay the debts he had guaranteed, and was imprisoned in Durham Castle in 1653.Like most early modern 'commonplace books', the manuscript Gibson compiled while serving this prison sentence is not really a commonplace book at all: not in the literal sense of a collection of sententiae, distributed across a range of headings.5 More useful as a bibliographical definition is that accommodating term 'miscellany': Gibson's single quarto volume (208 × 160mm) offers a diversity of inclusions - 602 entries across 564 pages - in English, Latin and Greek. The manuscript consists of thirty translations of sermons by (or attributed to) St John Chrysostom, translated 'by John Errington esq. 1656' (fol. 6), a fellow prisoner in Durham. The manuscript includes poetry by Gibson - an autobiographical verse and devotional poems - and by well-known sixteenth- and seventeenth-century authors including Christopher Marlowe, Philip Sidney, George Herbert, Francis Quarles, John Cleveland, and George Sandys, including extracts from Sandys' translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Seventeenth Century Preadamism and an Anonymous English Prethamist as discussed by the authors is an anonymous English pre-emptive pre-medianist from the seventeenth century.
Abstract: (2004). Seventeenth-Century Preadamism, and an Anonymous English Preadamist. The Seventeenth Century: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 1-35.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The third and final volume in the trilogy by Colin Richmond on the Paston family in the 15th century, completing the sequence which began with "The First Phase" and continued with "Fastolf's Will" as mentioned in this paper, deals with the later years of the century and those topics and themes which arise at that point in the family's history.
Abstract: This is the third and final volume in the trilogy by Colin Richmond on the Paston family in the 15th century, completing the sequence which began with "The First Phase" and continued with "Fastolf's Will". This volume deals with the later years of the century and those topics and themes which arise at that point in the family's history. The principal characters are John Paston II, his younger brother John Paston III, and their mother, Margaret Paston. Richmond deals with a variety of issues, some of which have arisen in previous volumes and attempts some judgements on the role of the English gentry in the later middle ages.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This lavishly illustrated book ties in with a major international exhibition opening at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich on 1 May 2003, timed to commemorate the 400th anniversary since the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, and sponsored by Morgan Stanley.
Abstract: This lavishly illustrated book ties in with a major international exhibition opening at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich on 1 May 2003. Timed to commemorate the 400th anniversary since the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, and sponsored by Morgan Stanley, the exhibition brings together a wealth of paintings, manuscripts, fine art objects and personal effects which illuminate Elizabeth's fascinating history. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich and spent her first months at Greenwich Palace, on the site of what is now a World Heritage Site, Maritime Greenwich. The book, containing contributions from a number of well-known experts on Tudor history, will focus on Elizabeth's Court as well as her relationship with the City of London and its increasingly influential mercantile class. It will also reflect the importance of Elizabeth's maritime adventurers, and their role in creating wealth for the crown, burgeoning maritime enterprise and the beginnings of an overseas empire.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Judaism in Practice: From the Middle Ages through the Early Modern Period as discussed by the authors is a collection of primary Jewish source materials focusing on religious practice and religious experience, with a focus on religious experience.
Abstract: Judaism in Practice: From the Middle Ages through the Early Modern Period testifies to the great variety of religious practices that characterized Judaism in the twelve hundred years between approximately 600 C.E. and 1800 C.E. Although this vast span of time has often been regarded monochromatically, scholars have increasingly come to speak of this period’s enormous complexity. The more that we learn about Judaism during this period of time, the more we recognize the dimensions of this complexity, as we will see below. One of the many ways in which this anthology differs from earlier collections of primary Jewish source materials is in its focus on religious practice and religious experience—in keeping with the series of which it is a part. Older sourcebooks have tended overwhelmingly to be interested in either the political, social, and economic history of the Jewish people as a minority community under Islam and Christianity, or in documenting the intellectual religious achievements of medieval and early modern Jewry. There are thus a number of anthologies having to do with medieval Jewish philosophy, mystical thought, and religious poetry, but virtually nothing of scholarly consequence that seeks to encompass the broad range and variety of Jewish religious practice. That this is the case is a matter of considerable irony, in light of the fact that Judaism has historically been regarded as essentially legal, that is, practical in nature. Yet, it is only recently that scholars have come to explore with increasing sophistication the embodied nature of Jewish religion. As the contents of this volume will demonstrate, the ways in which Judaism has been practiced can hardly be isolated from the historical and political experiences of Jews, or from their many different constructions of faith and theology. Nevertheless, a fuller appreciation of the dimensions of religious practice in Judaism requires that they be studied not merely as an appendage to treatments of Jewish history or Jewish thought but on their own terms, as well. The chapters in this book illustrate many different approaches to the analysis of ritual and practice, including literary, anthropological, phenomenological, and gender studies, as well as the methods of comparative religion. Rather than encompass the entire history of Judaism, this sourcebook focuses on the medieval and early modern periods. There are several vantage points from which to construe the emergence of medieval Judaism. From a political point of © Copyright, Princeton University Press. No part of this book may be distributed, posted, or reproduced in any form by digital or mechanical means without prior written permission of the publisher.

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TL;DR: The terms of religious coexistence established by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 posed many challenges as French Catholics and Protestants struggled to bridge the gap between the edict's provisions and their everyday lives.
Abstract: The terms of religious coexistence established by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 posed many challenges as French Catholics and Protestants struggled to bridge the gap between the edict's provisions and their everyday lives.This article focuses on two pastoral visitations conducted in the dioceses of Vaison andAix-en-Provence in the wake of the edict's promulgation. Not only were they among the first dioceses to introduce Catholic reform in France; they were also home to biconfessional communities. The visitation records help to illuminate the complexities of navigating religious rivalries and the demands of Catholic renewal at the local level. Although the visitors addressed a range of topics, they were especially concerned with strengthening the material and liturgical dimensions of Sunday parish worship. The discussion will follow this common thread in order to elucidate the particular importance of the parish mass as a means of shaping Catholic group identity and social relations in late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century France.

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TL;DR: The authors examines the relationship between the news genre and its usage of providence and fortune, and shows how and why providence emerged as its favored explanatory concept, and how these contributed to the pronounced emphasis on experimental providentialism within these news reports' descriptions of the battlefield.
Abstract: Printed English-language battlefield news reports between 1570 and 1637 conveyed to English newsreaders a genre-distinctive discourse of war, whose emphasis on the precise means of battlefield providence conveyed a degreeof experimental providentialism considerably beyond the norms of England's consensually providential culture. This article examines closely the relationship of the news genre to its usage of providence and fortune, and shows how and why providence emerged as its favored explanatory concept. It also looks at the usual contexts of battlefield providence, and shows how these contributed to the pronounced emphasis on experimental providentialism within these news reports' descriptions of the battlefield. Finally, it highlights the suggestive affinities between these news reports' experimental providentialism and the experimental providentialism of English Puritans, and by so doing considers the possible effects the news reports' peculiar providentialism may have had on the English reading public.