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Showing papers in "The Environmentalist in 1996"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of 992 secondary students in Hong Kong using the Weigel and Weigel environmental concern scale was conducted to investigate their environmental attitudes which were reflected in a readiness to engage in various pro-environmental behaviours including paper recycling at school and at home and the use of less tissues and plastic bags as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A postal survey of 992 secondary students in Hong Kong using the Weigel and Weigel environmental concern scale was conducted to investigate their environmental attitudes which were reflected in a readiness to engage in various pro-environmental behaviours including paper recycling at school and at home and the use of less tissues and plastic bags. The results indicated that students' expressed great concern about the environment and exhibited a strong willingness to participate in pro-environmental behaviour. However, students' overoptimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were two major factors that contradicted their concern for environment. The Pearson correlation coefficient between environmental concern and comprehensive behavioural intention was strong and positive (0.52). Television and school were cited as major sources of environmental information. Mass media were more important than personal media in the dissemination of environmental information. Female students, older students and students living in private housing held more positive environmental attitudes and were more willing to engage in pro-environmental behaviour. Factor analysis indicated that the environmental concern scale was composed of two factors, personal sacrifice and optimism/issue.

90 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a measurement instrument was designed to identify and measure the existing factors that underlie concern for ecological/environmental problems and behaviour towards environment/nature in the age group of 10 to 16 year old pupils.
Abstract: The object of this study was to construct a measurement instrument to assess two different environmental world views of adolescents and, additionally, to address the adolescents' verbal commitment and actual behaviour. Using a multiple-choice questionnaire the instrument was designed to identify and measure the existing factors that underlie concern for ecological/environmental problems and behaviour towards environment/nature in the age group of 10 to 16 year old pupils. Within the traditional tripartite model covering cognitive, affective and behavioural components the study selected items that made up the majority of corresponding subscales from various previous studies. Using factor analysis the configuration of the scale's dimensionality was stated. Based on the responses of approximately 2000 Bavarian pupils, subscales were extracted via factor analysis and, subsequently, addressed to different segments of environmental concern ranging from attitudes to verbal commitment and actual behaviour. Correlation coefficients and the standardized Cronbach's α-values were also surveyed. Additionally, a Kruskal-Wallis analysis was applied in order to locate the subscales' influences on sociodemographic variables such as gender and age and self-reported variables such as the pleasure of being a pupil and school performance. The further purpose of the present study is to provide the basis for follow-up comparisons of preferences and values in pupils within other countries.

77 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among distinctive features of future evolution could be; in the short term, homogenization of biotas, a proliferation of opportunistic species, an outburst of speciation among particular taxa, and a pest-and-weed ecology; and, in the long term, a decline of biodisparity, the elimination of megavertebrates, an end to Speciation among large vertebrates, and multiple constraints on origination, innovation and adaptive radiation.
Abstract: A large proportion of existing species — possibly half, conceivably even more — may be lost within the foreseeable future. But this may not prove to be the most consequential outcome of the current biodiversity crisis. More significant could be the disruption and degradation of several basic processes of evolution. It appears likely that for mass extinction episodes (MEEs) in the geological past, the recovery period usually lasted at least five million years. Because of certain unique features of the present MEE — notably the near elimination of biomes such as tropical forests, wetlands and coral reefs, which have served as ‘powerhouses’ of evolution in the past — the ‘bounce-back’ phase could extend several times longer than five million years. Among distinctive features of future evolution could be; in the short term, homogenization of biotas, a proliferation of opportunistic species, an outburst of speciation among particular taxa, and a pest-and-weed ecology; and, in the long term, a decline of biodisparity, the elimination of megavertebrates, an end to speciation among large vertebrates, and multiple constraints on origination, innovation and adaptive radiation. These disruptive phenomena would rank among the most prominent departures in the entire course of evolution. Full knowledge and understanding of what may characterize future evolution remains largely a black hole of research. As a consequence, conservation policies fail to reflect a further problem of the biodiversity prospect, perhaps exceeding the better recognized problem of the mass extinction of species.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new city has emerged in the 1990s, designed to achieve urban ‘sustainability’, based on the principles of nature, which makes no waste, maximizes biodiversity and is sustained by the sun.
