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Showing papers in "The Journal of American History in 2013"



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a now-classic round table discussion among a group of noted historians in 1990, the Journal of American History introduced its readers to the then-new discipline of environmental history as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In a now-classic round table discussion among a group of noted historians in 1990, the Journal of American History introduced its readers to the then-new discipline of environmental history. The field had its roots in several venerable scholarly enterprises—including the historiography of the American frontier, traditional American studies, the Annales school, historical geography, cultural ecology, and the political history of conservation— but it coalesced with the rise of the environmental movement in the 1960s and 1970s, catalyzed by a growing sense that solving national and global environmental problems required a historical perspective. The logic of social history had an equally important formative influence on the rise of environmental history; where social historians argued for extending historical consideration to the less powerful and those whose voices were difficult to find in archives, environmental historians suggested that scholars jump the humanistic divide to account for what Donald Worster, in his lead essay, called “the role and place of nature in human life.” Like social historians, environmental historians argued for bringing new sources and methods into the practice of history, usually drawing from ecology and other environmental sciences. And as social historians had done with their subjects of study, environmental historians sought to extend moral consideration to the natural world. The 1990 Journal of American History round table functioned as the culmination of the first generation of environmental history scholarship and a springboard for a second generation of scholars. Worster explained that environmental history sought to give voice to a set of “autonomous, independent energies that do not derive from the drives and intentions of any culture,” and he urged environmental historians to utilize the “wisdom of

63 citations






Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, in the early 20th century, eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) became the most visible non-domestic mammals in American cities as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: If they had tuned in to radio station  on July 12, 1934, residents of Washington, D.C., could have heard a talk by Vernon Bailey, the recently retired chief field naturalist of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey. Bailey was best known for his involvement in controversies over wolf eradication in the West, but his radio talk that day was on a subject closer to home and less politically charged, at least on the surface: “Animals Worth Knowing around the Capitol.” While he touched on a number of Washington-area animals that were “worth knowing,” he singled out one type for special attention: gray squirrels, which he described as “probably our best-known and most loved native wild animals, as they are not very wild and, being very intelligent, accept and appreciate our hospitality and friendship.” Compared to most of his listeners, Bailey was unusually well informed about the biology and ecology of urban squirrels, which he had been feeding in the backyard of his townhouse in theKaloramaTriangle neighborhood for decades. Even so, his interest in the species and his belief in its virtues would probably not have surprised many of his fellow Washingtonians. By the early twentieth century, eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), once limited to rural areas, had become the most visible nondomesticated mammals in American cities. Like Bailey, numerous naturalists, zoo directors, educators, park designers, and poets had attempted to convince the public of gray squirrels’ contribution to the urban landscape and their value as members of the urban community. The arboreal rodents were protected, sheltered, and fed by the humans who treated them as public pets, even as they aroused the resentment and distaste of those who viewed them as pests.

33 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gorman as mentioned in this paper describes how the shock of the First World War gave rise to a broad array of overlapping initiatives in international cooperation, including the League of Nations, the turn to a less centralized British Empire, the beginning of an international ecumenical movement, international sporting events, and audacious plans for the abolition of war.
Abstract: Chronicling the emergence of an international society in the 1920s, Daniel Gorman describes how the shock of the First World War gave rise to a broad array of overlapping initiatives in international cooperation. Though national rivalries continued to plague world politics, ordinary citizens and state officials found common causes in politics, religion, culture, and sport with peers beyond their borders. The League of Nations, the turn to a less centralized British Empire, the beginning of an international ecumenical movement, international sporting events, and audacious plans for the abolition of war all signalled internationalism’s growth. State actors played an important role in these developments and were aided by international voluntary organizations, church groups, and international networks of academics, athletes, women, pacifists, and humanitarian activists. These international networks became the forerunners of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and global governance.

29 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This is really going to save you time and your money in something should think about as mentioned in this paper and if you are seeking then search around for online resources that are available and have the freedom.
Abstract: This is really going to save you time and your money in something should think about. If you're seeking then search around for online. Without a doubt there are several these available and a lot of them have the freedom. However no doubt you receive what you spend on. An alternate way to get ideas would be to check another the rise of liberal religion book culture and american spirituality in the twentieth century.










Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sutter as mentioned in this paper pointed out the relatively short time during which humans have transformed the planet and pointed out that the ocean's environmental status gripped the attention of mainstream media and ordinary people.
Abstract: Paul Sutter closes his essay on the state of the field of environmental history by calling attention to the relatively short time during which humans have transformed the planet— a point that certainly applies to the ocean. Anthropogenically induced global climate change is affecting ocean temperature and acidity. Overfishing has not only decimated marine populations but has emptied entire levels of the marine food web. Bottom trawling has scarred virtually all the commercially reachable seafloor. Attention to marine environmental issues has lagged behind similar attention to land by a century or more; only since the 1990s has the ocean’s environmental status gripped the attention of mainstream media and ordinary people. Although the ocean seems remote, marine environmental activists and ocean boosters rightly note the many ways that all people are tightly connected to it. The seas provide food, energy, communication, and transportation of the goods and raw materials that fuel the global economy. Threats to oceans and the uses made of ocean space and ocean resources have prompted the formation of international legal regimes and agreements. The majority of the world’s population lives along coasts—and the proportion of coastal dwellers is on the increase—therefore even more people will be involved in the challenges associated with sea-level rise and the increasing frequency and intensity of storms. Such interactions between people and ocean are grist for historical scholarship. Sutter acknowledges environmental history’s terrestrial bias and notes the small but growing body of literature that recognizes the ocean’s place in history. This notice has happened at an auspicious time, because environmental history’s embrace of hybridity opens a space for the sea and other environments like it. Like land, the ocean is a natural environment that is—perhaps to a greater degree even than terra firma—knowable through cultural lenses. Technology necessarily mediates understanding of the vast depths of the ocean and even