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JournalISSN: 2151-7401

The Hilltop Review 

About: The Hilltop Review is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Power (social and political) & Poetry. It has an ISSN identifier of 2151-7401. Over the lifetime, 122 publications have been published receiving 486 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore several dilemmas addressed in the literature and how feminist researchers resolved the issues and discuss some of the ways feminist researchers have chosen to address informed consent.
Abstract: Feminist research is fraught with ethical dilemmas, some of which concern informed consent and the possibility of potential harms to respondents. I review several dilemmas addressed in the literature and how feminist researchers resolved the issues. I also look at the National Association of Social Workers‘ Code of Ethics and how the concepts of dual relationships and boundaries in social work practice may offer helpful guidelines to feminist researchers. The conduct of feminist research is a common practice that is fraught with ethical dilemmas. If one takes the tenets of feminist research seriously, one is attempting to meet a very high ethical standard, and these attempts aren‘t always supported by one‘s peers or the processes of research. This paper explores a particular area of feminist research that has been discussed in the literature: informed consent. There are many ways to define informed consent, and all researchers have to obtain it, but determining whether or not consent is truly informed can be an ethical gray area. I explore the writings of several feminist scholars who have struggled with this issue in practice, and then discusses some of the ways feminist researchers have chosen to address informed consent. The paper then turns to some potential harms identified by feminist researchers which have resulted from their research, in spite of obtaining informed consent. I argue that feminist researchers could use some guidelines in this area, and that the National Association of Social Workers‘ (NASW) Code of Ethics, particularly in relation to boundaries and dual relationships, may provide some assistance in making research decisions which minimize potential harms. Feminist Research Feminist social science research methods have been discussed for years, and there is an ongoing question of whether there is such a thing as ―feminist methodology.‖ Some argue that methodology is methodology (Chafetz, 2004), or that there isn‘t a ―distinctive feminist method of research‖ (Harding, 1987, p. 456). Fonow and Cook, on the other hand, believe that there is a feminist methodology, which they state ―involves the description, explanation, and justification of techniques used in feminist research and is an abstract classification that refers to a variety of methodological stances, conceptual approaches, and research strategies‖ (2005, p. 2213). Harding stated that the distinctive features of the best feminist research weren‘t going to be found by looking at research methods (1987). Harding‘s definition of feminist research focuses on three characteristics: women‘s experience as empirical and theoretical resources; research of problems which concern women and which is therefore done for women; and the placement and recognition of the researcher as a subject who exists in the same moment as the subject matter she is researching (Harding, 1987). Feminist research, in general, has varying definitions. According to Guimaraes (2007), ―many propose that–whatever the method employed–what makes research feminist‘ is, in part, an underlying research ethic of McCormick 23 The Hilltop Review, Winter 2012 24 Feminist Research Ethics The Hilltop Review, Winter 2012 integrity‘ and responsibility‘ in the research process‖ (p. 149). Fonow and Cook coedited the anthology, Beyond Methodology: Feminist Scholarship as Lived Research in 1991, in which they attempted to ―capture the dilemmas feminists faced at each step of the research process‖ (2005, p. 2212). Their conception of a feminist methodology offers these guiding principles for researchers: to be reflexively aware of the significance of gender in their work; to help raise consciousness around issues; to challenge the idea that objectivity is obtainable in research; to consider the ethical implication of their research and the recognition of the potential for their respondents to be exploited; and to use their work to advance women‘s empowerment (Fonow & Cook, 2005, p. 2213). DeVault believes feminist researchers ―are united through various efforts to include women‘s lives and concerns in accounts of society, to minimize the harms of research, and to support changes that will improve women‘s status‖ (1996, p. 29) These different approaches to feminist research and methods cover most of the main tenets of feminist research. There is clearly a concern for reflexivity and placing the researcher in the same world as those being researched. There is a need for the work being done to be political in some way—to contribute to the transformation of society in a way that is beneficial to oppressed persons. There is a concern that the research be ethical, in that it not cause harm to those being researched, and that it give voice to the voiceless. These are high standards to meet, and yet many researchers use these guidelines in conducting their work. Feminists conducting social science research have a tendency to choose methods which enable them to answer the questions they pose in a way that is true to their feminist values. Within this feminist approach to research, I look at how the ―underlying research ethic‖ named by Guimaraes (2007) has an impact upon research and how it is addressed by feminist social science researchers in practice. Given the concern for ethical research practice, I review some ethical dilemmas being faced by feminist social science researchers in regard to informed consent. How are they are being reflexive about the ethical issues they face, and how they are able to resolve ethical dilemmas in ways that still meet the requirements of feminist research? Informed Consent One of the first ethical questions feminist researchers face is that of informed consent. Obtaining meaningful informed consent can become problematic for the research process. One area in which this is prevalent in social science research concerns the study of vulnerable populations, which may include children, young women who are being hospitalized for treatment of some sort, homeless youth, and people who are incarcerated, for example. All of these populations can be of interest to social scientists, and arguments can be made for the importance of research on these populations in terms of contributions to knowledge. Obtaining informed consent in these cases, however, is not a direct process. According to The Belmont Report, the main concern of informed consent has to deal with ―respect for persons,‖ which ―requires that subjects, to the degree that they are capable, be given the opportunity to choose what shall or shall not happen to them‖ (National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1979, Part C, Section 1). All researchers have to obtain informed consent before embarking upon their research, but determining whether or not consent is truly informed can be difficult. Providing information to respondents about one‘s research is a fairly straightforward endeavor, although one still needs to make sure it is provided in terms which the respondent can understand. Comprehension of the research is more problematic. The person may understand what is being put forward to them, but may not understand the implications of granting the request. For example, some may not fully understand how they may be impacted, even if