Abstract: A new city has emerged in the 1990s, designed to achieve urban ‘sustainability’. The notion of sustainable urban form has its roots in the Garden City movement at the turn of the century. The ‘garden’ cities of the 1900s and the ‘ecological’ cities of the 1970s were proposed as alternatives to the pathology of modern urban form. Just as cities provide a place for humans to live, so they destroy ecosystems and become unfit habitats for the human spirit. The city must be made more vital, humane, efficient, beautiful, self-sufficient, and natural through a return to a more compact form, its impact on the environment must be decreased. These themes have re-emerged in the sustainable cities of the 1990s, advanced on behalf of future generations and planetary ecology. The sustainable city is a compact city. Calthorpe's ‘Transit-Oriented Developments’ (1989) are hailed as sustainable because their walkable streets free residents from reliance on automobiles and their high density preserves surrounding wildlife habitat. The European Commission (EC) rests a sustainable future for Europe (1990) on the twin pillars of urban compactness and urban regeneration. Nash (1991) believes that sustainable global urbanization would consist of 1.5 billion humans living in 500 compact cities. He calls his vision ‘Island Civilisation’. The sustainable city is also a city of regenerative processes. Girardet (1990; 1992) thinks it has a ‘circular metabolism’, as distinguished from the ‘linear metabolism’ of contemporary cities. McDonough (adviser to President Clinton on ‘sustainable development’) theorizes inThe Hannover Principles (1992) that in order to make civilization sustainable, urban form will have to be based on the principles of nature, which makes no waste, maximizes biodiversity and is sustained by the sun. The urban form designed by McDonald (1993), conceptualized with ideas from chaos theory, contemplates a sustainable city within a sustainable watershed and a form ‘holistic’, ‘diverse’, ‘fractal’ and ‘evolutionary’. Lyle (1994) believes that the sustainable cities of the next century will be based on the ‘green infrastructure’ of ‘regenerative systems’. The commonality linking these landmarks of sustainable urbanization is the ideal of bringing the city into a vital symbiosis with nature. The sustainable city is a ‘green’ or ‘living’ city. The search for the sustainable city in the 20th century has not been Utopian buttopian, a quest to create a form of city suited to optimal development of the Earth island.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The second phase of the project was to assess the sociocultural impacts of ecotourism on that community and the paper outlines this phase as mentioned in this paper. But it has not been implemented yet.
Abstract: This paper outlines the second phase of an ecotourism project undertaken in the Santa Elena community, in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica. The community originally established a rainforest reserve with the help of Youth Challenge International in an attempt to provide a wider economic base and employment for the area. The project has been successful in the first phase in that it is now drawing an annual income of US$40 000 and it employs guides and management from the local community. In terms of the underlying principles usually aligned with ecotourism it has been successful but it is now necessary to evaluate the impacts this project is having on the community. The second phase of the project was to assess the sociocultural impacts of ecotourism on that community and the paper outlines this phase.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider the application of the principles of sustainable development to an airport situation and present an idealized representation of a sustainable airport, which they use to reconcile definitions and interpretations before an idealised representation of sustainable airport is presented.
Abstract: This paper considers the application of the principles of sustainable development to an airport situation. If sustainable development is to be enshrined as the global development pathway which reconciles economic and environmental issues then it must be applicable to a range of spatial scales. Airports will interact at a variety of levels with this multi-level decision making and enactment structure. The requirements imposed upon an airport may differ according to whether decisions are being taken by local, regional or national decision makers. Conflicts and uncertainties will inevitably result. Definitions of sustainable development are considered and policy guidance from the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the nation State level evaluated for its relevance to airport decision making. An attempt is made to reconcile definitions and interpretations before an idealized representation of a sustainable airport is presented. Mechanisms by which this may be actualized are then suggested. A need for improved theoretical knowledge is identified but research is also necessary on application and localization procedures for sustainable development.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study of the problem of sustaining biological diversity in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan is presented, and the authors discuss the types of strategies adopted in China for reducing pressures of local communities on biodiversity and nature conservation.
Abstract: The State Council of China has adopted Agenda 21for China and biodiversity conservation is one plank of its agenda for China's sustainable development. This paper offers a brief discussion of China's White Paper on Agenda 21 and examines, as a case study, the problem of sustaining biological diversity in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan. This area is rated as one of ‘megadiversity’, and therefore, as one deserving a high priority for conservation purposes. After discussing the general socio-economic obstacles to biodiversity conservation in Xishuangbanna, the article outlines the types of strategies adopted in China for reducing pressures of local communities on biodiversity and nature conservation. China's preferred strategy for easing pressures on biodiversity conservation in nature reserves is to improve economic opportunities outside of the reserves and raise the income levels of people living in the neighbourhood of the reserves. This approach has been adopted in Xishuangbanna and there are plans to extend it. Community development projects such as agroforestry, joint ventures in tourism and so on are being encouraged. Mechanisms for selecting suitable community development projectse.g. using rapid rural appraisal (RRA), are considered. Without economic development at the local level, plans for biodiversity conservation are unlikely to succeed in China or for that matter elsewhere in the developing world.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The spillage had a devastating effect on the herbaceous community and especially on the component herbaceous annuals, with at least 80–90% of the species absent in the affected areas in comparison to nearby unaffected areas.
Abstract: The impact of crude oil spill on the number of plant species and the above-ground live standing crop biomass (AGLSCB) of a herbaceous plant community was assessed. The spillage had a devastating effect on the herbaceous community and especially on the component herbaceous annuals. At least 80–90% of the species were absent in the affected areas in comparison to nearby unaffected areas, most of these being annuals. Perennial species were generally less affected. The total herbaceous production for a period of 12 months in the polluted areas was 885.1 gm−2 compared with 4860.7 gm−2 for the unaffected areas. The average monthly production in the polluted areas was 73.8 gm−2 compared with 405.0 gm−2 for the unaffected areas.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Li et al. as discussed by the authors found that environmental protection bureaucrats in China have conflicting attitudes towards the relationship between man and nature, and between economic growth and environmental protection, however, they show a strong faith in science and technology's ability to solve environmental problems.
Abstract: Over 180 environmental protection bureaucrats in the People's Republic of China were individually interviewed to determine their environmental awareness and their attitudes towards the environment. The study indicates that environmental protection bureaucrats in China have conflicting attitudes towards the relationship between man and nature, and between economic growth and environmental protection. However, they show a strong faith in science and technology's ability to solve environmental problems. The perception that too-harsh environmental protection regulations would reduce the growth potential of the economy is so predominant that it poses a serious threat to the environment of the three municipalities under investigation. It is argued that environmental management is a matter of managing human beings. To understand people, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their worldview.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The work in this paper describes the process adopted in preparing the strategy, reviews some of the subsequent developments in Scotland, and assesses the factors which may have contributed to its success so far.
Abstract: Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 called on each nation to bring together a widely cross-sectoral group of people to prepare a national strategy for environmental education and training. In Scotland this process had already begun and the Secretary of State's Working Group on Environmental Education presented him with its recommendations for a strategy in April 1993, which he accepted in a statement of intent in June, 1995. The process itself, the comments received on the report since publication and continuing developments in the field, have demonstrated the importance of adopting broad definitions for both ‘environment’ and ‘education’, spreading involvement in production of the strategy to all sectors and as wide a range of individuals as possible, dividing up the work so as to focus on all the main contexts in which learning takes place, working with the main potential implementers and not depending entirely on the availability of new resources. The process was in itself rewarding and its importance should not be underestimated. The approach adopted and the issues which it raised appear to have wide applicability to similar programmes elsewhere. This paper describes the process adopted in preparing the strategy, reviews some of the subsequent developments in Scotland, and assesses the factors which may have contributed to its success so far.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this endeavour, the learners must ultimately reach out to participate in community decisions and environmental management activities, for that is where the environmental problems abound as mentioned in this paper, and moreover, young persons are generally more knowledgeable than many adults on environmental matters and are more aware of the effects of environmental degradation.
Abstract: Whether environmental education in the school curriculum is treated as a separate subject or as an interdisciplinary entity, the end product should be the same: to provide learners with the desire to preserve or develop optimum environments and to improve less desirable ones. In this endeavour, the learners must ultimately reach out to participate in community decisions and environmental management activities, for that is where the environmental problems abound. Moreover, young persons are generally more knowledgeable than many adults on environmental matters and are more aware of the effects of environmental degradation. When they participate in community environmental management, they may also develop unique and particularly dynamic qualities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the rising tide of environmentalism in contemporary culture and describe the concepts and practices of sustainable development and the merging of social and environmental justice, both locally and globally.