14 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Pal et al. as discussed by the authors investigated the influence of rotation speed and milling time on pigment dispersion quality in water-based rotogravure inks and obtained a standard laboratory condition with different pigment concentrations.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of rotation speed and milling time on the pigment dispersion quality. The information can be used to obtain a standard laboratory condition at which a wide range of pigments may be dispersed to formulate water-based rotogravure inks. The influence of pigment concentration and shear forces on the pigment dispersion were also studied. The procedure consisted of dispersing the pigment using a laboratory Dispermat® SL bead mill at various milling times with two different rotation speeds and measuring the particle size and particle size distribution of the milled samples. The pigment was then dispersed at standard laboratory condition with different pigment concentrations. INTRODUCTION s for the future of printing processes, ecology will play a much larger roll, with special attention being paid to eliminating waste, emissions, and reducing energy input. One main focal point will be the reduction of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere. Waterbased inks represent a proven solution to reducing VOC emissions. Water-based inks are cheaper, decrease atmospheric pollution, have less solvent, lower fire risks, less print odor, remove the need for recovery plants; and are easier to wash-up on the press. The manufacture of printing ink is a technologically advanced highly specialized and complex process. The basic formulation of ink involves the grinding of pigment in a vehicle to form the pigment dispersion, then letting down the pigment dispersion with suitable resins to meet rheological and functional properties. The main components of water-based inks are pigment, binding agent, carrier (water) and additives. Binding agents are acrylic resins, which are emulsions or diluted to water with amines. The proportion balance of these types of binding agents is made to fit the printing process and the quality requirements of the final product. Additives used in water-based inks are antifoam, waxes, extenders, pH-controllers and surfactants. Water-based gravure ink formulation contains pigment 6-17%, binding agents 10-30%, solvents 1-12%, and water 45-66% [1]. The surface tensions of the water-based inks are 30-40 dyne/cm. The primary feature of the drying process in water-based inks is evaporation. The pigment in most printing inks is the most expensive part of the formulation; economics of pigment selection and proper dispersion are of vital importance [2]. The production of ink depends on basic physical processes involving complete wetting of the pigments and their even distribution in the surrounding vehicle. This complex process is called “Dispersion”, and has to be clearly differentiated from mixing or stirring [3]. The quality of the final dispersion is dependent on the optimization of many influencing factors. A Ink Pigment Dispersion 62 The Hilltop Review: A Journal of Western Michigan Graduate Research http://www.wmich.edy/gsac/hilltop This article © Lokendra Pal and Dr. Paul D. Fleming All Rights Reserved The dispersion of pigments in printing inks is important for several reasons but the effect of dispersion quality on the rheological behavior of the ink is perhaps the most important criterion. Because of the application methods flow properties are all important in inks and this is certainly the first hurdle that a printing ink must satisfy, in order to be considered for potential use [4]. To achieve the optimum benefits of a pigment, it is necessary to obtain as full a reduction as possible to the primary particle size. The color strength of a pigment depends on its exposed surface area, and the smaller the particle the higher the surface area and thus stronger the color [1,7]. Increasing demands on quality printing inks regarding the optical characteristics such as gloss, transparency or color strength require the use of more effective dispersing techniques [2]. There is a wide variety of printing ink media used in the modern printing processes. Variation in the viscosity of the ink vehicle and the methods of incorporating pigments into such vehicles have considerable effects on the shear that can be applied to pigment particles and agglomerates and therefore on the speed and fineness of the ultimate dispersion [4]. The rheological properties are important in the application of inks and associated phenomena such as tack of the ink. This is important in obtaining an even distribution on the press and proper transfer to the paper. This is also controlled to some extent by the dispersion properties of the material. The Dispersion Process The dispersion process involves the breakdown of associated particles into smaller particles and their distribution in a fluid, leading to a colloidal suspension. A colloidal suspension is characterized by the behavior that the finely divided particles do not settle under their own gravitational forces. Pigment