Abstract: This paper describes the rising tide of environmentalism in contemporary culture. It is accepted that this represents a fragile advance in our sensibilities about nature and one another. It has impacted the embodied practices of everyday affairs in decision-making. The sense of environmental risk factors may have contributed to this evolving sensibility towards nature. The rising environmental concern converges with the practices of democracy in the development and expansion of right-to-know laws, both locally and globally. In concert with the right-to-know laws are concepts and practices of sustainable development and the merging of social and environmental justice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the air quality impacts of airport operations and identify emission sources both within and surrounding airports as being important in contributing to air quality experienced at an airport, including aircraft operations, landside traffic, airside traffic and fuel handling operations.
Abstract: This paper discusses the air quality impacts of airport operations. It considers a range of pollutants and identifies emission sources both within and surrounding airports as being important in contributing to the air quality experienced at an airport. These sources include aircraft operations, landside traffic, airside traffic and fuel-handling operations. The paper considers air quality impacts over the last 30 years and draws examples from a variety of European airports. The paper concludes with a forecast of likely changes in emission sources and strengths at airports over the next 15 years.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Competitive biomethanation of a biomass by other biomasses as a source for a wild population of microbes has been studied in vials using a cross-inoculation technique, i.e. using inoculum of one biomass on different sterile biomasses.
Abstract: Quantitative studies on the biomethanation processes using a different biomass (goat dung, cow dung, buffalo dung, piggery waste, poultry waste and sewage) alone or in combination have been made. The dung samples have been found to be an efficient producer of biogas at a 1:2 dilution. Better yields of biogas are obtained in combination with other biomasses rather than when used alone. Judicious mixing of biomasses, however, is important. Competitive biomethanation of a biomass by other biomasses as a source for a wild population of microbes has been studied in vials using a cross-inoculation technique, i.e. using inoculum of one biomass on different sterile biomasses. The results show that the microbes are very specific and usually non-adaptive. Each inoculum outclasses others in using its natural biomass for methanation but reacts poorly when inoculated to other alien biomasses. Buffalo dung is to some extent adaptive in nature.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarized research evaluating nitrate levels in shallow groundwater of upstate New York, USA and concluded that regardless of overlying land-use, shallow groundwater is susceptible to high levels of nitrate.
Abstract: This paper summarizes research evaluating nitrate levels in shallow groundwater of upstate New York, USA. Water from abandoned dug wells in six different land-use categories was analyzed for nitrate. Findings indicate that regardless of overlying land-use, shallow groundwater is susceptible to high levels of nitrate. Over 60 percent of the water samples tested, including at least one sample from each land-use category, had nitrate levels in excess of the United States drinking water standard of 10 mg 1−1. Due to the potential threat of elevated nitrate levels, efforts should be made to eliminate abandoned dug wells in shallow groundwater as a source of water supply.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The loss of forests is a "double-edge blow" for most rural and agricultural systems as mentioned in this paper, since forests provide the resource substitutes for the many manufactured products which are scarce or physically and economically inaccessible, and they also provide congenial environments which support rural food systems by way of productive agricultural land opportunities.
Abstract: Agro-ecosystems in many of the developing economies are coming under increased pressure, especially in areas where population demands, weak economic growth, and debt burdens, are resulting in mass rural poverty and assault on environmental resources. The loss of forests is a ‘double-edge blow’ for most rural and agricultural systems. The forests provide the resource substitutes for the many manufactured products which are scarce or physically and economically inaccessible, and they also provide congenial environments which support rural food systems by way of productive agricultural land opportunities.


Journal ArticleDOI

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that marketable permits offer an attractive system of pollution control when the scope of variation in abatement levels is evident, but the benefits of this system are small and insufficient to justify any regulatory reform.
Abstract: Regulatory instruments in environmental policy have strongraison d'etre. They still dominate the instruments selected by policy makers. Even with the growing interest in the use of economic instruments, in theory, empirical studies and policy, industries tend to prefer command-and-control as a practical instrument in pollution control. Polluters often assume they have more influence on regulation than on setting effluent charge levels. The industry can be better off under the regulatory standard than an imposed effluent charge when the total cost of abatement to the industry is considered. The higher costs to the industry make effluent charges less attractive. In practice, generally a ‘mixed’ environmental policy is used in which regulations dominate. This choice has been based on effectiveness, economic efficiency and political acceptability. By simulating the abatement cost function, it was found that marketable permits offer an attractive system of pollution control when the scope of variation in abatement levels is evident. Unfortunately, at higher levels of abatement, the benefits of this system are small and insufficient to justify any regulatory reform. Thus, with a pragmatic approach coupled with a rent-seeking behaviour of the polluters, a shift to the use of economic instruments is neither likely nor desirable even when administrative and transactions costs are not considered.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the past two decades, since initial establishment of Thailand's National Environment Board by the original National Environmental Quality Act of 1975 (NEQA/75), many lessons have been learned on the complex problems of establishing a meaningful national environmental program as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Over the past two decades, since initial establishment of Thailand's National Environment Board by the original National Environmental Quality Act of 1975 (NEQA/75), many lessons have been learned on the complex problems of establishing a meaningful national environmental program in the country. Based on these lessons, a new act was promulgated in 1992 (NEQA/92), which furnishes very substantial powers and financing for planning and implementing such a program. The result has been a marked upgrading and acceleration of the program, but with the realization that the principal problem now is scarcity of the many needed technical skills in the government's Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, which serves as the Working Arm for the National Environment Board. One of the approaches now being explored is how to make effective use of the private sector to supplement and complement the government's resources.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study of the association of perceived neighbourhood hazards, neighbourhood quality, and resident behavioural responses in two New Jersey, USA, communities that contain multiple technological hazards and populations that are relatively poor and racially homogeneous is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This article presents a study of the association of perceived neighbourhood hazards, neighbourhood quality, and resident behavioural responses in two New Jersey, USA, communities that contain multiple technological hazards and populations that are relatively poor and racially homogeneous. The number of neighbourhood problems was highest among residents who engaged in activities to protect their neighbourhood and perceived that their neighbourhood was of poor or fair quality. These respondents perceived three to five times as many hazards as their counterparts who were passive and perceived that their neighbourhood was of excellent or good quality. Respondents' age, education, gender, type of residential unit occupied, and length of residence in the neighbourhood, were not associated with their evaluation of neighbourhood hazards. The authors argue that multiple-hazard neighbourhoods are excellent environments to learn about perception of hazards.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pesticide residues in soil, water, food, wildlife and other media have been analyzed in several monitoring studies as discussed by the authors The purpose was to establish the distribution of these residues across a defined area, ascertain their trend over a specific period and use the results to assess environmental compliance and safety.
Abstract: Pesticide residues in soil, water, food, wildlife and other media have been analysed in several monitoring studies The purpose was to establish the distribution of these residues across a defined area, ascertain their trend over a specific period and use the results to assess environmental compliance and safety In the present review the availability of information on pesticide residues in various Canadian environmental components was sought With the possible exception of localized pesticide contamination of some private water supply wells, ground and surface water, most analyses revealed concentrations below guideline limits Only a few cases were reported of mishandling, misuse and poisoning from pesticides Continuing surveillance programmes and in-depth and well-organized monitoring studies, with special focus on areas that are vulnerable to contamination, by both provincial and federal governments, are largely responsible for the encouraging results This experience in the control of pesticide use and monitoring of residues in the environment should be of particular interest in developing countries


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the World Forest Arboretum in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India has used Lemna and Eichhornia aquatic weeds to purify the wastewater.
Abstract: Human beings use huge quantities of water every day for drinking, cleaning and various cultural functions and dispose of it as wastewater within sewage. With increase in population, the magnitude of this waste is multiplying enormously and beyond the recycling capacity of local ecosystems to become a major health and environmental hazard. Re-use of wastewater for afforestation purposes in the form of sewage silviculture combines the dual benefit of ‘water conservation’ with ‘environmental sanitation’. Such experiments are being carried out at the World Forest Arboretum in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Biological treatment of the sewage before application, to improve its irrigational quality, to remove harmful chemicals and to prevent the risk of these passing into the human food chain is being undertaken. The aquatic weeds Lemna and Eichhornia are being used to purify the wastewater. The technique is both economically viable and ecologically sustainable.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the compatibility of this trend towards automation with sustainable development is discussed and it is argued that the spread of automation will decrease the capability of mankind as a whole to implement environmentally sustainable programs.
Abstract: The ecological crisis is a result of modern industrial development and its negative impacts which are not conducive to the co-existence of essential diversities in the ecosystem. One of the major trends in present day industry is to move towards computer-based automation. This article discusses the compatibility of this trend towards automation with sustainable development which is regarded as the only viable choice to overcome the ecological crisis. After discussing the present day concepts of sustainable development, automation and the economic impact of automation on society, this paper argues that computer-based automation in industry is not conducive to sustainable development. It is also argued that the spread of automation will decrease the capability of mankind as a whole to implement environmentally sustainable programmes. Finally, the man-nature relationship which is the philosophical basis of the industrial paradigm is discussed. As pointed out by some comparative philosophers, the basic concept of human superiority and separation from nature has to change in order to have a harmonious integrity of life forms as complementary realities in this phenomenal existence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the responsibilities of further and higher education institutions with regard to environmental management and outline one possible alternative to the BS7750 approach, the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) Environment Initiative.