particles can be divided into three classes: primary particle, crystallites, aggregates, (primary particles having a surface to surface contact) and agglomerates, (primary particles touching each other via edges and corners) [3,5]. The steps involved in pigment dispersion process as follows. Wetting of the Pigment Particles The wetting of the pigment particles is influenced by the following factors (a) geometry of the particles, (b) viscosity of the vehicle, (c) surface tension of the vehicle, and (d) chemical character of the solvents. The Washburn equation describes the wetting process [3,6]: V = π * R * σL * cos δ 1 T 2 * l * η V = transported vehicle volume T = time R = capillary radius σL = surface tension of the vehicle η = viscosity l = length of the capillary The equation shows that the speed of the wetting increases with the size of the capillary in the pigment powder and with a lower surface tension of the vehicle. Another important factor for the speed of wetting is the viscosity of the vehicle. The Washburn equation states that the low viscosity provides faster wetting. The chemical nature of the solvent plays an important role in the wetting process. The affinity between pigment and solvent must guarantee a sufficient wetting ability. Ink Pigment Dispersion 63 The Hilltop Review: A Journal of Western Michigan Graduate Research http://www.wmich.edy/gsac/hilltop This article © Lokendra Pal and Dr. Paul D. Fleming All Rights Reserved Breakdown of the Pigment Particles The breakdown of pigment particles can be described as follows: (a) spontaneous breakdown, during the wetting process The pigment particles are wetted by the vehicle, which causes a more or less spontaneous breakdown of the forces holding the smaller agglomerates together; (b) mechanical breakdown The remaining agglomerates have to be broken down by transferring mechanical energy into the system; The transfer of energy is performed with special dispersing equipment [3,5]. Stabilization of the Dispersion The purpose of the stabilization is to maintain a colloidal system during further processing or storage of the dispersion. The stabilization of the finely dispersed particles avoids reagglomeration and flocculation OBJECTIVE The objective of this project was to evaluate the effect of rotation speed, milling time, and pigment concentration on pigment dispersion quality, particle size and particle size distribution using different mixing/milling techniques for water-based gravure inks. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Materials Pigment Heuco Blue-15 was used for dispersion supplied by Heucotech limited USA. Joncryl HPD-96 resin solution (34% NV), low VOC colloidal solution, 26 % solids and 1.07 sp. gravity was used as dispersing resin for high solids, gloss, strength and improved shock stability. Surfynol CT-131 grind aid was used as wetting agents to reduce the vehicle surface tension and help the vehicle to penetrate the microscopic air pockets in the pigment agglomerates. DeeFo PI-45 antifoam was used to prevent foam buildup Dispersing Media\"Dispermat® SL\" Bead Mill A \"Dispermat® SL\" bead mill consists of a milling system and separate instrument control case. The milling system exists as a double wall grinding chamber and a motor for the agitator in the chamber. The essential dispersion parameters can be optimally and independently controlled via the control case. Product feeding can be done by air pressure and the dispersion process is completed in several passes. The actual particle size reduction in the grinding chamber of a mill is accomplished by the moving grinding material, which is activated by a high speed and high-energy agitator. There are two types of particle size reductions (a) shear and (b) collision / impact, as the grinding material collides and rolls about each other, the solid particles get caught between them and are gradually reduced in size. The quality of the dispersion degree is dependent on the following characteristics: (1) pigment volume concentration, pigment to vehicle ratio, (2) type, size and density of the grinding media, (3) residence, or dwell, time, (4) milling time or cycle, Ink Pigment Dispersion 64 The Hilltop Review: A Journal of Western Michigan Graduate Research http://www.wmich.edy/gsac/hilltop This article © Lokendra Pal and Dr. Paul D. Fleming All Rights Reserved (5) rotation speed, (6) energy input, and (7) temperature [3,5]. The selection of the grinding media depends upon the nature of the pigment, viscosity, desired particle size of the finished product, color and appearance requirements (gloss, haze, color strength, transparency). The residence time or dwell time is the time required for the product to pass through the mill. If the dwell time is too short, the mill base will not be sufficiently dispersed and if the dwell time is too long the material can be over dispersed resulting in decreasing gloss and increasing haze. The dwell time can be controlled by the amount of applied air pressure. The rotation speed should be independently adjustable from the throughput rate. The dispe

12 citations

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