Abstract: Many people within the further and higher education sector in the United Kingdom (UK) have now accepted that responsible environmental management of their day to day site operations is necessary, but they are still unclear as to what lengths they need to go to obtain marketplace credibility. Many people in other sectors believe that the only way to achieve real credibility in this area is to become accredited by the new British Standard BS7750 ‘Specification for Environmental Management Systems’. Others are expressing concern that such systems are cumbersome to operate and generate a needless level of bureaucracy and additional unwelcome paperwork. This paper briefly discusses the responsibilities of further and higher education institutions with regard to environmental management and outlines one possible alternative to the BS7750 approach, the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) Environment Initiative. It also outlines the approach taken by the University of Strathclyde over the past three years in the development of an environmental management manual for the Estates Management Department and the development of a system to control university-wide environmental management. In conclusion this paper will focus on the suitability of BS7750 systems within further and higher education institutions in comparison with the approach adopted in the CBI Environment Initiative.

Journal ArticleDOI
Ruud Pleune1
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate whether strategies of environmental organizations concerning acidification change over time; and are the same as those in respect of ozone depletion, and they show that strategies regarding acidification changed over time and that they were different from those concerning ozone depletion.
Abstract: It is usually assumed that a strategy should be considered to be a quality of an environmental organization. The organization would either employ a characteristic strategy with respect to a problem over time or at least it would use the same strategy regarding different problems at a certain point in time. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether strategies of environmental organizations concerning acidification change over time; and are the same as those in respect of ozone depletion. The results show that strategies regarding acidification changed over time and that they were different from those concerning ozone depletion (obtained from an earlier case study). In the ozone depletion case only environmentally-oriented organizations were actively involved with the problem. The definition in society of acidification as a ‘dying forest’ issue attracted, however, attention from nature-oriented organizations as well. The resulting broad spectrum of organizations mutually influenced each other's strategies. These findings indicate that the definition of a problem in society is very important for determining the strategies pursued by environmental organizations. This conclusion has not merely academic value, but it can also serve as a boundary condition when defining future strategies of environmental organizations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that the dilution of sewage in a 0.9 percent NaCl solution may cause either the destruction, conservation or even an increase in the number of faecal coliforms depending on the time that dilution takes place and on the rate of dilution.
Abstract: Sewage which is disposed of in natural waters is continuously subjected to dilution. This natural phenomenon changes the concentrations of significant environmental parameters causing either the growth or the decay of enteric bacteria in sewage. The connection between the survival of faecal coliform bacteria and sewage dilution is obvious. However, this dependence has not been proved by any related experiments. The experimental results of this study show that the dilution of sewage in a 0.9 percent NaCl solution may cause either the destruction, conservation or even an increase in the number of faecal coliforms depending on the time that the dilution takes place and on the rate of dilution.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study of the threats against the natural environment is presented, and the most important of these derive from activities that bring people closer to nature, but which follow a development model that is not sustainable.
Abstract: The Greek natural environment shows an extensive diversity of flora and fauna and a significantly high density of important biotopes. This notable ecological wealth is threatened with rapid degradation caused by human activities. Its protection through nature conservation measures and through the control of development projects and activities is obstructed by factors such as the existence of a large number of non-point sources of disturbance which are related to a large number of people, the inefficiencies of State mechanisms, the indifference of local societies with regards to planning procedures and long-term social benefits, and a traditionally indifferent or hostile attitude of countryside people towards nature. A study of the threats against the natural environment shows that the most important of these derive from activities that bring people closer to nature, but which follow a development model that is not sustainable. Such activities are: farming, animal grazing, fishing, tourism, vacation house-building, the opening up of roads, hunting, motorized recreation, etc. Contrary to this, the development of industry and the big enterprises of the tertiary sector appears more compatible with the preservation of a rich natural environment when certain conditions such as effective control, use of modern technology and convergence of business and environmental benefits occur. Consequently, this kind of development shows a better perspective as a sustainable development.